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Cultural practices and resistance varieties in banana

发布时间:2013-12-05 14:02:34  

Cultural practices and resistance varieties in bananaNextPreviousEnd

Culturalorecologicalcontrolinvolvespurposefulmanipulationoftheenvironmenttomakeitlesshabitableforpestspecies

Anychangeinthespatialdistributionofhostplants(croprotation,intercropping,ortrapcropping),variationsinthetimeofplantingorharvesting,applicationofwaterandfertilizer,andmanagementofgroundcoverand/surroundingvegetationmayhaveasignificanteffectonthesurvivalandgrowthofpestpopulationsNextPreviousEnd

Climate and Soil RequirementsBananaiswelladaptedtowell-drained,loamy,soilthatisrichinorganicmatter.

Areaswithanaveragerainfallof4000millimeters(mm)ayearareidealsitesforabananaplantation.

Atemperaturebetween27to30oCismostfavorabletothecrop.Bananagrowsatsealevelupto1,800metersaltitude.

Itissusceptibletorootrotwhenexposedtotoomuchwater.Typhoonbeltareasdonotmakegoodplantationsites.

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PropagationBananacanbepropagatedthroughitsrhizomesandsuckers.Suckersmustbeparasite-freeandhavehealthyroots.

Thesearespadedoutoftheclumpswhenfourtofivefeettall.Land Preparation

Thefieldisploughedandharrowedthrice.

Allstumpsandbushesmustberemoved.

Knee-deepholeswith45-cmdiametersaredugandeachholeisfertilizedwith10gramsofCompletefertilizerandafewofgranularnematode.

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PlantingSuckers are set on field in vertical position, then covered with surface soil.Compost material added to the soil enhances the recovery and growth with the new plants.The soil is stumped around each base and watered regularly.During dry months, irrigation if possible, is advised.Planting is best at the start of the rainy season

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Cultivation and MaintenanceCultivationshouldgobeyondsixinchesfromthebaseoftheplanttoavoidrootinjury.

Intercrops/GlamoxineorKarmexsprayactasweedcontrol.

Plantsmustbeproppedwithbamboopolesduringfruitingforsupportagainststrongwinds.

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Managed applicationWater or fertilizer can have a big impact on the survival of pest populations in some crops. Annual flooding, for example, is a cultural practice that eliminates many potential pests.Balance diet application of irrigation and fertilization keeps plants healthy, vigorous, and more resistant to insect injury.

It is not unusual for small amounts of injury to actually stimulate compensatory growth in healthy plants.

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Crop RotationRotating the field to a different type of crop can break this cycle by starving pests that cannot adapt to a different host plant. Crop rotation schemes work because they increase the diversity of a pest's environment and create discontinuity in its food supply.

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As a rule, rotations are most likely to be practical and effective when they are used against pests that:

Growing a single crop year after year in the same field gives pest populations sufficient time to become established and build up to damaging levels.

?Attack annual or biennial crops

?Have a relatively narrow host range

?Cannot move easily from one field to another, andNextPreviousEnd

Desuckering or PruningNextPreviousEnd

FertilizationFor poor soils, fertilizers should contain N-P-K at a ratio of 3-1-6. The ratio is doubled when fertilizers are applied to young plants. The amount of fertilizer applied increases as the tree matures. At flowering and fruiting period, a tree needs five to six pounds of complete fertilizer.

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Weed management Weedcontrolandweedmanagementarethetwotermsusedinweedscience.

Weedcontrolistheprocessoflimitinginfestationoftheweedplantsothatcropscanbegrownprofitably.Weedmanagementincludes

?Prevention

?Eradication

?Control by regulated use?Suppression of growth?Prevention of seed?production

?Complete destruction

?Restricting invasion

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Bunch covering Use transparent polyethylene sleeves with 2% (during cool season) -4% (during summer season) ventilation to cover the bunch immediately after opening of the last hand.

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Soil FloodingThis is a pre-planting practice which can be regarded as a soil disinfestations treatment. A classic case of control on a large scale was demonstrated with the Panama wilt disease of bananas caused by Fusarium oxysporumf.sp. cubense).

The harmful effect of flooding on soil-borne pathogens related to a lack of oxygen, increased CO2or various microbial interactions, e.g. production of substances that are toxic to the pathogen upon anaerobic processes.

Next(Cont)..

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Thesoilisfloodedfor3–4monthsormore,withaminimumof30cmofwater.

Floodingwasnoteffectivewhenlargepopulationsofthepathogenwerepresent,orinsoilwhichcontainedunknownfactorswhichfavoredthepathogen.

FloodingalsoapparentlydestroysPseudomonassolanacearumandthenematodeRadopholussimilis.Wherefloodingwaspracticedinthepasttoeliminatesoil-borneincludingfungi,nematodesandNextorganismsPreviousEnd

Host ResistanceBreeding plants (or animals) for resistance to insects is really just another form of biological pest control. Ratherthanfindinginsectstoattackthepests,breederslookforgenetictraits(orcombinationsoftraits)thatreduceanorganism'ssusceptibilitytoattackorinjurybyitsinsectpests.

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Resistant varieties in bananaMajor banana varieties grown in IndiaPoovan: It is the most important commercial variety in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and West Bengal.

It is also known as Lal velchi in Maharashtra.

It is resistant to Panama wilt.

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Dwarf Cavendish or Basarai:

It is a dwarf variety.

It is resistant to Panama disease.

It is a high yielding variety with fruits large and of good quality. NextPreviousEnd

To sum up?Differentculturalpracticesincreasetheproductionandprotectionofplant.

?Theyarefieldpreparation,plantingmaterial–freefrompestanddiseases,irrigationsystem-dripirrigation(toavoidwastage

theofwater),weedintercropping(increaseproductivity),

management,sanitation,croprotation,soilflooding,resistancevarieties,bunchcoversforincreasethequalitytoprotectfruitsfromcold,sunscorching.NextPreviousEnd

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