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新疆电大英语教学法的资料 2

发布时间:2013-11-26 08:01:02  


I. Characteristics of good writing

1. balanced arrangement 2. unity 3. coherence 4. brevity 5. fullness 6. proper language

II. Approaches of writing instruction

1. product-oriented approach

This is a rather traditional approach of writing. It is accuracy-oriented. It is characterized by a 3-step procedure: the teacher giving the title to write on---students drafting----the teacher correcting. Under this approach, the students are plunged into an isolated environment. What they do is almost imitation writing, that is, they read samples and then try to imitate. The first draft is usually the last draft. Though there may be a writing lesson, most times, writing is assigned as homework.

2. Content-oriented approach

This approach places more emphasis on the collection of materials. During the instructions, the teacher mainly directs the students in getting information from different channels. The focus of instruction is on the preparation stage, with the purpose to make writing rich in content. This approach usually consists of the following three steps:

(1) Collection of information

(2) First draft

(3) Revising

3. process-oriented approach

The process writing approach is featured as follows:

This approach is centered on students’ needs. It calls for teacher and student interaction in writing. It is aimed at enabling the students to share information, made personal choices about reading and writing, take responsibility of their own learning task, take writing as a process, and develop a cooperative spirit with others. This approach is mainly composed of the following steps:

(1) pre-writing--- group work to gather information and make an outline of the writing, brainstorming to come up with ideas

(2) drafting --- individual writing

(3) revising—peer editing or group editing

(4) second draft

(5) teacher's feedback

4. communication-oriented approach

This approach emphasizes writing for communication. It encourages students to write on real purposes, to write on something they have really experienced, something they are really concerned with, and the like. It encourages writing for real readers, for example writing to one’s parents, to a friend, and so on. In this way, it aims to motivate students in writing. As is known, not everything can be purely communicative. Learners do many activities while keeping an eye on certain language elements. So some writing activities can be between “writing for learning” and “writing for communication”.

III. Objectives of writing instruction

◆ To enable the students to respond appropriately in writing in those situations that require it

◆ To enable students to consolidate their knowledge of the language

IV. Principles of writing instruction

1. Choose a suitable approach

2. Make writing tasks real and communicative

3. Writing as process

Writing is a messy process. It is not linear, but recursive. The writer writes, then plans, or revises, and then writes again. Teachers can help students write more effectively by getting them to examine their own creative processes. In classroom instruction, it is necessary to include the basic steps of prewriting, drafting, revising and presenting.

4. Clear objectives for each stage



During drafting, teachers should encourage students to

3)revising --- editing and proof-reading

5.Combine writing with speaking, reading and other activities.

6. Evaluate both the product and the process

7. Train writing skills

8. Vary writing instruction

9. Teach writing as early as possible

10. Use text as the basic practice format

11. Encourage free writing

V. Suggestions for writing instruction

1. prewriting stage

2. two drafts

3. peer or group editing

4. teacher comment

Students’ proposals are important, however, the teacher should also summarize and give his comment. It is the teacher who knows more about the strategies of writing.

5. There can be group writing or pair writing. The following are activities for reference.

VI Strategies for reference

1. jumbled sentences;

2.jumbled story

3.flow-chart dialogue writing

4.framework writing

6.Picture sequence writing

7.wheeled writing

8. Unmix letters

For further reference, please reading English Teaching Strategies

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