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英语语法讲义---名 词部分

发布时间:2014-01-02 09:39:24  

名 词


名词分为普通名词(man, city)和专有名词(Tom, China);普通名词分为可数名词(tree, book) 和不可数名词(bread, meat);可数名词包括个体名词和集体名词(police, team), 不可数名词可分为物质名词(water, air)和抽象名词(joy, fun).



阴性:woman aunt bride cow madam queen hen bitch 阳性:man uncle bridegroom bull sir king cock dog

2、有些名词通过加“ese” 等构成阴性:

actor-actress host-hostess lion-lioness prince-princes waiter-waitress

3、有些名词通过在前面加“he, she, man, woman, boy, girl…”来区分性别: businessman, businesswoman, trademan, man-teacher, woman-doctor, boyfriend, girlfriend, boy-student, he-wolf, she-goat, peacock, peahen




①、“---s”类: dogs, days, houses

②、“---es”类:(已o, s, x, ch, sh结尾的单词):

heroes, foxes, watches, tomatoes, potatoes, bushes, glasses

注:a、以 “o”结尾的词看“o”前面的字母,如为辅音加“s”(kilo, piano, photo,

bamboo, tobacco, two, zoo, studio…), 如为元音加“es”(hero, zero, tomato…) b、 “---ch” 如果发音为/k/则直接加“s”. 如:stomach, headache… ③、“---y”类:辅音加y结尾, 变为“---ies”. families, ladies, countries… 元音加y结尾,直接加 “s”。boys, toys, plays

④、 “---f/fe”类:除calf, half, knife, leaf, life, loaf, self, shelf, thief, wife, wolf, elf



①、child-children, ox-oxen, basis-bases, thesis-theses, foot-feet, mouse-mice, goose-geese, tooth-teeth

②、单复数相同的名词:fish, sheep, deer, means, Japanese, Chinese, series


①、无生命的集体名词:mechinery, clothing, poetry, stationary, sugar, salt, rice, sand,

soap, sweet, hardware, furniture, mail, equipment

②、抽象名词:happiness, honesty, knowledge, bravery, strength


①、由两部分构成的物品:trousers, compasses, glasses, stockings, handcuffs… ②、一些以“ing”结尾的名词:savings, greetings, earnings, belongings…

③、一般以复数形式出现的名词:overalls, fireworks, riches, Olympics, thanks,

regards, goods, news, clothes, works, wages



②、有些只能作复数用(police, people, cattle)


体:The family like travelling./The family has moved to Lodon.

(6)、复合名词:如(looker-on, get-together, outlook, income…)

①、中间没有连字符的把最后一个单词变为复数:bookshelf-bookshelves, Greenhouse-greenhouses, blackboard-blackboards

②、由man/woman构成的两个单词都要变复数:man-doctor----men-doctors woman-teacher---women-teachers

③、“ looker-on”类(第一个是名词后面是虚词)把中心词变复数:

looker-on---lookers-on,sister-in-law---sisters-in-law, unner-up---runners-up, stander-by---standers-by, passer-by---passers-by

(二) 不可数名词


content内容-contents目录, force力量-forces军队, glass玻璃杯-glasses眼镜, good-goods货物, manner态度-manners礼貌, green-greens蔬菜,

sand沙-sands沙滩, time时间-times次数, water水-waters水域,



fruit, fish, vegetable…

(三) 名词的格:

①、“---’s”(有生命的物体):my sister’s bag, the dog’s tail, Women’s Day, Betty and Peter’s father/ Betty’s and Peter’s father

②、 “of”属格(适用于多数情况)“

The window of the room, the legs of the desk

③、双重属格---“of +名词’s/ 名词性物主代词

1、强调“之一” 2、of前面的名词常有a, any, some, no, few, several…修饰


A friend of my sister’s , a suggestion of mine

(四) 名词的量的表示---单位词的使用:


A bottle of wine, a bowl of rice, a glass of milk, a bag of sand


A meter of cloth, a kilo of rice, ten ance of gold, a liter of petrol, a ton of iron ③、用外形表示:

A bar of chocolate, a cake of soap, a loaf of bread, a ball of wool


A pile of books, a bunch of flowers, a collection of stamps, a line of trees, ⑤、人及动物群体的表示:

A team of players, a school fo artists, a gang of thieves, a crowd of people,

A swarm of ants , a flock of chicken, a herd of cattle, a nest of bees

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