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发布时间：2013-11-18 13:00:59

Babylonian and Egyptian

Mathematics

Introduction

Babylon????

?refers to any mathematics in Mesopotamia more than 400 clay tablets Cuneiform scriptapproximation to √2Sexadecimal numeral system (base 60)

Egyptian mathematics

?Refers to mathematics written in the egyptian language?Greek replaced Egyptian as the written language of Egyptian scholars -Hellenistic mathematics

?when Arabic became the written language of Egyptian scholars –Islamic mathematics

???

?oldest text –Moscow papyrus (2000 –1800 BC)word or story problemsvolume of frustumRhind papyrus(1650 BC)

Egyptian Mathematics

?earliest fully developed base 10 numeration system

Babylonian mathematics

?fractions, algebra, quadratic and cubic equations?calculation of Pythagorean triples

?multiplication tables, trigonometry tables and methods for solving linear and quadratic equations

Numerals

?

?

?

?written in cuneiform on a soft clay tabletastrological observations and calculationsAbacuspositional numeral system with base 60 (divisible by 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 12, 15, 20, and 30) which appeared 1900 BC to 1800 BC.

?only two symbols for digits

?radix point was not used but was made clear from context

?space was left to indicate a place without value -zero, later on they devised a sign

?degrees, time

?pre-calculated tables to assist

?

used the lists of squares together with the formulas

?Division

?table of reciprocals ?

Quadratic equation