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英文课件 2

发布时间:2013-12-07 09:01:03  

DIFFERENT ANGLES OF VIEW
——Social Darwinism

November 2013

? Directory
? 1 About Darwin ? 2 Social Darwinism ? 2.1 Definition of social Darwinism ? 2.2 Introduction to Social Darwinism ? 2.3 Establishment of Social Darwinism Theory ? 2.4 Core Concepts of Social Darwinism ? 2.5 Social Influence of Social Darwinism in Europe ? 2.6 Opinions on Social Darwinism ? 3.、 Different angles of view

1 About Darwin
Charles Robert Darwin, the British biologist, founder of the theory of evolution. Once been on a global navigation ( on the Beagle ship ) for five years , focusing on observation and collection of flora and fauna and geological structures . His Publication of "The Origin of Species," as a landmark book presents the theory of biological evolution, which destroyed the idealism of various species of creationism and the same theory. In addition to biology, his theory of anthropology, psychology, philosophy, development has also been highly valued. Engels' theory of evolution " is hornored to be one of the three 19th-century discoveries of natural science.

2 Social Darwinism 2.1 Definition of social Darwinism
Social Darwinism:a 19-century social and cultural evolutionary theory regarding his relationship to Darwin's theory of biology. Social Darwinists , such as Spencer and Walter Bagehot from the United Kingdom and William Graham Sumner from America, believed that the natural selection process which has an impact on the population variation will lead to the strongest contenders survival and continuous improvement of the population.

2.2 Introduction to Social Darwinism
Like society as individuals , should be seen as the evolution of the organism in such a manner . This theory was used to support the conservative laissez-faire capitalism and politics : the poor survive the competition in the " discomfort " and should not be helped ; competition for survival , wealth is a sign of success . In the treatment of social problems, social Darwinism became the philosophical basis of imperialism and racism policies , support the Anglo Saxon or Aryan culture and physiologically superior argument. Social Darwinism in the 20th century decline , because the field of biological knowledge and cultural phenomena of knowledge continues to expand, but not enough to refute the support of its basic tenets . Social Darwinism Darwin's theory of evolution by interpretation comes . Darwin believed that life on Earth , with the changing environment , there is a senior from lower life forms gradually evolved life forms inevitable trend . After the advent of Darwin's theory of evolution , Spencer proposed the " social Darwinism " that the social and biological organisms can be comparable to the relationship between the community and its members is like the relationship between individual organisms and their cells. Social Darwinism itself is not a political tendency , but a social base model , that " law of the jungle , natural selection , survival

of the fittest " point of view according to nature "food chain " phenomenon, and thus explain social phenomena

2.3 Establishment of Social Darwinism Theory
Social Darwinism is the idea of natural selection in Darwin's theory of evolution was applied to a social theory of human society. First suggested the idea of is British philosopher and writer Herbert spencer. Social Darwinism became popular from the late 19th century until the end of the second world war, some people think that modern society biology can be classified into social Darwinism school. The term "social Darwinism" first appeared in American historian Richard Hofstadter in early 1944 version of the book "social Darwinism thinking with the United States", so use the phrase "social Darwinism" to refer to related trend is not exactly 1944 years ago, but now it has been widely adopted in history this usage

2.4 Core Concepts of Social Darwinism
Social Darwinism is a thought. This kind of thought that Darwinism, especially its core concept - caused by natural selection, survival competition is a common phenomenon in human society. Think it in human evolution, development plays an important role. These thoughts are often used to emphasize the rationality of race and class difference exists and the war is inevitable. In addition, the theory of evolution for social theory and thought, often referred to as social evolution. It with the theory of social organism is associated. Social organism theory is the actual founder of H.S pencer. Some people say that Darwinian evolution is established, the social thought influenced by spencer significantly more than Darwin. This is in the United States and Japan and other countries. While spencer was standing on the position of Lamarck. But in the study of social evolution, argues that social Darwinism is appropriate

2.5 Social Influence of Social Darwinism in Europe
Social Darwinism had some social circles, especially in Europe in the late 19th century early 20th century German - widely circulated among intellectuals. The philosopher Nietzsche created the concept of "superman". In international politics, the empire between the competition on the military and in accordance with the scope of colonial power division in the world. To the understanding of the social Darwinism was more focused on competition rather than cooperation between species. Social Darwinism is likely to rise after the first world war the Nazi Germany's territorial expansion and genocide policy have important influence.

2.6 Opinions on Social Darwinism
What do you think about children with six fingers. If you carefully study the six fingers of children you will find that there are a large part of the sixth finger and our other 5 finger is flexible. Sixth finger was no harm to people and also like ordinary people for the fifth fingers didn't much use. We are all with a colored view of the first sixth finger. In fact, 5 and 6 refers to the difference between and white color and

black color is the same. There are scientists found in tropical rainforests a tribe are all six fingers, they are curious about 5 finger scientists, scientists think all fingers deformities, and scientists think that they all fall is deformed. Social Darwinism was its defenders used to justify social inequality, racism and imperialism, the reason is that Herbert spencer, call "the survival of the fittest". At this point, Herbert spencer, understanding of social and moral mechanism evolution is alienation as its philosophy thought the opposite of things. Social Darwinism itself is not a political tendency. Some social darwinists with the idea that social progress and change is inevitable, also some social darwinists believe human degradation is inevitable. Social Darwinism and the theory of evolution, are often involved in the debate about eugenics.

3 Different angles of view
Those influenced by Freudianism, for example, might read a novel looking for hints of a child's sexual desire for its parent. A Marxist would seek out economic and class conflicts. Carroll has no truck with this: "The theories up to this point have all had a little bit of the truth, but have also all been fundamentally flawed; he says. "None comes to terms with the fundamental facts of human evolution."

一本《红楼梦》,经学家看见《易》,道学家看见淫,才子看见缠绵, 革命家看见排满,流言家看见宫闱秘事。 ——鲁迅

A “Hong Lou Meng", the scribes of the material to see if the two people, one just can not live to see the tree, very narrow creeks and endless grass, while the other has seen the value of trees as firewood , broad and fertile land. What makes the two of them on the same piece of land evaluation has such a big difference? The problem is that they see their different attitude and perspective view of a pessimistic attitude problem, while the other is to look with optimism heart problems, pessimistic people, seen in every good chance there will always Unfortunately; optimistic person, but can be seen in every misfortune good opportunity. This tells us that we must learn to look at the problem from a different perspective. Your perspective is not the same, it will naturally come to different conclusions; Big and small things in life also probably the case, everyone has their own ideas, have their own unique insights to face the same thing. Face of gurgling water, Confucius chanted: lost time, day and night! Lament the time flies; while Shixian Taibai taste was "boat these ten thousand mountains," Yoshiya; geographers Li Tao Yuan face Gorges record is "ape-ming three times tears stained clothes" desolation. So everyone look at the issue from different perspectives conclusions will vary.

Has a different point of view, will naturally produce different results. Facing the same situation, good state of mind always directs us toward positive aspects, and bad attitude will only make things worse. At the age of the great

inventor Thomas Edison 67, reduced to ashes in his laboratory in a fire, lost more than $2 million. But the next morning, Edison looked at the ruins and said: "the disaster has its value. We've all fallacy, the fault was burned to a clean, we can start all over again." 67 - year - old, see their is almost spent his life, and in the face of such a disaster, changed the fate of others will be relentless and even despair, but Edison have optimistic attitude, can march in the face of disaster, he is more wise, can change an Angle to think, he saw the value of its existence from the disaster, see the "try again", saw the new hope. .

French sculptor rodin said a word "in the world is not lack of beauty, lacking the eyes to find beauty". As long as we are in a state of mind, change a point of view, way of thinking will be different, experience emotions can be very different. In today's society, people always complain about everything, all vents, always feel the house is too small, the car is not good, work is not good, too much pressure, but Taiwan's famous cartoonist Cai Zhizhong said: if take orange metaphor for life, one is big and acid, the other one is small and sweet. Some people get big complains acid, get sweet complain about small; And some people get little will glad it is sweet, got acid will thank it is big. So good at using a different perspective on the problem, and timely adjust their own state of mind to the best, then accompany our life will be more happy, at the same time with us since there may be more opportunities.

Learn to look at problems in a different mindset from a different perspective, you will find that the problems faced in life again, your heart is always blue sky, floating clouds, you will put up a touch shallow mouth smile.

END THANKS


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