haihongyuan.com
海量文库 文档专家
全站搜索:
您现在的位置:首页 > 幼儿教育 > 唐诗宋词唐诗宋词

英语语法讲义---名 词部分

发布时间:2014-01-02 09:39:24  

名 词

一、名词的类别:

名词分为普通名词(man, city)和专有名词(Tom, China);普通名词分为可数名词(tree, book) 和不可数名词(bread, meat);可数名词包括个体名词和集体名词(police, team), 不可数名词可分为物质名词(water, air)和抽象名词(joy, fun).

二、名词的性别:

1、有些名词本身不同性别有不同的表示:

阴性:woman aunt bride cow madam queen hen bitch 阳性:man uncle bridegroom bull sir king cock dog

2、有些名词通过加“ese” 等构成阴性:

actor-actress host-hostess lion-lioness prince-princes waiter-waitress

3、有些名词通过在前面加“he, she, man, woman, boy, girl…”来区分性别: businessman, businesswoman, trademan, man-teacher, woman-doctor, boyfriend, girlfriend, boy-student, he-wolf, she-goat, peacock, peahen

三、名词的数:

(一)、可数名词

(1)规则名词:

①、“---s”类: dogs, days, houses

②、“---es”类:(已o, s, x, ch, sh结尾的单词):

heroes, foxes, watches, tomatoes, potatoes, bushes, glasses

注:a、以 “o”结尾的词看“o”前面的字母,如为辅音加“s”(kilo, piano, photo,

bamboo, tobacco, two, zoo, studio…), 如为元音加“es”(hero, zero, tomato…) b、 “---ch” 如果发音为/k/则直接加“s”. 如:stomach, headache… ③、“---y”类:辅音加y结尾, 变为“---ies”. families, ladies, countries… 元音加y结尾,直接加 “s”。boys, toys, plays

④、 “---f/fe”类:除calf, half, knife, leaf, life, loaf, self, shelf, thief, wife, wolf, elf

是变被动为主动“---ves”外,其他的直接加“s”.

(2)、不规则名词“

①、child-children, ox-oxen, basis-bases, thesis-theses, foot-feet, mouse-mice, goose-geese, tooth-teeth

②、单复数相同的名词:fish, sheep, deer, means, Japanese, Chinese, series

(3)、只有单数形式的名词:

①、无生命的集体名词:mechinery, clothing, poetry, stationary, sugar, salt, rice, sand,

soap, sweet, hardware, furniture, mail, equipment

②、抽象名词:happiness, honesty, knowledge, bravery, strength

(4)、一般以复数形式出现的名词:

①、由两部分构成的物品:trousers, compasses, glasses, stockings, handcuffs… ②、一些以“ing”结尾的名词:savings, greetings, earnings, belongings…

③、一般以复数形式出现的名词:overalls, fireworks, riches, Olympics, thanks,

regards, goods, news, clothes, works, wages

(5)、集体名词:

①、有些只能以单数形式出现(无生命)

②、有些只能作复数用(police, people, cattle)

③、由人或其他有生命物体构成的集体名词要看该名词是强调整体还是个

体:The family like travelling./The family has moved to Lodon.

(6)、复合名词:如(looker-on, get-together, outlook, income…)

①、中间没有连字符的把最后一个单词变为复数:bookshelf-bookshelves, Greenhouse-greenhouses, blackboard-blackboards

②、由man/woman构成的两个单词都要变复数:man-doctor----men-doctors woman-teacher---women-teachers

③、“ looker-on”类(第一个是名词后面是虚词)把中心词变复数:

looker-on---lookers-on,sister-in-law---sisters-in-law, unner-up---runners-up, stander-by---standers-by, passer-by---passers-by

(二) 不可数名词

①、单复数表示不同意思的名词:

content内容-contents目录, force力量-forces军队, glass玻璃杯-glasses眼镜, good-goods货物, manner态度-manners礼貌, green-greens蔬菜,

sand沙-sands沙滩, time时间-times次数, water水-waters水域,

work工作-works作品,

②、个别物质名词表示种类时可加s:

fruit, fish, vegetable…

(三) 名词的格:

①、“---’s”(有生命的物体):my sister’s bag, the dog’s tail, Women’s Day, Betty and Peter’s father/ Betty’s and Peter’s father

②、 “of”属格(适用于多数情况)“

The window of the room, the legs of the desk

③、双重属格---“of +名词’s/ 名词性物主代词

1、强调“之一” 2、of前面的名词常有a, any, some, no, few, several…修饰

3、of后面的名词应该是“人”

A friend of my sister’s , a suggestion of mine

(四) 名词的量的表示---单位词的使用:

①、(液体及很细小的物体)用容器表示

A bottle of wine, a bowl of rice, a glass of milk, a bag of sand

②、用计量单位来表示:

A meter of cloth, a kilo of rice, ten ance of gold, a liter of petrol, a ton of iron ③、用外形表示:

A bar of chocolate, a cake of soap, a loaf of bread, a ball of wool

④、用物品的群体来表示

A pile of books, a bunch of flowers, a collection of stamps, a line of trees, ⑤、人及动物群体的表示:

A team of players, a school fo artists, a gang of thieves, a crowd of people,

A swarm of ants , a flock of chicken, a herd of cattle, a nest of bees

网站首页网站地图 站长统计
All rights reserved Powered by 海文库
copyright ©right 2010-2011。
文档资料库内容来自网络,如有侵犯请联系客服。zhit326@126.com