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小学英语语法复习

发布时间:2014-02-05 09:45:52  

小学英语语法总结---时态

一.一般现在时基本用法

A..一般现在时的功能

1.表示事物或人物的特征、状态。如:The sky is blue.天空是蓝色的。

2.表示经常性或习惯性的动作。如:I get up at six every day.我每天六点起床。

3.表示客观现实。如:The earth goes around the sun.地球绕着太阳转。

B.一般现在时的构成

1. be动词:主语+be(am,is,are)+其它。如:

I am a boy.我是一个男孩。

2.行为动词:主语+行为动词(+其它)。如:

We study English.我们学习英语。

3.当主语为第三人称单数(he, she,it)时,要在动词后加"-s"或"-es"。

如:Mary likes Chinese.玛丽喜欢汉语。

C.一般现在时的变化

1. be动词的变化。

a. 否定句:主语+ be + not +其它。

如:He is not a worker.他不是工人。

b. 一般疑问句:Be +主语+其它+?

如:-Are you a student?

-Yes. I am. / No, I'm not.

c. 特殊疑问句:疑问词+一般疑问句。如:Where is my bike?

2.行为动词的变化。

a. 否定句:主语+ don't( doesn't ) +动词原形(+其它)。如:

I don't like bread.

当主语为第三人称单数时,要用doesn't构成否定句。如:

He doesn't often play.

b. 一般疑问句:Do( Does ) +主语+动词原形+其它。如:

- Do you often play football?

- Yes, I do. / No, I don't.

当主语为第三人称单数时,要用does构成一般疑问句。如:

- Does she go to work by bike?

- Yes, she does. / No, she doesn't.

c. 特殊疑问句:疑问词+一般疑问句。如:How does your father go to work?

D.主语是单三人称,谓语动词的变化规则:

1.一般情况下,直接加-s,如:cook-cooks, milk-milks

2.以s. x. sh. ch. o结尾,加-es,如:guess-guesses, wash-washes, watch-watches, go-goes

3.以“辅音字母+y”结尾,变y为i, 再加-es,如:study-studies

即时练习巩固

(一) 写出下列动词的第三人称单数

drink ________ go _______ stay ________ make ________

look _________ have_______ pass_______ carry ____

come________ watch______ plant_______ fly ________

study_______ brush________ do_________ teach_______

(二)用括号内动词的适当形式填空。 1. He often ________(have) dinner at home. 2. Daniel and Tommy _______(be) in Class One. 3. We _______(not watch) TV on Monday. 4. Nick _______(not go) to the zoo on Sunday. 5. ______ they ________(like) the World Cup? 6. What _______they often _______(do) on Saturdays? 7. _______ your parents _______(read) newspapers every day? 8. The girl _______(teach) us English on Sundays. 9. She and I ________(take) a walk together every evening. 10. There ________(be) some water in the bottle. 11. Mike _______(like) cooking. 12. They _______(have) the same hobby. 13. My aunt _______(look) after her baby carefully. 14. You always _______(do) your homework well. 15. I _______(be) ill. I’m staying in bed. 16. She _______(go) to school from Monday to Friday. 17. Liu Tao _______(do) not like PE. 18. The child often _______(watch) TV in the evening. 19. Su Hai and Su Yang _______(have) eight lessons this term. 20. -What day _______(be) it today?

- It’s Saturday.

三、按照要求改写句子

1. Daniel watches TV every evening.(改为否定句)

___________________________________________________

2. I do my homework every day.(改为一般疑问句,作否定回答) ________________________________________________________

3. She likes milk.(改为一般疑问句,作肯定回答)

___________________________

4. Amy likes playing computer games.(改为一般疑问句,作否定回答) ___________________________________________________

5. We go to school every morning.(改为否定句)

_______________________________________________________

6. He speaks English very well.(改为否定句)

___________________________________________________

7. I like taking photos in the park.(对划线部分提问)

________________________________________________________

8. John comes from Canada.(对划线部分提问)

___________________________________________________

9. She is always a good student.(改为一般疑问句,作否定回答) ________________________________________________________

10. Simon and Daniel like going skating.(改为否定句)

___________________________________________________

二.现在进行时的基本用法

1.现在进行时表示现在正在进行或发生的动作,也可表示当前一段时间内的活动或现阶段正在进行的动作。

2.现在进行时的肯定句基本结构为be+动词ing.

3.现在进行时的否定句在be后加not。

4.现在进行时的一般疑问句把be动词调到句首。

5.现在进行时的特殊疑问的基本结构为:

疑问词 + be + 主语 + 动词ing?

但疑问词当主语时其结构为:

疑问词 + be + 动词ing?

动词加ing的变化规则

1.一般情况下,直接加ing,如:cook-cooking

2.以不发音的e结尾,去e加ing,如:make-making, taste-tasting

3.如果末尾是一个元音字母和一个辅音字母,双写末尾的辅音字母,再加ing,如:run-running, stop-stopping

即时练习巩固

写出下列动词的现在分词:

play________ run__________ swim _________make__________

go_________ like________ write________ _ski___________

read________ have_________ sing ________ dance_________

put_________ see________ buy _________ love____________

live_______ take_________ come ________ get_________

stop_________ sit ________ begin________ shop___________

三.一般过去时的基本用法:

1 、表示过去某个时间发生的动作或情况(包括习惯性的动作或状态)

e.g. When did you read the novel?

She often came to help us in those days.

2 、谈到过去的情况时

e.g. I didn`t know you were so busy.

3 、谈到已死人的情况时

Lei Feng was a great communist fighter.

与这个时态连用的时间状语常有:

yesterday, last night, the other day, two months ago, in 1985, then, just now,

when, after, as soon as 引导的时间状语从句,表示主句动作开始的时间。

四.现在完成时的基本用法:

1 、表示到现在为止这一时期中发生的动作或情况,即多次动作的总和。

We have learnt four English songs this month.

How many times have you read the novel?

For many days we haven`t seen each other.

2 、表示对现在有影响的某一已发生的动作。

The delegation has left 代表团已经走了(说明现在不在这里)

Look, what you have done. 看你干的事。

与这一时态连用的时间状语有:

already, yet, just, ever, never, by now, so far, recently, by the end of this month, since, for 短语,连词 since 引导的时间状语从句。

附:一般过去时与现在完成时的区别:

一般过去时:重在说明动作在过去发生时的具体情况(时间、地点、方式、对象、细节等)。

现在完成时:只提起已发生的动作(事实)及其影响,不说明动作发生时的具体情况。 Have you had your lunch?

What did you have for lunch?

I have ever been to the Great Wall,_and_I went there last summer with my father. 注:现在完成时表达的动作常具有反复性,故下面一句是错的:

Have you seen the six thirty`s news program?

应改为:

Did you see the six thirty`s news program?

五.过去进行时的基本用法

表示过去某个时刻或阶段正在进行的动作。

e.g. At that time she was working in a PLA unit.

那时她在解放军某部工作。

What were you doing this time yesterday?

与这个时态连用的时间状语常用:

at nine o`clock, this time last night, these days, at that time 等。

用 when 引导的时间状语从句表示主句的动作正在进行的时间。

e.g. When he came in, I was reading a newspaper.

注:

1 .while 引导时间状语从句叙述过去的动作时,从句常用过去进行时。

e.g. I read a magazine while I was waiting for the bus.

2 .when 用作并列连词,意为"这时",连接两分句时,第一句多用过去进行时。 e.g. I was reading a newspaper when he came in.

一般过去时与过去进行时的区别:

一般过去时:强调过去某一时间开始或完成的动作。

过去进行时:强调过去某一时间正在进行的动作。

试区别下面两句: We were building a reservoir last winter.

去年冬天我们在修建一座水库。(可能尚未建成) We built a reservoir last winter. 去年冬天我们修建了一座水库。(已经建成)

六.一般将来时的基本用法

1.概念:

表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态及打算、计划或准备做某事。句中一般有以下时间状语:tomorrow, next day(week, month, year…),soon, the day after tomorrow(后天)等。

2.基本结构:

①be going to + do;

②will+ do.

3.否定句:

在be动词(am, is, are)后加not或情态动词will后加not成won’t。

例如:I’m going to have a picnic this afternoon.→ I’m not going to have a picnic this afternoon.

4.一般疑问句:

be或will提到句首,some改为any, and改为or,第一二人称互换。

例如:We are going to go on an outing this weekend. → Are you going to go on an outing this weekend?

5.对划线部分提问。

一般情况,一般将来时的对划线部分提问有三种情况。

1. 问人。Who

例如:I’m going to New York soon. →Who’s going to New York soon.

2. 问干什么。What … Do.

例如: My father is going to watch a race with me this

afternoon. →What is your father going to do with you this afternoon.

3. 问什么时候。When.

例如:She’s going to go to bed at nine. →When is she going

to bed?

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