As an English teacher
We should know about language - English language teaching - methodology
language learning - learners
Types of Child Abuse
Internationally, four main categories of abuse are generally recognised:
1 Physical Abuse:
This may involve hitting, shaking, throwing, burning, or otherwise causing physical harm to a child.
Warning signs of physical abuse in children
? Frequent injuries or unexplained bruises or cuts ? Is always watchful and "on alert," as if waiting for something bad to happen ? Shies away from touch, flinches at sudden movements, or seems afraid to go home ? Wears inappropriate clothing to cover up injuries, such as long-sleeved shirts on hot days
2 Emotional Abuse:
This is the persistent emotional ill-treatment of a child. It may involve conveying to children that they are worthless and unloved, inadequate. It can also involve age or developmentally inappropriate expectations being imposed on children,
Warning signs of emotional abuse in children
? Excessively withdrawn, fearful, or anxious about doing something wrong ? Shows extremes in behaviour (extremely compliant or extremely demanding; extremely passive or extremely aggressive) ? Acts either inappropriately adult (taking care of other children) or inappropriately infantile (rocking, thumb-sucking)
This is the persistent failure to meet the child’s basic physical and / or psychological needs.
For example, inadequate care and supervision which leaves a child in a dangerous situation where they could be harmed (but only where this can be avoided).
Warning signs of neglect in children
? Clothes are ill-fitting, filthy, or inappropriate
for the weather
? Hygiene is consistently bad (un-bathed, matted and unwashed hair, noticeable body odour) ? Untreated illnesses and physical injuries ? Is frequently unsupervised or left alone or allowed to play in unsafe situations and environments ? Is frequently late or missing from school
4 Sexual Abuse:
This involves forcing a child to take part in sexual activities. The activities may involve physical contact, (e.g. rape). They may also include non-contact activities, such as involving children in looking at materials or watching sexual activities.
Warning signs of sexual abuse in children
? Displays knowledge or interest in sexual acts inappropriate to his or her age
? Makes strong efforts to avoid a specific person, without an obvious reason ? Feeling threatened by physical contact ? Frequent complaints of stomach aches or headaches
? Sexually transmitted infection or pregnancy (especially if under the age of 14)
? Runs away from home
Child Protection Code of Conduct
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Listen to and respect children Be aware of situations which may present risks for children As far as possible, be visible when workin
g with children ? Consider your physical appearance at work Observe confidentiality and not talk about any situations of actual or suspected abuse that occurs Teachers are encouraged to develop positive classroom environments and prevent bullying.
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Hit children Act in ways meant to shame, humiliate, or degrade children Show differential treatment, or favor particular children to the exclusion of others Spend excessive time alone with children away from others Develop intimate sexual relationships with children ?
Young children ? Adolescents ? Adult learners
They respond to meaning even if they do not understand individual words They learn from everything around them rather than only focusing on precise topic they are being taught Their understanding comes not just from explanation, but also from what they see and hear and crucially , have a chance to touch and interact with.
They find abstract concepts such as grammar rules difficult to grasp They display an enthusiasm for learning and a curiosity about the world around them They have a need for individual attention and approval from the teacher
The critical age for syntactical /grammatical accuracy is likely to be later than for pronunciation – at around age
They are keen to talk about themselves and respond well to learning that uses themselves and their own lives as main topics in the classroom
They have a limited attention span. They lose interest after ten minutes or so
Teaching English to Young Learners
English is not just a subject in school, but a tool to help students get to know about the world
Grow a plant
Plants give us paper, wood, medicine and material for clothes
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Greater ability for abstract thought Understand the need for learning Need for self-esteem, feel good about themselves and valued (a good teacher is someone who knows our names) Need for peer approval (extremely vulnerable to the negative judgments of their own age group)
Project work offers each individual a chance to use their individual talent to do something personally meaningful and motivating with the language they are learning – and the resulting posters and other visuals can be displayed around the classroom (just as teenagers decorate their rooms at home).
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
Keep still for longer periods but still need to move Concentration developing Beginning to learn in abstract ways Beginning to control and plan their own behavior May worry about what others think of them Sometimes uncomfortably aware of themselves /actions Pay attention to meaning and increasingly to form Beginning to increase their experience of life
to move 2 can concentrate for shorter periods 3 learn through experience (pictures/actions)
4 not able to control and plan their own behaviour 5 not afraid of making mistakes or taking risks 6 not aware of themselves/actions 7 pay attention to meaning in language 8 Have limited experience of life
- visual - auditory - kinaesthetic - group - individual - reflective - impulsive - analytic - autonomous
The learner learns best through watching and looking through listening and hearing through moving or touching things through working with others through working alone when given time to consider choices when able to respond immediately
when given the opportunity to analyse things
he likes to decide what he learns and how to learn
A Conformists: these learners prefer to learn about language rather than communicate. They like depending on the teacher.
B Concrete learners: they enjoy the social aspects of learning and learning from experience. C Reflective learners: they prefer to have the opportunity to think carefully about their answers before giving them.
Preferred ways of learning
The learner likes:
1 doing role-plays and writing letters to real people. 2 having quiet time to analyse problems 3 working through a grammar book with guidance.
A Conformists (depend on teachers) B Concrete learners (experiencing) C Reflective learners (thinking)
Problem with teenagers
Resulting, in part, from “… the teacher’s failure to build bridges between what they want and have to teach and their students’ worlds of thought and experience”
-- Herbert Puchta
Enjoy Teaching And Be Professional
Child protection elearning resources ? The Practice of English Language Teaching by Jeremy Harmer ? The Teaching Knowledge Test Course by University of Cambridge ESOL Examinations ? www.teachers.cambridgeesol.org/ts