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Fruits and Vegetables

发布时间:2013-11-17 08:02:02  

Fruits and Vegetables (F&V) Supply Chains in India: Emerging Models and Issues


?Background of the Study

?Literature Review: Situation in other Developing Countries?Emerging Models

?Requirements for setting up Supply Chains

?Issues in Setting up the Chain

?Areas of Intervention by Govt. agencies/donor groups?Examples: Co-ordination between different players in setting up the chain (Role of Govt, NGO, Credit, supermarket chains)

Background of the Study

?The marketing of F&V in India is changing dramatically

?Change from the traditional markets to modern formats

?Entry of big retail names –Reliance, ITC, Aditya Birla Group, Godrej, Bharti Airtel, Adani Group

?Initiation of organized retailing and wholesaling of F&V:

–Reliance Fresh, Chopal Fresh, Namdhari’s Fresh

?FAO and MoA undertook the current study to understand the ground situation

–Emerging models for backward and forward linkages

–Issues in setting up the chains

Literature Review

?The perception of retail chains being a phenomena of the developed countries has changed significantly

?Significant presence in developing countries –Latin America, Asia, Africa

?What does retail chains have to do with development?

–Development perspective: farmers involved in modern value chains earn much higher by bypassing the traders

–Large and medium farmers have the resources to meet the requirements of the chains, easier to co-ordinate

–Development efforts: linking small farmers to these chains

Emerging Models

?Co-operative (HOPCOMS, Karnataka; Mother Dairy, Delhi)?Exports with EUREPGAP Certification (Namdhari Fresh, Bharti Airtel)

?Farm to Fork --Complete Chain (Godrej, Reliance, ITC)?Wholesaling –(Adani Fresh, Metro)

?Front end –Convenience Stores (Food Bazaar, 3Cs)?Economy Stores (Subhiksha)

Requirements for Setting Up the ChainInfrastructure (Back end to front end)

?Collection center

?Soil-testing Laboratory

?Packing House/Distribution Center

–Packing infrastructure --tables


?Transportation –Refer trucks

?Retail outlets

–Real estate

–Investment in refrigeration facilities at the stores

Requirements for Setting Up the ChainKnowledge Inputs

?Extension advice to farmers:

–use of different varietiesproduction techniquesharvesting (time of harvesting, harvesting techniques)grading/sorting, packaging

?Setting up Grades and Standards for purchase by the company

?Training staff at packing centers (grading, sorting, packing)?Post-harvest experts (handling and storing needs of different F&V)

?Cold Storage Technology (?)

Requirements for Setting Up the ChainCo-ordination

?Developing linkages with farmers

?Inputs for farmers (Credit, seed, fertilizers, pesticides, harvesting tools, packaging materials)

Information flow

?Communication regarding the quantity and quality needs in the company

?Communicating the requirements to the farmers

Issues in setting up the chains

?Developing linkages with farmers

?Post-harvest manpower

?Commitment from farmers

?Infrastructure (level of operation, not everyone needs to invest or can invest in packing house)

?APMC Act (paper work, operational hindrance, time involved, grading, sorting, packaging)

?Farmer’s training in pre-cooling, storing, grading, sorting, packaging

?Packaging technology for fresh

Areas of Intervention by Govt/Donor Groups?Create an enabling policy environment that promotes mutually beneficial partnerships between farmers and organized sector?To give credibility to the project (low faith/fear) in dealing with corporations,

?Develop linkages with small farmers

?Training to farmers regarding post-harvest issues

?Investment in Infrastructure: Not all firms dealing in fresh fruits and vegetables have the level of operations to set up cold stores and packing houses. To give a level playing field to the smaller firms, govt. investment in cold storages and packing houses will be useful.?Investment in transportation infrastructure –refer trucks, (import taxes? subsidy?)

?Air-port infrastructure for shipping, cold-storages,

Example (USAID)

USAID/Michigan State University Partnerships in Food Industry Development in Nicaragua, (Weatherspoon and Membre?o, 2004). ?US university facilitates the market connections for small farmer organisations with the local supermarket chains, ?NGOs (Technoserve) provide technical assistance

?Supermarket chains --CSU and La Colonia provide the guaranteed market

?Donor funds from USAID provide the financing.

?The project has a graduation policy whereby the small farmer organisations progressively take over the needed investments and then maintain the market link themselves


Governments, NGOs, and donors can facilitate tri-or quadri-partite relationships that facilitate smaller farmer participation.

?Example, melons in Indonesia, Reardon (2004)

–Small farmer organisation (Makar Buah), Supermarket chain (Carrefour), Seed/chemical company (Syngenta), Government extension programme, Specialised/dedicated wholesaler (Bimandiri)

?Carrefour provided guaranteed market, Syngenta the financing, and the wholesaler the intermediation and coordination

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