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Evolution, description and importance of banana

发布时间:2013-12-05 13:28:25  

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INTRODUCTION

BANANA -Adam’s FIG / Tree of wisdom / Kalpataru / Apple of paradise.

Modern bananas and plantains originated in the South East Asian and Western pacific regions where their inedible, seed-bearing, diploid ancestors can still be found in the natural forest vegetation.

Over many years, various inedible diploid subspecies of Musa acuminataColla crossed naturally resulting in the production of

numerous intraspecific hybrids

Someofthesehybridswereparthenocarpic,femalesterileandtriploidingenomicstructure,andlocalinhabitantsdiscoveredthatsuchplantshadediblefruitsandcouldbepropagatedbevegetativelybysuckers.

Inthismanner,thesuperiorediblecrossesofMusaacuminatewouldhavebeenselected,cultivated,propagatedanddistributedlocallyasafoodcrop.

TheedibletriploidbananainSoutheastAsiawerefurtherselectedaccordingtovigour,fruitsizeandadaptability,andwere

inferior.

However,incertainareasvariousediblediploidsofMusaacuminatawerealsopreservedovertheyears.

DiploidandtriploidselectionsofMusaacuminataweretakenbymantodriermansoonareaswhereanotherwildandseededdiploid,Musabalbisiana,wasgrowingnaturally.

Intheseareas,interspecifichybridizationoccurredtoproducediploidandtriploidcrossesofMusaacuminataxMusabalbisiana

.

TheintroductionofMusabalbisianagenesfromthedriermonsoonregionsintoMusaacuminataclonesfromthehumidtropicsofSoutheastAsiaconferredameasureofhardinessanddroughttoleranceintohybrids.

InadditiontheMusabalbisianagenes,inducedgreaterdiseaseresistance,improvednutritionalvalue,increasedstarchinessandprovidedhybridssuitableforcooking,asopposedtothepureMusaacuminatacultivarswhicharesweeterandmoresuitedtodessert

use.

DISTRIBUTION OF BANANA

Historicalreferencestobananaandplantainaremanyandvaried.TheearliestwrittenreferencetobananaisinSanskritanddatesbacktoaround500BC.

EdiblebananasoriginatedintheIndo-MalaysianregionreachingtonorthernAustralia.TheywereknownonlybyhearsayintheMediterraneanregioninthe3rdCenturyB.C.,andarebelievedtohavebeenfirstcarriedtoEuropeinthe10thCenturyA.D.

Earlyinthe16thCentury,PortuguesemarinerstransportedtheplantfromtheWestAfricancoasttoSouthAmerica.

ThetypesfoundincultivationinthePacifichavebeentracedtoeasternIndonesiafromwheretheyspreadtotheMarquesasandbystagestoHawaii.

DESCRIPTION OF BANANAPrevious

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Itisagiantherbaceousplantwithanapparenttrunkthatbendswithoutbreaking

Thebananahasanundergroundstemwithadventitiousroots.Itisfulloffoodfortheplant.Alongsidethemainstem,ithasotherstemscalledsuckers.Thesestemsgrowintobananaplants.Thebananaplantproducesitsfruitanddies.Anothersuckerreplacesit.

Thebananaplanthaslargeleavescloselyrolleduponeovertheother.Togethertheylooklikeatrunk,buttheyformonlyanapparenttrunk.

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?Insideitthereisabudwhichproducesleaves.After7or8months,whensome30leaveshavegrown,thebudproducesflowers

?TheflowersofthebananaplantformalargespikeItturnsdownward,tothesoilandopens.Itbearsmaleandfemaleflowers.

?Thefemaleflowerspressedcloselytogetherintheshapeofhands

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Aredbudattheendofthespikecontainingthemaleflowers;themaleflowersdiequicklyandthebudslowlybecomessmaller

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Thebananaplantyieldsfruits.

Thesefruitsarelonginshape,

withyelloworgreenskin.

Thespikeproducesmany

bananas.

Thebananasononespikeare

calledabunch.

Onthisbunch,thebananasare

clusteredinseveralhands.

The flesh of a bananais light in colour, sweet and soft. In the middle of the fruit you can see little black specks;these are the seeds,but they will not germinate

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IMPORTANCE?Bananasandplantainareveryimportantfruitcropsinthetropicalworld.

?Theyaregrownlargelybysmallholdersandplayamajorroleinfoodsecurityandincomegenerationformillionsoftheregion’sruralpoorworldwide.

?Intermsofgrossvalueofproduction,bananaisthedevelopingworld’sfourthmostimportantfoodcropafterrice,wheatandmaizeandasafruit,itranksfirst.

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Morethan100milliontonnesofbananasareproducedeveryyearin120countriesinover10millionhectares.

Onlyabout13percentoftheworld’sbananaproductionisexportedand87percentisconsumedwheretheyareproduced,indicating,thatbananaplaysavitalroleassourceoffoodandincomeindevelopingcountries.

Productionstatisticsin2004showthatbananaisanimportantcropinthethreemajorregionsnamelyAsia,LatinAmericaand

Africa.

?Indiatoppedthelistwith16.55metrictonneswhereasthePhilippineswithatotalproductionof5.41metrictonnescamein6thafterUganda,Brazil,EcuadorandChina.

?Indiawiththeproductionof16milliontonnesofbananasannually,provideslivelihoodsecuritytomillionsofpeopleinproduction,tradeandprocessing.

?Thefruitcontributesmorethan2.8%toGDPofagricultureinIndiaand31%ofthetotalfoodproduction.

?HowevertheefficiencyofbananasupplychaininthecountryisnotevenapatchontheIndianmanufacturingsupplychain,resultingintohighwastages(30%),highretailtofarmgateratio(1.8)andhighmarkuppercentagei.e.pricespaidbytheconsumers(300%)–oneofthehighestinthe

world.

?Bananaarecultivatedcommerciallyundertropicalandsub-tropicalconditionsinallthestatesofIndiaexceptinthosehavingextremewinterssuchasHimachalPradeshandJammuandKashmir.

?InTamilNadubananasarecultivatedinabout88,100haandthetotalproductionisestimatedat44,06,000tonnes.TheproductivityisveryhighinMaharashtra(58.58t/ha)followedbyTamilNadu(50t/ha).

?Though,Indiaistheleaderinbananaproduction,Indianexportoffreshbananaismeageranditwasonly280metrictonnesduringtheyear

1998.

NUTRITIONAL VALUE

?Bananaisanimportantsourceofenergyandthecheapestsourceofnutrientsforthebulkofourpopulation.?Intermsofnutritionalvalue,thefruitsarerichincarbohydrates,mineralsandvitamins.

?Itprovidesmorebalancedfoodthanmanyotherfruitcrops.?Intermsofenergy,bananasareevenbettercomparedtopotatoes.?Bananasandplantainsarerecognizedasthefourthmostimportantglobalfoodcommodityafterrice,wheatand

milk.

Nutrient composition of banana

ConstituentsMoisture(%)Carbohydrates(%)CrudeFibre(%)Protein(%)Fat(%)

Availability70-7522-270.5–0.80.8–1.20.2–0.3

Ash(%)

Potassium(mg/100g)Phosphorus(mg/100g)Calcium(mg/100g)Iron(mg/100g)

Beta-Carotene(mg/100g)Thiamin(mg/100g)Riboflavin(mg/100g)Niacin(mg/100g)Ascorbicacid(mg/100g)Energy(calories/100g)

0.7–0.9200-40015-3020-1600.6–0.80.020–0.0250.02-0.050.01–0.50.70-0.7810-1290-105

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?Thefruitpulpofbananahasrichandeasilydigestiblecarbohydratesapartfrommanyvitaminslikeriboflavin,niacinandascorbicacidandmineralssuchascalcium,magnesium,potassium,phosphorusandhasseveralmedicinalproperties.?Itishenceconsideredasfruitforallagesofpeoplefrominfantstoaged.

?IncertainpartsofIndia,bananapowderisusedasbabyfood.?Ithasseveralmedicinalvirtuestoo.PreviousNextEnd

?Thefruits,floretsandpseudostemarealsousedforconsumptionaftercooking.

?Itsleavesarecommonlyusedforservingfoodinhomes,manyhotelsandrestaurants.

?Bananascanbealsoprocessedtopurees,powder,flour,chips,jam,jelly,wine,etc.attractivehandicraftitemslikemats,carrybags,etc.canbealsomadefromthebananafibre.

?Besides,thefibrescanbealsousedformakingpaperpulp.PreviousNextEnd

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