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小学英语知识点汇总

发布时间:2014-01-29 12:51:01  

小学英语知识点汇总

一、名词复数规则

1.一般情况下,直接加-s,如:book-books, bag-bags, cat-cats, bed-beds

2.以s. x. sh. ch结尾,加-es,如:bus-buses, box-boxes, brush-brushes, watch-watches

3.以“辅音字母+y”结尾,变y为i, 再加-es,如:family-families, strawberry-strawberries

4.以“f或fe”结尾,变f或fe为v, 再加-es,如:knife-knives 5.不规则名词复数: man-men, woman-women, policeman-policemen, policewoman-policewomen, mouse-mice child-children foot-feet,.tooth-teeth fish-fish, people-people, Chinese-Chinese, Japanese-Japanese

写出下列各词的复数

I _________him _________this ___________her ______watch _______child _______photo ________diary ______

day________ foot________ book_______ dress ________tooth_______ sheep ______box_______ strawberry _____

peach______ sandwich ______dish_______bus_______man______ woman_______

二、一般现在时

1.一般现在时表示经常或习惯性的动作,也可表示现在的状态或主语具备的性格和能力。

2.一般现在时中,没有be动词和情态动词,主语为第三人称单数的肯定句,动词要按规则加上s,主语是非第三人称单数的肯定句,动词用原形。

3.在一般现在时中,句中有be动词或情态动词时,否定句在be动词和情态动词后加not,一般疑问句将be动词或情态动词放在句首。

4.在一般现在时中,句中没有be动词或情态动词时,主语为第三人称单数的否定句在动词前加does+not (doesn’t),一般疑问句在句首加does,句子中原有动词用原形;主语为非第三人称单数,否定句用do+not (don’t),一般疑问句在句首加do,句子中动词用原形。 动词+s的变化规则

1.一般情况下,直接加-s,如:cook-cooks, milk-milks

2 .以s. x. sh. ch. o结尾,加-es,如:guess-guesses, wash-washes, watch-watches, go-goes

3.以“辅音字母+y”结尾,变y为i, 再加-es,如:study-studies

一般现在时基本用法介绍

【No. 1】一般现在时的功能

1.表示事物或人物的特征、状态。如:The sky is blue.天空是蓝色的。

2.表示经常性或习惯性的动作。如:I get up at six every day.我天天六点起床。

3.表示客观现实。如:The earth goes around the sun.地球绕着太阳转。

一般现在时的构成

1. be动词:主语 be(am,is,are) 其它。如:

I am a boy.我是一个男孩。

2.行为动词:主语 行为动词( 其它)。如:

We study English.我们学习英语。

当主语为第三人称单数(he, she,it)时,要在动词后加"-s"或"-es"。如:Mary likes Chinese.玛丽喜欢汉语。

【No. 2】一般现在时的变化

1. be动词的变化。

否定句:主语 be not 其它。

如:He is not a worker.他不是工人。

一般疑问句:Be 主语 其它。

如:-Are you a student?

-Yes. I am. / No, I'm not.

非凡疑问句:疑问词 一般疑问句。如:Where is my bike?

2.行为动词的变化。

否定句:主语 don't( doesn't ) 动词原形( 其它)。如:

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I don't like bread.

当主语为第三人称单数时,要用doesn't构成否定句。如:

He doesn't often play.

一般疑问句:Do( Does ) 主语 动词原形 其它。如:

- Do you often play football?

- Yes, I do. / No, I don't.

当主语为第三人称单数时,要用does构成一般疑问句。如:

- Does she go to work by bike?

- Yes, she does. / No, she doesn't.

2.行为动词的变化。

否定句:主语 don't( doesn't ) 动词原形( 其它)。如:

I don't like bread.

当主语为第三人称单数时,要用doesn't构成否定句。如:

He doesn't often play.

一般疑问句:Do( Does ) 主语 动词原形 其它。如:

- Do you often play football?

- Yes, I do. / No, I don't.

当主语为第三人称单数时,要用does构成一般疑问句。如:

- Does she go to work by bike?

- Yes, she does. / No, she doesn't.

动词 s的变化规则

1.一般情况下,直接加-s,如:cook-cooks, milk-milks

2.以s. x. sh. ch. o结尾,加-es,如:guess-guesses, wash-washes, watch-watches, go-goes

3.以“辅音字母 y”结尾,变y为i, 再加-es,如:study-studies

用括号内动词的适当形式填空。

1. He often ________(have) dinner at home.

2. Daniel and Tommy _______(be) in Class One.

3. We _______(not watch) TV on Monday.

4. Nick _______(not go) to the zoo on Sunday.

5. ______ they ________(like) the World Cup?

6. What _______they often _______(do) on Saturdays?

7. _______ your parents _______(read) newspapers every day?

8. The girl _______(teach) us English on Sundays.

9. She and I ________(take) a walk together every evening.

10. There ________(be) some water in the bottle.

11. Mike _______(like) cooking.

12. They _______(have) the same hobby.

13. My aunt _______(look) after her baby carefully.

14. You always _______(do) your homework well.

15. I _______(be) ill. I’m staying in bed.

16. She _______(go) to school from Monday to Friday.

17. Liu Tao _______(do) not like PE.

18. The child often _______(watch) TV in the evening.

19. Su Hai and Su Yang _______(have) eight lessons this term.

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20. -What day _______(be) it today?

- It’s Saturday

三、现在进行时

1.现在进行时表示现在正在进行或发生的动作,也可表示当前一段时间内的活动或现阶段正在进行的动作。

2.现在进行时的肯定句基本结构为be+动词ing.

3.现在进行时的否定句在be后加not。

4.现在进行时的一般疑问句把be动词调到句首。

5.现在进行时的非凡疑问的基本结构为:

疑问词不达意 be 主语 动词ing?

但疑问词当主语时其结构为:

疑问词不达意 be 动词ing?

动词加ing的变化规则

1.一般情况下,直接加ing,如:cook-cooking

2.以不发音的e结尾,去e加ing,如:make-making, taste-tasting

3.如果末尾是一个元音字母和一个辅音字母,双写末尾的辅音字母,再加ing,如:run-running, stop-stopping

写出下列动词的现在分词:

play________ run__________ swim _________make__________

go_________ like________ write________ _ski___________

read________ have_________ sing ________ dance_________

put_________ see________ buy _________ love____________

live_______ take_________ come ________ get_________

stop_________ sit ________ begin________ shop___________

二、用所给的动词的正确形式填空:

1.The boy __________________ ( draw)a picture now.

2. Listen .Some girls _______________ ( sing)in the classroom .

3. My mother _________________ ( cook )some nice food now.

4. What _____ you ______ ( do ) now?

5. Look . They _______________( have) an English lesson .

6.They ____________(not ,water) the flowers now.

7.Look! the girls ________________(dance )in the classroom .

8.What is our granddaughter doing? She _________(listen ) to music.

9. It’s 5 o’clock now. We _____________(have)supper now

10.______Helen____________(wash )clothes? Yes ,she is .

四、将来时理论及练习

一、概念:表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态及打算、计划或预备做某事。句中一般有以下时间状语:tomorrow, next day(week, month, year…),soon, the day after tomorrow(后天)等。

二、基本结构:①be going to do;②will do.

三、否定句:在be动词(am, is, are)l后加not或情态动词will后加not成won’t。

例如:I’m going to have a picnic this afternoon.→ I’m not going to have a picnic this afternoon.

四、同义句:be going to = will

1.be going to 表示将要发生的事或打算、计划、决定要做的事情。

2.肯定句:be going to +动词原形,如:Jim is going to play football. 否定句:be not going to +动词原形,如:Jim is not going to play football. 一般疑问句:把be动词调到句首,如:Is Jim going to play football? 特殊疑问句:疑问词+be+主语+going to+动词原形?如:What is Jim going to do? 疑问词当主语时:疑问词+be+going to+动词原形?如:Who is going to play football?

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I am going to go swimming tomorrow(明天). = I will go swimming tomorrow.

练习:

填空。

1. 我打算明天和朋友去野炊。

I_____ _______ _________ have a picnic with my friends.

I ________ have a picnic with my friends.

2.我们将要学习英语

We _____ _______ _________ learn English.

We ________ learn English.

五、一般过去时

1.一般过去时表示过去某个时间发生的动作或存在的状态,常和表示过去的时间状语连用。一般过去时也表示过去经常或反复发生的动作感谢。

2.Be动词在一般过去时中的变化:

⑴am 和is在一般过去时中变为was。(was not=wasn’t)

⑵are在一般过去时中变为were。(were not=weren’t)

⑶带有was或were的句子,其否定、疑问的变化和is, am, are一样,即否定句在was或were后加not,一般疑问句把was或were调到句首。

3.句中没有be动词的一般过去时的句子

否定句:didn’t +动词原形,如:Jim didn’t go home yesterday. 一般疑问句:在句首加did,句子中的动词过去式变回原形。如:Did Jim go home yesterday? 特殊疑问句:

⑴疑问词+did+主语+动词原形?如: What did Jim do yesterday? ⑵疑问词当主语时:疑问词+动词过去式?如:Who went to home yesterday?

动词过去式变化规则:

1.一般在动词末尾加-ed,如:pull-pulled, cook-cooked

2.结尾是e加d,如:taste-tasted

3.末尾只有一个元音字母和一个辅音字母的重读闭音节,应双写末尾的辅音字母,再加-ed,如:stop-stopped

4.以“辅音字母+y”结尾的,变y为i,再加-ed,如:study-studied

5.不规则动词过去式: am,is-was, are-were, do-did, see-saw, say-said, give-gave, get-got, go-went, come-came, have-had, eat-ate, take-took, run-ran, sing-sang, put-put, make-made, read-read, write-wrote, draw-drew, drink-drank, fly-flew, ride-rode, speak-spoke, sweep-swept, swim-swam, sit-sat

过去时练习

写出下列动词的过去式

is\am_________ plant________ are ________

drink_________ play_______ go________ make ________

does_________ dance________ worry________ ask _____

taste_________ eat__________ put ______

kick_________ pass_______ do ________

Be动词的过去时练习(1)

Name ____________ No. ______ Date __________

用be动词的适当形式填空

1. I _______ at school just now.

2. He ________ at the camp last week.

3. We ________ students two years ago.

4. They ________ on the farm a moment ago.

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5. Yang Ling ________ eleven years old last year.

6. There ________ an apple on the plate yesterday.

7. There ________ some milk in the fridge on Sunday.

8. The mobile phone _______ on the sofa yesterday evening.

用be动词的适当形式填空

1. I ______ an English teacher now.

2. She _______ happy yesterday.

3. They _______ glad to see each other last month.

行为动词的过去时练习(2)

Name ____________ No. ______ Date __________

用be动词的适当形式填空

1. I ______ (watch) a cartoon on Saturday.

2. Her father _______ (read) a newspaper last night.

3. We _________ to zoo yesterday, we _____ to the park. (go)

4. ______ you _______ (visit) your relatives last Spring Festival?

5. ______ he _______ (fly) a kite on Sunday? Yes, he ______.

6. Gao Shan _______ (pull) up carrots last National Day holiday.

7. I ____________ (sweep) the floor yesterday, but my mother ______.

8. What ______ she _______ (find) in the garden last morning? She __________ (find) a beautiful butterfly.

(二)小升初英语词类:

动词、名词和形容词不太容易区分,如不能一眼看出,可用如下方法:

先用“一(量词)”(如:一个、一张等)和这个词连起来说,如说得通,一般认为是名词;说不通再用“很”去判断,就是把“很”和为个词连起来说,说得通一般就是形容词;都说不通就是动词。(目前我们学过的,以后可能不同)(另外一些很明显的,如人称代词、数词、情态动词等一下就可以知道)

1、动词

这里所说的动词是指各种动词总称,其中包括行为动词(就是我们平时总说的那种动词)、be动词、情态动词。

(1)行为动词

就是我们平时上课时说的动词,表示某一动作或行为。如:sweep、live等。

行为动词我们已学过它们的四种形式:

原形、+s/es、+ed、+ing,具体判断方法如下:

↗有,就加ing

读句子→读该单词→认识该单词→理解意思→看有无be动词

(若是be going to 就用原形)

↘没有,再看情态动词

↗有,就用原形

↗有,就加ed

↘没有,再看有无表示过去的时间状语

↗是第三人称单数就加s或es

↘没有,再看主语

↘不是第三人称单数就用原形

(2)be动词

a、Am--was Is --was Are--were 口诀:我用am, 你用are, is用在他她它,所有复数全用are。

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b、肯定和否定句 I am (not) from London. He is(not) a teacher. She is(not) in the dining room. My hair is(not) long. Her eyes are(not) small. c、一般疑问句 Am I a Chinese? Yes, you are. No, you aren’t. Are they American? Yes, they are. No, they aren’t. Is the cat fat? Yes, it is. No, it isn’t.

我们现在学过的be动词大致分两类:is、am、are为一类,一般用于一般现在时、现在进行时和一般将来时中,was和were为另一类,一般用于一般过去时。

判断步骤:

↗第一、三人称单数,就用was

↗有,再看人称

↘第二人称单数和所有复数,就用were

看有无表示过去的时间状语

↗第一人称单数,就用am

↘没有,再看人称→第三人称单数,就有is

↘第二人称单数和所有复数,就用are

用am, is, are 填空

1. I ______ a boy. ______ you a boy? No, I _____ not.

2. The girl______ Jack's sister.

3. The dog _______ tall and fat.

4. The man with big eyes _______ a teacher.

5. ______ your brother in the classroom?

6. Where _____ your mother? She ______ at home.

7. How _______ your father?

8. Mike and Liu Tao ______ at school.

9. Whose dress ______ this?

10. Whose socks ______ they?

(3)情态动词

情态动词也是一类特殊的动词,平时我们不把它说成是动词。情态动词可以和行为动词同时出现在同一个句子中。

我们现在学过的情态动词有:can、must、should、would、may。接触最多的是can。

情态动词后动词总是用原形。(不受其他任何条件影响)

2、名词

表示某一事物,有具体的和抽象的之分。判断的关键词往往是be动词,be动词如果是am、is或was,名词就用原形;be动词如果是are或were,名词就加s或es。

这里强调两点:不可数名词都默认为单数,所以总是用is或者was;最好不要根据some、any、a lot of等词去作判断,以免受误导。 如何加后缀:

a.一般情况下,直接加-s,如:book-books, bag-bags, cat-cats, bed-beds

b.以s. x. sh. ch结尾,加-es,如:bus-buses, box-boxes, brush-brushes, watch-watches

c.以“辅音字母+y”结尾,变y为i, 再加-es,如:family-families, strawberry-strawberries

d.以“f或fe”结尾,变f或fe为v, 再加-es,如:knife-knives

e.不规则名词复数: man-men, woman-women, policeman-policemen, policewoman-policewomen, mouse-mice child-children

foot-feet ,.tooth-teeth fish-fish, people-people, Chinese-Chinese, Japanese-Japanese

判断步骤:

↗如是am、is或was→原形

读句子→读该单词→认识该单词→理解意思→看be动词

↘如是are或were→加s或es

3、形容词(包括副词)

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形容词表示某一事物或的特征,副词表示某一动作的特征。 形容词和副词只有两种形式:原形和+er。 未作比较的情况下就用原形,比较时就+er。

两个重要特征:as……as中间一定用原形,有than的时候一定+er。 4、人称代词和物主代词

第一人称 I me we us my mine our ours

第二人称 you you you you your yours your yours

第三人称 he him they them his his their theirs she her her her sit it its its 人称代词:有主格和宾格之分。一般动词前用主格,动词后用宾格。 物主代词:有两类:形容词性物主代词(短的)和名词性物主代词(长的)

一般看后面有没有名词,如有,就用形容词性物主代词(短的);如无,就用名词性物主代词(长的)。 用所给词的适当形式填空

1. That is not _________ kite. That kite is very small, but _________ is very big. ( I ) 2. The dress is _________. Give it to _________. ( she ) 3. Is this _________ watch? (you) No, it’s not _________ . ( I )

4. _________ is my brother. _________ name is Jack. Look! Those stamps are _________. ( he ) 5、数量词

我们学过两类:基数词和序数词。基数用于表示数量多少,而基数词用于表示次序,常在日期中出现。 6、冠词

有a、an、the。a和an有具体的意思,一(个…),the没有具体意思,有时翻译为这、那。确定用a、an还是the时可根据汉语意思。a和an的区别:an用于元音音素(一般就是元音字母aeiou)前,a用于辅音音素前。

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