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Internet and the web

发布时间:2013-11-27 12:02:04  

Internet and the webSummary of terms discusses and

review

The Internet, 1969 by ARPAnet?The Internet was founded, by a US military network called: ARPAnet (Advanced Research Projects Agency network.)?The Internet is a worldwide network of networks.

–One computer networkconsists of millions of

computers that are physically connected together using wires, telephone lines and other media.

–It is many smaller networks connected together

forming one large network called the Internet

?TCP/IP(Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)is

World Wide Web (WWW)

Invented by Tim Berners-Lee

CERN, 1989

?The World Wide Web(now referred to as the webor WWW) ?The web is one of the Internet services

?Using the Web, you have access to millions of pages of information (video, text, music, images).

?The pages on the web are connected together by hypertext or links?Web "surfing”or “browsing”is done with a Web browser

?The most popular of which are Netscape Navigatorand Internet Explorer(I.E.)

Mosaic, Netscape,

and Internet Explorer (I.E.)

?A browseris an application program or software that

provides a way to browse and interact with information on the World Wide Web.

?Lynx: is the first web browser (only text) created in 1989?Mosaic (1992) is the first graphical Web browserwhich allowed you to view multimedia files (music, video, and graphical files)on the Web

?Netscapein 1994

?I.E. in 1995

Web Servers and browsers

?Browser (is the client): the browser is a piece of software thatrequests documents from the server

?Serveris software that allows a computer connected to the Internet to:

1.store documents (text, images, video, sound files.. Etc..)

2.delivers or sends back these documents to the browser

?Both the browser and the server understand the HTTP(Hyper text transfer protocol)

Protocols(software /code/set of rules/regulations)PPP: (Point to Point Protocol) used to connect a Personal computer to the Internet via modem

SMTP: (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) used to send (route) e-mail over the Internet

FTP: (File transfer protocol) used when transferring files on the Internet

FUGU: is an application (not a protocol)used on the Mac to transfer files toand from a local computer to a remote computer

WINSCP: is an application(not a protocol)used on the PC to transfer filesbetween computers connected to the internet

Host & IP address

URL: Uniform Resource Locator)

?A URL is web address

–the address of a fileor a web pageon the web?The URL for this class :

–http://cs.nyu.edu/

?A domain namelocates an organization or other entity on the Internet. It is usually the organization or company’s trademark.

?Every company or organization has to apply for its unique domain name and it has to be approved by ICANN (International NON-Profit group that administers the domain-name system)or other private companies such as register.com. The cost can range from $9 to $30 per yearDomain name: is part of a URL or a web address. It’s the part that identifies the institution or

?What is the domain name and top level domain name for the following web address:

––Domain nameis: “nyu.edu”

–Top level domainname from above is “edu”

–Top level domain name can be:

?.com(company or commercial)

?.gov(government)

?.mil(Military)

?.org(non profit organization)

DNS: Domain Name System

?A centralized database lists domain names and IP addresses which are distributed throughout the Internet.

?There is probably a DNS server within close geographic proximity to your access provider that maps the domain names in your Internet requests or forwards them to other servers in the Internet.

?JavaScript, created by Netscape, a very popular scripting language for the web

?Java, created by SUN in 1995. An object oriented language, Allows for real-time interactivity (chat) and creating

powerful applications on the web and also independent of the webJavaScript & JAVA, 1995

(ISP) Internet Service Providers

?With an affordable modem, people could connect to the Internet and browse the web using commercial online services such as:

?

AOL, Earthlink, AT&T.

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