Ezra Pound (1885—1972)
The father of modern poetry
? Homage to Sextus Propertius (1917) ? 《向塞克斯特斯· 普罗波蒂斯致敬》 ? (modern translation of Old Roman poems)
Sextus Propertius was a Latin elegiac poet who was born around 50–45 BC and died shortly after 15 BC.
? Cathay (1915) ? (Translation of ancient Chinese poetry) ? 《华夏集》/《神州集》
? In 1915, Pound published Cathay, a small volume of poems that he described as “For the most part from the Chinese poet Li Po(李白） and it was considered among the most beautiful of his writings. ? 1915年庞德发表了他 根据东方学者芬诺洛 萨的遗稿而译成的中 国古诗英译本Cathay
Names of our nation in the West
? Names ：
? Ptolemy (2nd Century ancient Greek astronomer):Sina “西那” ? Marco Polo 马可波罗: Cathay “震旦” ? “丝域” (Serica Regio), ? Portuguese: “支那” (China) ? Italian and other Europeans :Cina
? The Cantos (1917-1959)
? (intellectual diary since 1915; ? no single clue; ? divided into many sections and each contributes to a different theme; ? showing author’s point of views on many aspects, such as politics, economy, arts, culture etc.)
? Hugh Selwyn Mauberley (1920)
休· 赛尔温· 莫伯利
? A poem about the commercialization and debasement of art, about the feeling of frustration and failure on the part of the artist, and about the poet himself. ? Famous poems: ? ―In a Station of the Metro‖; ? ―A Pact‖
In a Station of the Metro The apparition of these faces in the crowd; Petals on a wet, black bough.
Background of the poem
? Three years ago in Paris I got out of a "metro" train at La Concorde, and saw suddenly a beautiful face, and then another and another, and then a beautiful child’s face, and then another beautiful woman, and I tried all that day to find words for what this had meant to me, and I could not find any words that seemed to me worthy, or as lovely as that sudden emotion.
I wrote a thirty-line poem, and destroyed it because it was what we call work "of second intensity." Six months later I made a poem half that length; a year later I made the following hokku-like sentence: — “The apparition of these faces in the crowd: Petals, on a wet, black bough.” I write a poem of this sort is trying to record the precise instant when a thing outward and objective transforms itself, or darts into a thing inward and subjective.
?About the poem:
①The word ―apparition– double meaning: ? Apparition meaning ―appearance‖, in the sense of something which appears, or shows up; something which can be clearly observed. ? Apparition meaning something which seems real but perhaps is not real; something ghostly which cannot be clearly observed. ? Petals may refer to the faces in the crowd, while bough may refer to the railway in the Metro.
② human faces se
en in the metro the faces light and darkness of the metro flower petals which are half absorbed by, half resisting, the wet, dark texture of a bough. ③ Musicality: repetition of different vowels and consonants, such as /p/ and /au/. Especially the repetition of /e/ in the second line emphasize it’s sense of music.
人群中这些面庞的闪现；湿漉的黑树干上的花瓣。（赵毅衡） 这几张脸在人群中幻景般闪现；湿漉漉的黑树枝上花瓣数点。（ 飞白） 出现在人群里这一张张面孔；湿的黑树枝上的一片片花瓣。（张 子清） 人群中，这些面孔的鬼影；潮湿的黑树枝上的花瓣。（余光中） 这些面孔浮现于人群；花瓣潮湿的黑树枝（颜元叔）
? Imagism came into being in Britain and U. S. around 1909 as a reaction to the traditional English poetry to express the sense of fragmentation and dislocation. The Imagists, with Ezra Pound leading the way, hold that the most effective means to express these momentary impressions is through the use of one dominant image.
Imagism is characterized by the following three poetic principles : 1.Direct treatment of subject matter; 2.Economy of expression 3.as regards rhythm, to compose in the sequence of the musical phrase, not in the sequence of metronome节 拍器
Background of Imagism
a. French symbolism
b. Ancient Chinese poetry
c. Japanese haiku（俳句）
– Ezra Pound
? Evening crows perch on old trees wreathed with withered vine, ? Water of a stream flows by a family cottage near a tiny bridge. ? A lean horse walks on an ancient road in western breeze, ? The sun is setting in the west, ? The heart-broken one is at the end of the Earth.
Ancient Chinese poetry
枯藤老树昏鸦， 小桥流水人家， 古道西风瘦马。 夕阳西下 断肠人在天涯。
Thoughts on Autumn to the tune of Sky Scouring Sand A withered vine, an old trees gaunt and a raven croaking on high; A small bridge, the murmuring water and a thatched cottage nearby; An ancient path, the west wind and a bony horse is heard to neigh; Lo! The sun sets today; At the earth-end a heart-broken traveller plods his weary way. (辜正坤 译)
Pound’s Adaptations of Chinese Poetry
? Light rain is on the light dust. ? The willows of the inn-yard ? Will be going greener and greener, ? But you, Sir, had better take wine ere your departure, ? For you will have no friends about you
? When you come to the gates of Go.
? 《送元二使安西》 ? 王维 ? 渭城朝雨浥轻城，客舍青青柳色新。 ? 劝君更尽一杯酒，西出阳关无故人。
Pound’s Adaptations of Chinese Poetry
ration on the River Kiang ? Ko-jin goes west from Ko-kaku-ro. The smoke-flowers are blurred over the river. His lone sail blots the far sky. And now I see only the river, the long Kiang, reaching heaven.
? 故人西辞黄鹤楼，烟花三月下扬州， 孤帆远影碧空尽，唯见长江天际流。
? You came by on bamboo stilts, playing horse, You walked about my seat, playing with blue plums.
Pound’s Adaptations of Chinese Poetry
? Empty hills, no one in sight only the sound of someone talking late sunlight enters the deep wood, shining over the green moss again.
? 空山不见人，但闻人语响； 返景入深林，复照青苔上。
? Drawing sword, cut into water, water again flows. Raise cup, quench sorrow, sorrow again sorrow.
? Haiku (sometimes spelled hokku) is a Japanese poetic form that represents, in seventeen syllables, ordered into three lines of five, seven, and five syllables, the poet’s emotional or spiritual response to a natural object, scene, or season of the year.
? 俳句中必定要有一个季语。所谓季语是指用以 表示春、夏、秋、冬及新年的季节用语。在季 语中除“夏季的骤雨”、“雪”等表现气候的 用语外，还有象“樱花”、“蝉”等动物、植 物名称。另外，如“压岁钱”、“阳春面”这 样的风俗习惯也多有应用。这些“季语”通常 带着现代日本人民对于幼小时代或故乡的一种 怀念眷恋之情。 ? 松尾芭蕉（1644—1694）日本江户时候俳谐诗 人。芭蕉被日本人称为“俳圣”，他对日本俳 句的发展起了举足轻重的作用。芭蕉的诗风可 以用“闲寂风雅”四个字来概括。
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 《古池》 An old silent pond… A frog jumps into the pond, Splash! silence again. “闲寂古池旁，青蛙跳进水中央，扑通一声响。” “悠悠古池畔，寂寞蛙儿跳下岸，水声轻如幻。 ” “绿蛙落古井，寂寂闻水声。” 这首俳句描写了一只青蛙跳入古池的一刹那。在这一刹那 ，四周闲寂的静与青蛙跃入池塘的动完美的结合了起来。 青蛙跳之前，一切是静的，青蛙跳之后，一切仍会恢复平 静。表面上是无休无止的静，内面却蕴含着一种大自然的 生命律动和大自然的无穷的奥妙，以及作者内心的无比激 情。飘溢着一股微妙的余情余韵和一股清寂幽玄的意境。
As cool as the pale wet leaves of lily-of-the-valley She lay beside me in the dawn 晨曲 像铃兰苍白湿润的叶子 那样凉爽 黎明她躺在我身旁。
Lily of the Valley
? Ezra Pound is generally considered the poet most responsible for defining and promoting a modernist aesthetic in poetry. ? In the early teens of the twentieth century, he opened a seminal exchange of
work and ideas between British and American writers.
? Because of the wide recognition of his poems, the westerners get familiar with Chinese factors. The influence of Chinese culture in the western world spreads gradually. ? In a word, Pound functions as the bridge between Chinese and western cultural communication.
The Red Wheelbarrow
William Carlos Williams so much depends 那样多地依赖 upon 着 a red wheel Barrow
glazed with rain Water beside the white Chickens
罩一层闪亮雨 水 一群雪白的雏 鸡
全诗以三个意象支撑：手推车 ，雨水和一群鸡仔 。颜色 ：红色 ， 白色， 在透亮的 雨水中更显鲜明夺目 。一 群鸡仔，尽管没有写其动 态，但它们有手推车的静 相参照 ， 动静之间的悄然 转化， 是整篇诗歌妙趣横 生。 威廉斯的《红色手推车》仿佛 是一幅西洋油画，色彩鲜 明，线条突出，立体感强 ，折射出大自然的光亮， 整体画面宁静完美，富有 和谐感。
Carl Sandburg (1878-1967)
雾来了， 踮着猫的细步。 他弓起腰蹲着， 静静地俯视 海港和城市 又再往前走。 ——赵毅衡
? The fog comes ? on little cat feet. ?
? ? ? ?
It sits looking over harbor and city on silent haunches and then moves on.
L(A l(a le af fa ll s) one l iness