The Present situation analysis and strategies of China’s Automobile Export Trade
In recent years, China's auto industry continues impacting on the world market rapidly. Auto exports hit a high record again and again. Nowadays, China has become the world's major exporter of cars. But behind the high growth in exports, China's auto exports exists many issues restricting the structure of its development. Especially in the financial crisis, facing new opportunities and challenges, Western countries will carry out more severe trade protection. Therefore, in this case, how to improve their own cars in China, to actively respond to trade war, and to achieve healthy and stable development is very important. The report studies the situation, development trend, opportunities and challenges confronted by China's auto exports. By exposing the causes and solutions of China's auto exports blocking in recent years, we can provide a sound environment to our automobile industry.
1.About present China’s Automobile Export Trade
situation and existing issues
1.1 The general situation of China’s automobile
After entering the 21st century, China's auto industry continues impacting on the world market rapidly. Accordingly, it enjoys an important status in the global context. Especially after 2004, the momentum of China's auto export growth has attained 100% a year, spare parts exports also remains an annual growth rate of around 50%. Although affected by the financial crisis in 2008, auto export temporarily appeared declining, but in 2009, our country still overtook the United States as the world's biggest auto exporter nation. According to the commitment of China's entry to the WTO, the government abolished the car import quota management system and reduced import tariffs at the same time, which brings relatively good news for many domestic
automobile production enterprises that won’t be threatened by serious survival situation. 1.2 Analysis of the basic situation of Chinese automobile export
1.2.1 Characteristics of Chinese automobile export trade
The first characteristic lies in the structure of auto export. At present, China's vehicle exports focus on their own brands or products with
independent intellectual property rights. Domestic enterprises are making full use of the advantage of China's relatively low price of labor and spare parts. With the low price and high quality, China's auto industry gradually in the
international market on firm footing. In recent years, China's automobile manufacturers strive to open up overseas markets, which the independent brand automobile Chery, Geely, Xiali has become the representative and the main force of China's auto export. Secondly, our auto companies play a significant role in export trade. Thanks to the comparative advantage of the market in China, our auto companies enjoy more advantages in overseas expansion in the commercial vehicle field. It is worth mentioning that export volume of the top three are our own brand enterprises, including China First Automobile Group Corporation, Dongfeng Motor Corporation, Great Wall
Motor Company and other major commercial vehicle manufacturing and export enterprises. Thirdly, the diversification of auto export market exerts great benefits on two parties. The auto export market of our country is mainly
distributed in Asia, Europe, Africa and South America. Compared with China, the world automobile industry are located in North America, Europe and East
becomes the world's largest auto producer in 2011. Also, the total output of Asian auto reached 40.6 million, which ranked first in all continents in 2011. At present, the emerging industrial countries like China, India, Russia and Brazil will still play an important role as the representative in the global auto industry for a long time. As is shown in the table, the overall vehicle sales in the four countries in 2011 reached 20.8 million, accounting for total sales of 33.9% of the world market. It is predicted that the four countries' the auto sales will reach
25 million in 2015 and the global auto market share will increase to 35.7%.
1.3 The issues of Chinese automobile export trade
1.3.1 The existence of internal problem of China's automobile industry exports
Firstly，Automobile exports are still playing cards at a low price. The sales volume of Chinese independent brand automobile are growing in high-speed since last year, however, it not only did not bring extra profit in expectation but brought a sharp decline in profits. Among them, in 2009，excepting that the average export price of car rebounded and increased by 5% compared to the same period in 2008，other models of the export prices are down there, the special purpose vehicle declined largest and downed 45% year on year.
Secondly，the technical content of automobile product is low and the quality is also poor. At the time of the introduction of foreign capital and the expanding of the cooperation，the absence of China automotive technology is a more serious problem. In the joint ventures, the technology that foreign offer to Chinese is entering the mature stage and even has begun to decline. The backward and relatively low price of Automobile technology will inevitably lead to China's auto enterprises at a disadvantageous position in the international competition. How to introduce the technology and technology development is a big problem.
Thirdly，the trade barriers is more outstanding since the financial crisis. On the one hand, it is difficult to adapt to the import vehicle inspection that each big market is more and more strict control standards, because our country's automobile manufacturing technology is still relatively backward. On the other hand, as China's major export markets of domestic demand, various protective trade barriers will also increase.
Fourthly, it is easy to be caught in intellectual property disputes. China's domestic car was blocked by the transnational giants many times since
China's domestic cars go out of date. Multi-National Corporation often interfere the road of our own brand export with intellectual property disputes. In the automobile brands, trademarks and designs, and even car parts, will cause to dispute case which will hinder China's auto export.
Finally，After-sale market is immature affecting automobile products export of our country. China's auto export business is too many that caused the reality about the severe dispersion of auto export, and the small batch
vehicle export trade will inevitably affect the laying of the marketing, the supply of spare parts and repair services, thereby affecting the local market
1.3.2 Trade protection under the new economic conditions
With the spread of financial crisis, trade friction including anti-dumping, more frequent. For example, at the beginning of 2009, the EU conducted anti-dumping and anti-subsidy to carbon steel fasteners originating in China.
All the cases above that, foreign countries will take more stringent tougher sanctions to China automobile export , so the form of trade protection will more and trade protection will difficult to predict under the new environment.
2. Analysis of causes of the problems in Chinese
automobile export trade
The reason which causes many problems in China's export trade of automobile is multiple; the reason is classified as a main internal causes and external causes, and focuses on the comparative advantage in the international market of Chinese car.
2.1 The main internal reasons
2.1.1 Chinese automobile industry has obvious comparative advantage My car has a comparative advantage in the production cost and price. However, although this comparative advantage structure is to make our
country get some trade interests over a period of time, it has strengthened its low level of industrial structure, and formed the path dependence of replication production. Excessive dependence on developed countries, lack of capability of independent innovation, it is difficult to establish competitive brand, leading to long-term technical dependence and brand dependence, which led to the gap of the economy of the developed countries and technology to further widening: thus fallen into "the trap of comparative advantage".
2.1.2 The lack of independent core technology
Chinese auto exports have not formed their own strong brand to make a spurt of progress, but independent intellectual property rights or the brand image has made breakthrough progress, difficult to break through technical barriers in the properties and environmental protection and other aspects, which makes Chinese automobile export is facing a bottleneck.
2.1.3 Low -quality and low -price competition, bad of export structure Chinese cars have become "synonymous with cheap car", which will be dumping, the impact of local employment problems, it is easy to make Chinese automobile export home appliances, furniture and other industries followed the step, many trade barriers restricting escape.
2.1.4 The issues of intellectual property
At present, China's independent intellectual property brand of car, in
addition to Chery, Geely and BYD, Jin long, Pentium and so on, the big half of the country of the Chinese car market, still firmly occupied by foreign brands.
2.1.5 After sale service is not perfect
The independent brand automobile export enterprises have not fully
realized the importance of customer service, establishing the service system in the overseas idea difference, not strategic. Another reason is the restriction of cost. Generally speaking, after sale service system need to put in a lot of manpower, material and financial resources, and the current export
enterprises, most of the independent brand automobile in China are private capital, the relatively weak financial strength.
2.2 The main external causes
2.2.1 The impact of the financial crisis
First of all, the demand for automotive market in the world is shrinking by the international financial crisis, at the same time, enterprise financing suffered a serious blow, and credit business is difficult to carry out, reducing the amount of consumption demand. Secondly, the financial crisis led to a new wave of protectionism.
2.2.2 The impact of Exchange rate fluctuation of RMB appreciation
Affected by the impact of exchange rate fluctuations, China's automobile price advantage gradually lost. Therefore, the appreciation of the RMB in the short term may be of independent brand car vehicle and parts exports is a blow, to a certain extent, will slow the pace of China's automobile exports, for the independent brand to open up overseas markets more adverse, Chinese automobile export is facing great pressure.
2.2.3 The problem of export transportation
Not export enough, specifically for export transportation vehicle
roll-on-roll-off ship can’t afford, it faces the backlog in the port is not out of the question. Roll-on-roll-off ship cost is very high, no scale effect in China's automobile exports, a small amount of exports would certainly make the enterprises are faced with a difficult situation or not roll-on-roll-off ship, and other goods. In the large-scale export before the arrival, shipping is always the bottleneck.
2.2.3 Conflict of interest parties to trade, is the fundamental cause of trade disputes
From the case about the perspective of automobile trade disputes having occurred, most disputes were not because of dispute the product in question or trade agreements have problems, but the product of interest conflict caused trade under the terms of. This conflict of interest is the change from the trade in both the international competitiveness of the automobile industry, is the
change from both domestic interest group of forces. In September 26, 2009, the United States on China's tire levy punitive tariffs, in the wake of the
financial crisis, the United States of America by severe trauma of sanctions on China's automobile industry is not the result of internal conflict of interest.