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2013年小升初语法复习(六):冠词

发布时间:2014-01-24 12:55:57  

2013年小升初语法复习(六)——冠词

一、知识概要

(一)定义

冠词是一种虚词,本身不能单独使用,也没有词义,它用在名词的前面(相当于名词的帽子),帮助指明名词的含义。

(二)分类

共3类:定冠词(the definite article),不定冠词(the indefinite article)、零冠词(zero article)。

(三)用法

1、定冠词的用法

a 、an与数词one 同源,是"一个"的意思。a用于辅音音素前,而an则用于元音音素前。

(1) 表示某一类人或某事物中的任何一个,经常用在第一次提到某人或某物时,用不定冠词起介绍作用,表示一个。

I gave him a book yesterday .我昨天给了他一本书

I am reading an interesting story . 我在读一则有趣的故事。

(2) 表示人或事物的某一种类, 强调整体, 即以其中的一个代表一类。

a horse is useful to mankind. 马对人类有用。

(3) 不定冠词用在事物的"单位"前,如时间, 速度, 价格等意义的名词之前,表示 "每一"。

We often go to school two times a day. 我们常常一天两次去学校。

I went to the library once a week at least.

(4) 不定冠词用来指某人某物,但不具体说明任何人或任何物。

a boy came to see you a moment ago. 刚才有一个小孩来找你。

(5)在序数词前表示"又一;再一"时。如:

I want to read the story a second time 我想再读一遍这篇小说 。

(6) 表示不特定的"某一个"时。如:

a Mr. smith is calling on the phone. 有一位史密斯先生来电话找你 。

(7)在特定的短语里表示特定的含义,与不可数名词连用,如:

have a good time 玩得高兴

(8) 一日三餐前有修饰语时。如:

-mum, what shall we have for lunch?

-jiaozi.

-oh, what a wonderful lunch! I enjoy it very much.

(9) 在形容词最高级前表示"非常"时。如:

lesson nine is a most difficult lesson, but it isn't the most difficult one.

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(10)不定冠词用于某些词组中。

a little / a few / a lot / a type of / a pile / a great many / many a / as a rule / in a hurry / in a minute / in a word / in a short while / after a while / have a cold / have a try / keep an eye on / all of a sudden

2.定冠词的用法

定冠词the与指示代词this, that, these, those同源,有"那(这)个" "这(那)些"的意思,但较弱,可以和一个名词连用,来表示某个或某些特定的人或东西。以下为必须加定冠词的情形:

(1)在表示双方都明白的人或物的名词之前:

take the medicine. 把药吃了。

(2)在上文提到过的人或事的名称之前:

he bought a house. I’ve been to the house.

他买了幢房子。我去过那幢房子。

(3)在指世上独一无二的事物的名词之前:

the sun, the sky, the moon, the earth

(4)与单数名词连用表示一类事物,如:

the fox is cunning .狐狸是狡猾的。

(5)与形容词或分词连用,表示一类人:the rich 富人; the living 生者。

(6)用在序数词和形容词最高级,及形容词only, very, same等前面:

where do you live? I live on the second floor. 你住在哪?我住在二层。

that's the very thing that in need 那正是我需要的东西。

(7)在表示"...世纪...年代"的结构之前

he began to learn Russian in the 1950s. 他在20实际50年代开始学俄语 。

但注意:in one's 50s意为"在某人五十多岁时"。如:

he looked quite healthy though he was in his 80s.

(8)在比较级的两种句型中: ①表示"越 ......,就越......"时。如:

the lighter, the better. 越轻越好 。

② 表示"两者中比较......"时,用定冠词。如:

there are two books on the table. I like the thicker one.

(9)用在"动词+sb.+介词+the+身体部位名称"的结构中(注意:介词常用in/on/by)。如:

the ball hit me on the back. 球打中了他的头 。

(10) 在表示"计量单位"的可数名词前(注意:介词用by)。如:

the workers are paid by the hour/day/month. 按月付给工人工资 .

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(11)用在某些由普通名词构成的专有名词前:the great wall(长城),the people's park(人民公园)等。

the people's republic of china 中华人民共和国

the united states 美国

(12)用在表示乐器的名词之前:she plays the piano. 她会弹钢琴.

the little girl likes to play the violin. 小女孩喜欢拉小提琴。

(13)定冠词用在文艺活动,运动场所的名称前。

they are going to the cinema tonight. 他们今晚要去影院看电影。

(14)用在姓氏的复数名词之前,表示一家人:

the greens 格林一家人 (或格林夫妇)

(15)在方位名词之前 ,如:in the west on the west

(16)在某些短语中 in the day, in the morning (afternoon,evening), the day after

tomorrow ,the day before yesterday, the next morning, in the sky (water,field,country) in the dark, in the rain, in the distance, in the middle (of), in the end, on the whole, by the way, go to the theatre

3、零冠词(不用定冠词)

(1) 在物质名词前,如:

water is very important . 水是非常重要的 。

(2) 在抽象名词前,如:

failure is the mother of success. 失败乃成功之母。

(3) 复数名词表示人或物的种类时,如:

doctors cure patients. 医生治病救人 .

those people are teachers, not students. 这些人是老师,不是学生 .

(4) 在有关游戏的名词前,如:

do you like to play chess? 你喜欢下棋吗 ?

(5) 在"by + 交通工具"的短语里,如:

shall we walk or go by bus? 我们乘车还是步行 ?

(6) 在国名,人名和地名前通常不用定冠词,如 :

England,Mary;

(7)在年份、季节、月份、节日、 假日、日期、星期等表示时间的名词之前,不加冠词; we go to school from Monday to Friday. 我们从星期一到星期五都上课。

(8)在称呼或表示官衔,职位的名词前不加冠词;

the guards took the American to general lee.

士兵们把这个美国人送到李将军那里。

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(9)在三餐、球类运动的名称前,不加冠词 。如:

have breakfast,play chess

(10) 在某些固定词组中,是否有冠词,意义不同。如:

in hospital住院,in the hospital在医院里

in bed在卧床 ,in the bed在床上

in front of在......(外)前面,in the front of 在......(内)前部

go to hospital 去医院看病 go to the hospital 去医院 (并不是去看病,而是有其他目的) 口诀:泛指用a/ an,单数可数;特指用the,不特不the。

注释:

1)泛指用a/ an,单数可数——泛指的单数可数名词前要用a/ an。

2)特指用the——如果是特指,那么无论是可数名词单数、复数或不可数名词前均要用the。

3)不特不the——不特指则不用the,包括泛指的可数名词单数前用a/ an,泛指的可数名词复数前不用冠词,泛指的不可数名词前也不用冠词三种情况。

定冠词:特指双熟悉,上文已提及,世上独一无二,序数最高级,某些专有名,习语及乐器。

(1)the用在“特指”谈话双方都知道的某个人或某些人或物前。

如:where is the teacher?老师在哪里?

(2)the用在上文已提到的人或事物前。如:

I can see a cat. the cat is Lucy’s.

我能看见一只猫,那只猫是露茜的。

(3)the用在世界上独一无二的事物前。

如:the earth goes around the sun.地球围绕着太阳转。

(4)the用在序数词或形容词最高级前。

如:mike is the tallest of the three boys.迈克是三个男孩中最高的一个。

(5)the用在由普通名词构成的专有名词前。如:the great wall(长城),the people’s park(人民公园 )等。

(6)the用在一些习惯用语中或乐器名词前。如:in the day(在白天),play the piano(弹钢琴)等。

零冠词(不用冠词):代词限定名词前,专有名词不可数,复数名词表泛指,学科球类三餐饭,季节星期月份前,颜色语种和国名,称呼习语及头衔。

(1)名词前已有作定语用的this, that, these, those, my, your, his, her, our, their, some等限定词

时,不用冠词。

如:this eraser, her pencil-box, some boxes, those women等。

(2)泛指的不可数名词前一般不用冠词。

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如:meat, rice, water, bread, tea, milk, juice等。

(3)复数名词表示泛指时,不用冠词。

如:the people in the room are doctors.房间里的那些人是医生。

(4)在表示学科的名词前一般不用冠词。如:Chinese, English, maths, physics, history等。在三餐饭和球类运动名词前一般不加冠词。如:have breakfast/ lunch/ supper, play basketball/ football等。

(5)在季节、节日、星期、月份前不用冠词。如:autumn, summer, winter, spring, teacher’s day, children’s day, Sunday, February等。

(6)在表颜色、语种和国家名词前不用冠词。如:white, brown, French, Australia等。

(7)在表示称呼语的名词之前,以及职务、头衔的名词前不用冠词。

如:doctor green is a scientist. 格林博士是位科学家。

有水无湖、有球无星、有山无峰、有独无欧(二)、有(足)族无球(运动)、有文无章、学而不专:

1)有水无湖:海、洋、海湾、河等,都用the;单个湖不用the,(但多个湖用the);

the red sea,the pacific ocean,the persian gulf, the yangtze river

the great lakes(五大湖);lake erie(伊利湖)

2)有球无星:地球,月亮用the;行星不用the: mars,venus;

3)有山无峰:the huangshan mountains(黄山);mount Everest(珠穆朗玛峰);mount(or Mt.) tai(泰山).

4)有独无欧(偶):独一无二的,the earth,the moon,the sun用the;

欧洲等七大洲不用the.

Europe, Africa, Asia, north America, south America, Antarctica, Oceania

5)有(足)族无球(运动):种族用the: the Indians(印第安人);球类运动:baseball, basketball

6)有文无章:历史性的文件用the;小说等的章节不用the。the constitution(宪法); chapter one

7)学而不专:学校放在词组的前面时用the;专有名词放在词组的前面时不用the;

the university of fudan; fudan university

二、冠词的考查点

考点1 a/an的区别

例题 选择填空

I have ________ pear and ________apple.

A. a; / B. an; a C. a; an

【解析指导】:冠词所修饰的名词是元音音素开头,用an; 以辅音音素开头的,用a。

【答案】:C

举一反三训练:选择正确答案。

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( )1. ________ dog________ useful animal.

A. A; the B. The; a C. The; an D. A; a

( )2. There is ________ pen on the chair and ________ orange on the desk.

A. an; a B. the; a C. an; the D. a; an

( )3.May is ________ Chinese girl. She is not ________ English girl.

A. a; an B. the; a C. an; the D. an; a

考点2 不定冠词和定冠词的用法

例题 选择填空。

1. This is ________ photo. Look at ________photo.

A. a; the B. a; / C. an; the

2. Give me ________ red cap, please!

A. an B. a C. the

3. A computer is ________ useful tool in ________ world today.

A. an; the B. a; the C. the; the D. a; a

【解析指导】:第1,2题主要是考查如何区分定冠词和不定冠词的使用。第1题中第一次提到photo时,应该用不定冠词a,而第二次photo出现时,则应该用定冠词the。第2题中所指的cap不是随便任何一顶帽子,而是特指的一顶红帽子,所以用the。第3题中第一个空是笼统地指电脑是一种有用的工具,useful是以辅音开头,所以选择a;第二空中的world是一个独一无二的名词,故选择the。

【答案】:1.A 2. C 3. B

举一反三训练:

一、用a/an/the填空

1. I have ________ orange. ________orange is big.

2. When you come out of the lift, you’ll see two doors, ________ green one and ________ purple one. His door is ________ green one.

3. I saw ________ man going into the classroom. I don’t know who________ man was.

二、选择正确的答案。

( )1. There is ________A in ________ word “map”.

A. a; an B. an a C. an; the D. a; the

( )2. There is ________ old man under ________ tree.

A. an; the B. the; a C. a; the D. an; /

( )3. There is ________ bridge over there. ________ bridge is made of steel.

A. the; The B. a; A C. the; A D. a; The

( )4. ________ old lady in brown is ________ doctor.

A. An; a B. An; / C. The; an D. The; a

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考点3 零冠词的用法以及与不定冠词、定冠词的区分

例题 选择填空。

1. He is from ________ France. He is ________ Frenchman.

A. a; / B. /;/ C. /; a D. a; a

2. I go to ________ school on foot because my home is near ________ school.

A. a; a B. the; the C. /; / D. /; the

3. He likes playing________ piano, but he doesn’t like playing ________ football.

A. the; the B. the; / C. /; the D. /;/

【解题指导】:1.专有名词、抽象名词和物质名词之前一般不用冠词。France是国名为专有名词,故不加a,排除A、D选项。2. school, college, hospital, prison, church, bed, class, court等个体名词,直接用于介词后,表示该事物的职能。例题2中,第一空想表达的意思是上学,而第二空强调的是学校这个地方,故应该加冠词the,则答案为D。3.定冠词用在演奏乐器的名称和文艺活动、运动场所的名称前。故第一空填空定冠词the。在季节、月份、星期、节日、球类运动、棋类游戏的名词之前不用冠词。故第二空为零冠词。

【答案】1. C 2. D 3. B

举一反三训练:判断正(T)误(F)

1. Yesterday was the Children’s Day. ( )

2. Would you like a glass of the juice? ( )

3. I like reading newspaper. ( )

4. He goes to park after supper every night. ( )

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自我检测与提高

一、选择填空。

( )1. I bought ________ umbrella to go out in the rain yesterday.

A. an B. the C. / D. a

( )2. We are having ________ talk with them in the dining room.

A. the B. this C. a D. an

( )3. We can see _______ moon at _______ night.

A. the; the B. the; / C. a; / D. /; /

( )4. It’s ________ sunny today.

A. a B. an C. the D. /

( )5. Let’s go out for _______ walk. It’s cool outside.

A. a B. the C. / D. an

二、组词成句。

1. let, a, dinner, us, have, special

____________________________________________________________

2. time, it’s, dumplings, to, make

____________________________________________________________

3. new, happy, year

____________________________________________________________

4. the, cook, on, let’s, stove, dumplings

____________________________________________________________

5. make, are, to, we, dumplings, ready

____________________________________________________________

三、读下面的短文,在空白处填入适当的冠词(a/an/the),不需要处画“/”。

I am ______ British. My name is _______ Tracy. My _______ teacher is Tara. She is

_______ old woman. I have _______ sister. We are _______ twins. We look _______ same. I have ______ horse of my own. I call her Lily. She is _______ smart animal, but she is not _____ nice horse.

四、用冠词a、an、the或/填空。

1. ________ church on the corner is big.

2. Miss Lin speaks ________ Chinese.

3. My daughter is learning to play ________ piano at her school.

4. Please give me ________ cake that is on the counter(柜台).

5. After I had ________ quick breakfast, I went to school.

6. ________ ink in my pen is red.

7. He often goes to ________ school by ________ bus.

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8. Washington is ________ capital of ________ USA.

9. I borrowed ________ pencil from you.

10. Shall we go to see our teacher? She is ill in ________hospital.

11. ________honest boy 12. ________useful book

13. ________usual tree 14. ________interesting movie

15. ________hour and ________ half 16. ________doctor

17. ________eight-year old boy 18. ________pen

19. That is ________ watch. 20. I like ________black jacket.

五、给下面的固定词组填上适当的冠词。

1. all ________time

2. have ________bath

3. ________Young Pioneer

4. on ________left

5. on ________time

六、翻译词组。

1. 在椅子上____________

2. 乘船___________

3.一辆日本汽车______________

4. 格林一家人______________

5. 弹钢琴_______________

趣题链接:

1. “害群之马”应如何翻译?( )

A. black sheep B. white sheep

C. blue sheep C. brown sheep

答案:A

2. What’s the longest word in the world?

答案:smiles (在第一个字母s和最后一个字母s之间有一英里长)。

3. What dogs are afraid to sunbathe?

答案:Hot dog

4. What number gets bigger when you turn it upside down?

答案:6

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参考答案

二、冠词的考查点

考点1 举一反三训练:1.D 2. D 3. A

考点2 举一反三训练:

一、1. an; the 2.a; a; the 3. a; the

二、1. C 2. A 3. D 4. D

考点3举一反三训练:

1.F 2. F 3. T 4. T

自我检测与提高

一、1. A 2. C 3. B 4. D 5. A

二、1. Let us have a special dinner.

2. It’s time to make dumplings.

3. Happy New Year!

4. Let’s cook dumplings on the stove.

5. We are ready to make dumplings.

三、/,/,/,an,a,/,the,a,a,a

四、1. The 2. / 3. the 4. the 5. a

6. The 7. /,/ 8. the, the 9. the 10./

11. an 12. a 13. a 14. an 15. an, a

16. a 17. an 18. a 19. a 20. the

五、1. the 2. a 3. the 4. the 5. /

六、1. on the chair 2. by ship 3. a Japanese car

4. the Greens 5. play the piano

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