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小学阶段英语语法及练习

发布时间:2014-01-19 11:53:56  

小学英语语法及习题

一、名词复数规则

1.一般情况下,直接加-s,如:book-books, bag-bags, cat-cats, bed-beds

2.以s. x. sh. ch结尾,加-es,如:bus-buses, box-boxes, brush-brushes, watch-watches

3.以“辅音字母+y”结尾,变y为i, 再加-es,如:family-families,

strawberry-strawberries

4.以“f或fe”结尾,变f或fe为v, 再加-es,如:knife-knives

6.以“o”结尾,有生命的加-es,如tomatoes,没生命的加-s,如photos

5.不规则名词复数:

man-men, woman-women, policeman-policemen,

policewoman-policewomen, mouse-mice

child-children foot-feet tooth-teeth

fish-fish, people-people, Chinese-Chinese, Japanese-Japanese

写出下列各词的复数

I _________him _________this ___________her ______

watch _______child _______photo ________diary ______

day________ foot________ book_______ dress ________

tooth_______ sheep ______box_______ strawberry ___________

thief _______peach______ sandwich ______ tea__________

man______ woman_______ paper_________ juice___________

water________ milk________ rice__________

二、一般现在时

一般现在时基本用法介绍

一般现在时的功能

1.表示事物或人物的特征、状态。如:The sky is blue.天空是蓝色的。

2.表示经常性或习惯性的动作。如:I get up at six every day.我每天六点起床。

3.表示客观现实。如:The earth goes around the sun.地球绕着太阳转。 一般现在时的构成

1. be动词:主语+be(am,is,are)+其它。如:I am a boy.我是一个男孩。

2.行为动词:主语+行为动词(+其它)。如:We study English.我们学习英 语。当主语为第三人称单数(he, she, it)时,要在动词后加"-s"或"-es"。如:Mary likes Chinese.玛丽喜欢汉语。

一般现在时的变化

1. be动词的变化。

否定句:主语+ be + not +其它。

如:He is not a worker.他不是工人。

一般疑问句:Be +主语+其它。

如:-Are you a student?

-Yes. I am. / No, I'm not.

特殊疑问句:疑问词+一般疑问句。如:Where is my bike?

2.行为动词的变化。

否定句:主语+ don't( doesn't ) +动词原形(+其它)。如:

I don't like bread.我不喜欢面包。

当主语为第三人称单数时,要用doesn't构成否定句。如:

He doesn't often play.他不经常玩。

一般疑问句:Do( Does ) +主语+动词原形+其它。如:

- Do you often play football?你经常踢足球吗?

- Yes, I do. / No, I don't.是的/不,不是的。

当主语为第三人称单数时,要用does构成一般疑问句。如:

- Does she go to work by bike?

- Yes, she does. / No, she doesn't.

特殊疑问句:疑问词+一般疑问句。如:How does your father go to work?

动词+s的变化规则

1.一般情况下,直接加-s,如:cook-cooks, milk-milks

2.以s. x. sh. ch. o结尾,加-es,如:guess-guesses, wash-washes, watch-watches, go-goes

3.以“辅音字母+y”结尾,变y为i, 再加-es,如:study-studies

一般现在时用法专练:

一、 写出下列动词的第三人称单数

drink ________ go _______ stay ________ make ________

look _________ have_______ pass_______ carry _______

come________ watch______ plant_______ fly ________

study_______ brush________ do_________ teach_______

二、用括号内动词的适当形式填空。

1. He often ________(have) dinner at home.

2. Daniel and Tommy _______(be) in Class One.

3. We _______(not watch) TV on Monday.

4. Nick _______(not go) to the zoo on Sunday.

5. ______ they ________(like) the World Cup?

6. What _______they often _______(do) on Saturdays?

7. _______ your parents _______(read) newspapers every day?

8. The girl _______(teach) us English on Sundays.

9. She and I ________(take) a walk together every evening.

10. There ________(be) some water in the bottle.

11. Mike _______(like) cooking.

12. They _______(have) the same hobby.

13. My aunt _______(look) after her baby carefully.

14. You always _______(do) your homework well.

15. I _______(be) ill. I’m staying in bed.

16. She _______(go) to school from Monday to Friday.

17. Liu Tao _______(do) not like PE.

18. The child often _______(watch) TV in the evening.

19. Su Hai and Su Yang _______(have) eight lessons this term.

20. -What day _______(be) it today?

- It’s Saturday.

三、按照要求改写句子

1. Daniel watches TV every evening.(改为否定句)

___________________________________________________

2. I do my homework every day.(改为一般疑问句,作否定回答)

________________________________________________________

3. She likes milk.(改为一般疑问句,作肯定回答)

___________________________

4. Amy likes playing computer games.(改为一般疑问句,作否定回答) ___________________________________________________

5. We go to school every morning.(改为否定句)

_______________________________________________________

6. He speaks English very well.(改为否定句)

___________________________________________________ 7. I like taking photos in the park.(对划线部分提问)

________________________________________________________ 8. John comes from Canada.(对划线部分提问)

___________________________________________________

9. She is always a good student.(改为一般疑问句,作否定回答)

________________________________________________________

10. Simon and Daniel like going skating.(改为否定句)

___________________________________________________

五、改错(划出错误的地方,将正确的写在横线上)

1. Is your brother speak English? ____________

2. Does he likes going fishing ? ____________

3. He likes play games after class. ____________

4. Mr. Wu teachs us English. ____________

5. She don’t do her homework on Sundays. _____________

三、现在进行时

1.现在进行时表示现在正在进行或发生的动作,也可表示当前一段时间内的活动或现阶段正在进行的动作。

2.现在进行时的肯定句基本结构为be+动词ing.

3.现在进行时的否定句在be后加not。

4.现在进行时的一般疑问句把be动词调到句首。

5.现在进行时的特殊疑问的基本结构为:疑问词 + be + 主语 + 动词ing? 但疑问词当主语时其结构为:疑问词 + be + 动词ing?

动词加ing的变化规则

1.一般情况下,直接加ing,如:cook-cooking

2.以不发音的e结尾,去e加ing,如:make-making, taste-tasting

3.如果末尾是一个元音字母和一个辅音字母,双写末尾的辅音字母,再加ing,如:run-running, stop-stopping

现在进行时专项练习:

一、写出下列动词的现在分词:

play________ run__________ swim _________make__________

go_________ write________ _ski___________ read________

have_________ sing________ dance_________ put_________

see________ buy _________ love____________ live_______

take_________ come ________ get_________ stop_________

sit ________ begin________ shop___________

二、用所给的动词的正确形式填空:

1.The boy __________________ ( draw)a picture now.

2. Listen .Some girls _______________ (sing) in the classroom.

3. My mother _________________ (cook) some nice food now.

4. What _____ you ______ (do) now?

5. Look. They _______________ (have) an English lesson.

6. They ____________ (not, water) the flowers now.

7. Look! The girls ________________(dance )in the classroom .

8. What is our granddaughter doing? She _________ (listen) to music.

9. It’s 5 o’clock now. We _____________ (have) supper now

10.______Helen____________(wash )clothes? Yes, she is.

三、句型转换:

1. They are doing housework .(分别改成一般疑问句和否定句)

_____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

2.The students are cleaning the classroom . ( 改一般疑问句并作肯定和否定回答)

_________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________

3.I’m playing football in the playground .(对划线部分进行提问) _________________________________________________________________

4.Tom is reading books in his room . (对划线部分进行提问)

__________________________________________________________________

四、将来时

一、概念:表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态及打算、计划或准备做某事。句中一般有以下时间状语:tomorrow, next day(week, month, year?),soon, the day after tomorrow(后天)等。

二、基本结构:①be going to + do;②will+ do.

三、否定句:在be动词(am, is, are)后加not或情态动词will后加not成won’t。

例如:I’m going to have a picnic this afternoon.→ I’m not going to have a picnic this afternoon.

四、一般疑问句: be或will提到句首,some改为any, and改为or,第一二人称互换。

例如:We are going to go on an outing this weekend. → Are you going to go on an outing this weekend?

五、对划线部分提问。一般情况,一般将来时的对划线部分有三种情况。

1.问人。Who 例如:I’m going to New York soon. →Who’s going to New York soon.

2.问干什么。What ? do.例如: My father is going to watch a race with me this afternoon. →What is your father going to do with you this afternoon.

3.问什么时候。When.例如:She’s going to go to bed at nine. →When is she going to bed?

六、同义句:be going to = will

I am going to go swimming tomorrow(明天). = I will go swimming tomorrow.

将来时专练:

填空。

1.我打算明天和朋友去野炊。

I_____ _______ _________ have a picnic with my friends.

I ________ have a picnic with my friends.

2.下个星期一你打算去干嘛? 我想去打篮球。

What ________ ________ _________ _________ _________ next Monday? I _______ ______ _____ play basketball.

3.你妈妈这个周末去购物吗?是,她要去买一些水果。

_____ your mother _______ ________ go shopping this ___________? Yes, she _________. She ______ ________ __________ buy some fruit.

4.你们打算什么时候见面。

What time _______ you _________ __________ meet?

改句子。

5. Nancy is going to go camping.(改否定)

Nancy ________ going to go camping.

6. I’ll go and join them.(改否定)

I _______ go ______ join them.

7. I’m going to get up at 6:30 tomorrow.(改一般疑问句)

________ _______ ________ to get up at 6:30 tomorrow?

8. We will meet at the bus stop at 10:30.(改一般疑问句)

_______ ________ meet at the bus stop at 10:30. 9. She is going to listen to music after school.(对划线部分提问) ________ _______ she ________ ________ _________ after school?

10. My father and mother are going to see a play the day after tomorrow.(改一般疑问句)

_________ _________ going to see a play the day after tomorrow

五、a, an的区别及用法:

冠词是一种虚词,不能独立使用,通常放在名词的前面,分为“不定冠词”和“定冠词”两种。

1、不定冠词:a、an。用在单数名词前,表示“一个,一件??”。an用在以元音“音素”开头的单词前。

如: an e-mail, an orange, an old man, an English watch, an hour?

2、定冠词:the。用在单数或者复数名词前。the没有具体意思,有时翻译为这、那。

冠词专练:

在空格内填上a或an

1. _____ear 2.______actor 3. _____ hen 4. ______toy

5. ______university 6. ______ elephant

7.______hat 8.______umbrella 9.______rabbit 10.______idea

11.______hour 12_______ honest boy 13.______interesting book

14.______easy question 15.______orange dress 16_______apple pie 17_______X-ray machine 18.______ice cream

六、There be与 have, has的用法:

1、there be结构表示“某时、某地存在着什么事物或人”,包括there is、there are.

there be和have、has、had的区别:

(1)There be 句型表示:在某地有某物(或人) ;而have、has表示:某人拥有某物。

(2)在there be 句型中,主语是单数,be 动词用is;主语是复数,be 动词用are;如有几件物品,be 动词根据最近be 动词的那个名词决定——“就近原则”。

(3)there be 句型的否定句在be 动词后加not , 一般疑问句把be 动词调到句首。

(4)there be句型与have(has) 的区别:there be 表示在某地有某物(或人);have(has) 表示某人拥有某物。

(5)some和any在there be 句型中的运用:some 用于肯定句, any 用于否定句或疑问句。

(6)and 和or 在there be句型中的运用:and 用于肯定句, or 用于否定句或疑问句。

(7)There be结构一般用在句子的开头,而have等词只能用于某一个主语后面。

There be 句型和have、has专练:

用“have, has”或 “there is , there are”填空

1. I________ a good father and a good mother.

2. ____________a telescope on the desk.

3. He_________ a tape-recorder.

4. _____________a basketball in the playground.

5. She__________ some dresses.

6. They___________ a nice garden.

7. What do you___________?

8. ______________a reading-room in the building?

9. What does Mike___________?

10. ______________any books in the bookcase?

11. My father_________ a story-book.

12. _______________a story-book on the table.

13. _______________any flowers in the vase?

14. How many students____________ in the classroom?

15. My parents___________ some nice pictures.

16. _____________some maps on the wall.

17. ______________a map of the world on the wall.

18. David__________ a telescope.

19. David’s friends___________ some tents.

20. ______________many children on the hill.

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