例: The bell is ringing now.(一般)
There goes the bell! (高级)
例: People suggest that the conference be put off.(一般)
It is suggested that the conference be put off. (高级)
例: He is so kind that he can help me.(一般)
He is so kind as to help me.(高级)
例: ①She walked out of the lab and many students followed her.(一般)
Followed by many students, she walked out of the lab.(高级)
②Once it is seen, it can never be forgotten.(一般)
Once seen, it can never be forgotten.(高级)
例: ①When he arrives, please give me an e-mail.(一般)
On arriving/his arrival, please give me an e-mail.(高级)
②If the weather permits, I’ll come tomorrow.(一般)
I’ll come tomorrow, weather permitting.(高级)
③You work hard. You will succeed.（一般）
Working hard, you will succeed.（高级）
例: ①It disappointed everybody that he didn’t turn up.(一般)
The fact that he didn’t turn up disappointed everybody.(高级)
②I happened to have met him.(一般)
It happened that I had met him.(高级)
③To his surprise, the little girl knows so many things.(一般)
What surprises him is that the little girl knows so many things.(高级)
例:The girl is spoken highly of. Her composition was well written. (一般) 龙文教育网址www.longwenedu.com 1
The girl whose composition was well written is spoken highly of. (高级)
例: ①I won’t believe what he says.(一般)
No matter what he says, I won’t believe. (高级)
②If you come back before six o’clock, you can go out.(一般)
You can go out on condition that (provided that) you come back before
Six o’clock. (高级)
③If she doesn’t agree, what shall we do?(一般)
Supposing that she doesn’t agree, what shall we do?(高级)
It is ??that (who)?
（1）．Only 改成no one but
Only Tom passed the exam last week. → No one but Tom passed the exam.
（2）．have sb/sth do/done
The girl was knocked off her bicycle and had her leg broken
The girl was knocked off her bicycle and her leg was broken.
① However, they suggest fees should be charged low. →
They suggest, however, fees should be charged low.
② I think this is a good chance for you to show your singing talent, and how well you’ve learned Chinese.
This is a good chance for you, I think, to show your singing talent, and how well you’ve learned Chinese.
Meimei, who is seven years old, has been learning to ride a bicycle for several days.→
Meimei, a girl of thirteen, has been learning to ride a bicycle for several days.
We always working till late at night before taking exams。(误)
We are always working /We always work till late at night before taking exams(正)
We should read books may be useful to us. (误)
We should read books which may be useful to us. (正)
This test is end, but there is another test is waiting for you. (误)
One test ends, but another is waiting for you. (正)
The driver of the red car was died on the spot. (误)
The driver of the red car died on the spot. (正)
My sister go to the cinema at least once a week. (误)
My sister goes to the cinema at least once a week. (正)
I was walking along the road, and there are not so many cars on the street. (误)
I was walking along the road and there were not so many vehicles on the street. (正)
We have little time to read some books which we interest. (误)
We have little time to read some books in which we are interested. (正)
I am a student who has studying in the college for two years. (误)
I have been studying in the college for two years(正)
It is my point that reading must be selectively. (误)
In my opinion, reading must be selective. (正)
Honest is so important for everyperson. (误)
Honesty is so important for everyone. (正)
The old man was hit by a car when he across the street. (误)
The old man was hit by a car when he was crossing the street. (正)
There are different opinions among people as to ____ .Some people suggest that ____.
There is an old saying______. Its the experience of our forefathers，however，it is correct in many cases even today.
Today, ____, which have brought a lot of harms in our daily life. First, ____Second, ____. What makes things worse is that______.
Nowadays，it is common to ______. Many people like ______ because ______. Besides，______.
Everything has two sides and ______ is not an exception，it has both advantages and disadvantages.
People’s opinions about ______ vary from person to person. Some people say that ______.To them, _____.
Man is now facing a big problem ______ which is becoming more and more serious.
______ has become a hot topic among people，especially among the young and heated debates are right on their way.
______ has been playing an increasingly important role in our day-to-day life. It has brought us a lot of benefits but has created some serious problems as well.
According to the figure/number/statistics/percentages in the /chart/bar graph/line/graph，it can be seen
that______ while. Obviously，______，but why?
On the contrary，there are some people in favor of ___.At the same time，they say____.
But I don’t think it is a very good way to solve ____.For example，____.Worst of all，___.
3.……对我们国家的发展和建设是必不可少的，（也是）非常重要的。首先，……。而且……，最重要的是…… ______is necessary and important to our country’s development and construction. First，______.What’s more, _____.Most important of all,______.
There are several measures for us to adopt. First, we can______
Confronted with______，we should take a series of effective measures to______. For one thing，______For another，______
It is high time that something was done about it. For example, _____.In addition, _____. All these measures will certainly______.
Why______? The first reason is that ______.The second reason is ______.The third is ______.For all this, the main cause of ______due to ______.
However, just like everything has both its good and bad sides, ______also has its own disadvantages, such as ______.
Nonetheless, I believe that ______is more advantageous.
I fully agree with the statement that ______ because______.
误：It hit the old man down but the driver, a woman, didn’t stop her car. Finding she had caused an accident, the woman sped her car to flee away. The old man and I saw the car’s number. It’s AC864. The old man couldn’t move , I decided to help him.
正：It hit the old man down but the driver, who was a woman, didn’t stop her car. Finding she had caused an accident, the woman sped her car to flee away. Fortunately, I saw the car’s number. It’s AC864. Noticing the old
man couldn’t move, I decided to help him.
修改前：A famous sportsman was giving a speech which was rather interesting.
修改后：A famous sportsman was giving an interesting speech.
修改前: Nowadays, some people are still cutting down trees without permission. The air pollution is becoming more and more serious which is caused by buses and cars. What’s more, so many rivers are polluted by dirty water which is from factory. In addition, sandstorm struck us now and then, from which we suffered a lot.
中小学个性化辅导专家 修改后: Nowadays, some people are still cutting down trees without permission. As a result, people have to suffer sandstorms now and then. What’s more, as buses and cars give off a lot of poisonous gases, the air is getting dirtier and dirtier. Moreover, there are many rivers polluted by dirty water from factories. The situation is becoming more and more serious.
修改前： As soon as came in, we heard some voice made by instruments. There were some students playing piano violin and so on .
修改后： As soon as we came in, we heard a piece of beautiful music played by the students by different instruments, such as, piano, violin and so on.
修改前： Yesterday, there was a policeman in the street. He stopped a car. The car was at the corner. It looked like a Honda. There was a boy on the sidewalk. He was riding his bicycle. The bicycle was a two-wheeler. The car nearly knocked down the boy.
修改后： Yesterday, a policeman stopped a car—Honda at the corner of the street, because it nearly knocked down a boy who was riding a two-wheel bicycle on the sidewalk.
修改前： Suddenly, a car run quickly from the third street and turned to the west. The car didn’t stop and hit the old man. The driver didn’t stop and have a look. The car ran away quickly. The car was yellow and the driver was a woman.
修改后： Suddenly, a car turned west from the 3rd Street to the Park Road. It hit the old man, but it didn’t stop and ran away quickly. I noticed the car was yellow and the driver was a woman.
? on my way to…/home
? on the east side of the river
? in the northeast of China
? to the west of the city
by the side of the road
December 7 Monday Fine
I went out to see a film after supper. On my way to the cinema I met an American friend Mr Ford, who had lost his way. I immediately decided to give up the chance to see the film and take Mr Ford to his hotel. On the way I told him something about my English study and asked him some questions on grammar.
Mr Ford answered my questions patiently and gave me some useful advice on how to learn English well. I not only helped Mr Ford get out of trouble, but also practised my spoken English. I felt very happy indeed.
所谓三段式作文法，就是要求考生根据所给材料的题材和体裁，合乎逻辑地采用三个段落的形式展开写作的一种方法。很多体裁的文章都可采用三段式作文法写作，尤其是议论文。近年来，不少自主命题地区的书面表达题都是观点对比型的议论文，而对于这类议论性质的文章，采用三段式作文法很必要，第一段提出 龙文教育网址www.longwenedu.com 5
一篇文章的开头写得好，自然会给阅卷者留下美好的印象，这往往是获得高分的基础。写作首段时常用的句式有：It is believed that...It is widely accepted that...As is known to us all...A survey conducted by...shows that...
中间拓展段是文章的主体，写作此段时，考生必须紧紧围绕主题展开，不能涉及那些与主题无关的内容。写作此段时常用的语句和短语有：Every coin has two sides; in the same way；on the contrary；have different ideas on；on the one hand，on the other hand；meanwhile；however；as a result，etc.。
一个好的结尾往往会起到画龙点睛的作用。结尾段的写法很多：可以对前文几种观点发表看法，明确表明自己的态度和立场；可以引用名人名言或格言总结全文；也可以回到开头段提出的中心论点上，达到再次肯定和强调的效果；同时，也可以对某一观点提出疑问，留给读者无限的遐想空间。写作结尾段时常用的短语有：in one's opinion；in brief；to sum up；in other words；in conclusion；in short；in summary，etc.。
把要点按照时间先后，空间顺序，逻辑关系，因果关系整理，加以适当调整，加入过渡词来串句成文。 龙文教育网址www.longwenedu.com 6
Eg 1. He works hard. He is not likely to have a successful career. He will still be a useful person in the society.
He works hard, but he is not likely to have a successful career. However, he will still be a useful person in the society.
Eg 2. Because he helped me in time, I passed the exam.
Thanks to his timely help, I passed the exam.
As a result of his timely help, I passed the exam.
He helped me in time, as a result, I passed the exam.
1.John is clever, diligent and polite, ___in other words , he is a good student.
2.Lucy is 12 and Lily is 11,___ that is____, Lucy is one year older than Lily.
3.He is a good master ___because_____ he treats his servants well.
4.You must work harder, _or__ you will be put into another class.
5.He is poor, but_he is contented.
6.Some people waste food___while_____others don’t have enough.
Radio and television can be seen everywhere. _but__ the TV set is more useful than the radio __because____on TV you can see and hear what is happening in the world. _However__, radio is not disappearing. It is still with us. __And__the number of listeners is becoming larger. _After __ the transistor(晶体管) has been invented, a transistor radio is sometimes _ so small _that__it is easy to carry. You can put it in your pocket and listen to it on the bus or on your bike when you go to work. _Besides __, radio broadcasts are better for blind people. _And_ many old people don’t have good eyesight. They can’t watch TV, ___but__they can listen to music or news over the radio.
___What’s more___, radio is much cheaper than a TV set.
1. 因为他充分利用时间学习英语， 所以顺利通过高考。
Because he made good use of his time to learn English, he passed the college entrance exam.
He has many friends, none of whom are rich.
Having lost his key, he couldn’t enter the room.
Li ping is my friend and I like him very much.
1.Xiao Ming was walking in the street__when____ he heard someone cry for help.
2. He advised that I hire a car ___in order that______I could travel around in the west .
3. It was not long __before___ the police came .
4._ As soon as __he heard the cry for help, he jumped into the water to save the girl.
5. Do you agree with my arrangement ? ___If not/so____, do write to me soon.
6. We can go downtown and do some shopping. _In addition____, we can pay a visit to some places of interest.
7. I shared the cost of the gas with my friends .__ As a result____, I saved $80.
8. Eating sugar is bad for our teeth. __What’s worse____ , it may make us fat.
1. It disappointed everybody that he didn’t turn up. (一般)
The fact that he didn’t turn up disappointed everybody. (高级)
2，I happened to have met him. (一般)
It happened that I had met him. (高级)
3.To his surprise, the little girl knows so many things. (一般)
What surprised him is that the girl…. (高级)
I won’t believe what he says. (一般)
No matter what he says, I won’t believe. (高级)
If you come back before six o’clock, you can go out. (一般)
You can go out on condition that you come back before…. (高级)
The meal was very nice. We all enjoyed it very much.
The meal was so nice that we all…. (高级)
The girl is spoken highly of. Her composition was well written. (一般)
The girl whose composition was well written was spoken highly of. (高级)
I studied Chinese, maths, English, physics, chemistry and computer at school. (一般)
The subjects I studied at school included Chinese, maths, English…. (高级)
The ship didn’t sink because there were the efforts of the captain. (一般)
But for the efforts of the captain, the ship would have sunk. (高级)
I wasn’t invited to the party, so I didn’t attend it. (一般)
If I had been invited to the party, I would have attended it. (高级)
Regular radio broadcasts began in 1920
It was not until 1920 that regular radio…. (高级)
Though I’m weak, I will make the effort.
Weak as I am, I’ll make the effort. (高级)
We were glad to see the crops and vegetables growing very well. (一般)
How glad we were to see the crops and...! (高级)
When he spoke, he felt more and more excited. (一般)
The more he spoke, the more excited he felt. (高级)
I got up late this morning. I didn’t catch the early bus. (一般)
I got up late this morning, otherwise I could have caught the early bus. (高级)
3. A good idea occurred to me. A good idea suddenly struck me.
4. Books are free for the students there. The plan turned out to be a failure. sorrow.
she went pale with sorrow. Our school is made up of twenty–six classrooms
You’ll have no trouble finding my house.
表原因：reasons(for), causes (of) 表概括、总结: conclusion
表方式、方法：means (of), way(to do/of doing ), method(of..), solution(to doing),
表建议：advice, suggestion, tip 表态度、观点：attitude (to/towards..), opinion(on/about….) 表用途、功能：function
表步骤、过程：procedure, process 表异同：difference, similarity
表影响：effect/influence/impact (on…) 表结果、后果：result, consequence
表措施：measure/step (sb take) 表定义：definition
表利弊：advantage, disadvantage 表数量：amount(不可数名词), number(可数名词)
1. Without Vitamin B, we could be weak and would not grow fast.
The problems caused by lack of vitamin B are ___________ and slow growth.
2. He thanked all the Member States for placing confidence in him.
3. As far as I can remember, my friends and I didn’t find out we were depressed until we were in high school. We never experienced _____________ when we were in childhood.
4. Participants also said they slept better, had more energy, felt less pain and had fewer food appetites on the
….and they slept better, therefore they were more and less painful.
5. As we all know, if someone wants to pass this exam, he ought to prepare for it well.
Good _____________ is key to passing the exam.
6. Pulitzer left the university 2 million in his will, which led to the creation in 1912 of the Colunbia university Graduate School of Journalism.
In 1912, he helped to _________ the the Colunbia university Graduate School of Journalism.
1. If you look from another angle, the Olympic hosting might bring about some side effects to a city.
Drawbacks may be ______________ about as well.
To some certain degree, Olympic hosting might _______________a city.
2. Involve the school in taking actions on cyberbullying.
Get your child’s school _______________.
1. It can help you reduce anger. 2. Yet you should still be able to work. Let your arms move freely while you walk. 龙文教育网址www.longwenedu.com 9
中小学个性化辅导专家 Walk with your arms ______________ freely.
3. Skin color is also affected by another source-vitamin D.
Vitamin D is another source ____________ skin color.
1. Some research has shown that perhaps 80% of all human illnesses are related to diet and 40% of cancer is related to diet as well.
Diet is _____________ with most of the illnesses and some of cancer. In the night of that first
2.The New York Times said, “ The moonwalk that he made famous is a proper metaphor for his dance style. The New York Times thought the moonwalk was an _________ way to describe his dance style.
3. You should make a list of what you want before you go shopping
____________down what you need before going shopping
Do you know why people living in particular areas usually have a certain color?
People living in a particular __________ usually have the same skin color.
一、解题步骤：一般根据题目特点，可分为以下三步： 1）略读—快速浏览抓住文章中心大意以及文章的结构(借助所给图表结构）。 2）细读—带着问题，找到文章对应点，确认题型，分析整理归纳信息并且准确表达信息。 3）复读—复读文章，反复揣摩所填之词是否符合文章内容，其拼写是否正确。
二、解题技巧： 1.信息查找题: 解题关键是根据问题查找定位信息。常用方法是带着问题有意识地在关键处做标记。如：（1）5W and 1H：who, what ,when, where ,why ,how（2）时间先后: first , then , after ,that , next, finally
（3）因果:because , thus , lead to, cause, as a result （4）比较:similarly, differently（5）转折：but, while, however, instead, on the contrary 2.信息转换题
①.原文：be responsible for your own learning...（2008江苏高考题） 转换成表格中：Take（76）_________ for one’s own learning.
②.Positive，negative，and neutral messages that you receive from others all play a role in determining who you are．（2009江苏高考题） 转换成表格中：Messages from others help you(73) who you are．
③. communication involves others in the sense that a competent communicator considers what the other person needs and expects when selecting messages to share．（2009江苏高考题） 转换成表格中：Needs and(74) of others should be considered．
④. With all the information available, it's not surprising that people can feel confused.（09安徽）转换成表格中：There is a lot job information on-line, but too much of it may sometimes be ⑤. Regularly updated, the Handbook is available as a book and on-line. （2009安徽高考题） 转换成表格中：The information is updated in a (78)________ manner.
⑥. You can also learn how to apply for jobs. 转换成表格中：Its vast resources include ways of job (79)_______. （2009安徽高考题）
⑦. It's worth taking the time and finding as much information as you can. （2009安徽高考题） 转换成表格中：The time you spend and the efforts you make will be (85)_________.
①.原文：But every day we experience the centrality of our selves in communication． 转换成表格中：we are always(71) ▲ in communication with others．
②.原文：we are constantly providing behaviors that have communicative value for them． 转换成表格中：We are constantly(78) ▲ meanings by what we do．
③. 原文：Your second experience with a similar setting and person made far different results． 转换成表格中：Yon may redo the conversation，but you(80) ▲ achieve the same results． 3.上覆盖栏内信息；针对性，量体裁衣，大小适度；醒目性，简洁。 常见概括性词有：原因：reason, cause；结果：result, effect；目的：aim, purpose；方法：measure, ；观点：opinion, view, attitude；异同：differences, similarities；优劣：advantages, disadvantages；其它：time, purpose, behavior, feeling。
【随 堂 练 习】
Every year there are hundreds of earthquakes in different parts of the world. In Sept.1923, Tokyo and
Yokohama were both destroyed by an earthquake and the fires that followed it. They had to be completely rebuilt. One of the most serious earthquakes was in China’s Shanxi Province in 1556. It killed almost one million people.
We measure an earthquake’s strength on the Richter scale. The Richter scale was introduced in 1935 in
Southern California in the USA. It measures earthquakes on a scale of one to ten. Any earthquake measuring five or more is usually serious.
The earth’s crust (地壳) is made up of layers of rock called plates. As these plates move, they sometimes crash against each other, causing the crust to quake. In cities such as Tokyo, where small quakes happen quite often, many modern buildings are designed to be flexible so when the earth moves, they move with it.
Earthquakes can also break up gas or oil pipes. This can cause fires to break out, which can do as much damage as the earthquake itself.
Another effect of earthquakes is tsunamis (海啸). These are huge waves created by earthquakes beneath the sea. They can be many metres high and cause great damage to coastal towns and cities.