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自编英语构词法

发布时间:2014-02-13 10:55:06  

高中英语构词法

英语构词法是英语成为国际语言的要素之一.掌握一定的构词法知识可以帮助我们轻便、快捷、有效地扩大词汇量,同时也有利于提高”任务型读写”答题的正确率。下面重点介绍派生法。

一.前缀常见的前缀有如下:

1.dis-

disadvantage, disabled, disagree, discover,dislike,discourage,disappear,disorder,discount.

2.in-

incorrect,inability,inaccurate ,independent,indirect,informal

3.im-

impossible,impolite,impatient,imperfect

4.un-

unfinished,undoubted,unemployment,unhealthy,unlike,unequal,unfair,unfortunately,unhappy,unlucky

uncommon,unfinished.

5.non-

non-somker,non-stop

6.mis-

misunderstand,misjudge,mislead,misfortune

7.fore-

forehaed,foreground,foreman,foresee,foretell

8.post-

post-war,post-position,post-reading

9.re-

refuel,retranslate,rewrite,reconstruct,return,rebuild,recycle,reunite,,reform

10.co-

co-exist,co-operate,co-education

11.inter-

interchangeble,interdependert,international,interperasonal

12 super-

super-star,supermaket,superhero

13.tele-

telegram,telephone,telescope,televison

14.en-,

enable,endear,enjoy,endagerous,encourge,ensure

二.后缀.后缀是一种重要的构词法,通过后缀我们常常可以判断出一个词的词性。下面分四大类分别讲解一些常见后缀及其含义:

1. -eer,-er(or)visitor, engineer, driver,teacher,director,actor,professor

2.-ess:actress,poetess,hostess,paintress

3.-hood: boyhood,childhood,manhood,brotherhood,neighbourhood,

4.-ship:leadership,friendship,membership,citizenship,sportsmanship

5.-tion,-ion:action,oppression,possession,education,starvation, organization

foundation,discussion,realization,imagination,traslation.

6.-ment:movement,development,epuipment,statement

7.-ness:happiness, usefulness,selfishness,selfishlessness,kindness,illness,laziness,business, carelessness,

8.-ist:artist,scientist,physicist,pianist.

9.-ify:beautify,simplify

10.-ize;-en:modernize,popularize,realize,widen,heighten,threaten

11.-ful:useful,beautiful,hopeful,helpful,forgetful,thankful, fearful ,careful,joyful,respectful.

12.-less:speechless,childless,harmless,hopeless,meaningless,useless,fearless,helpless,homeless,selfisless.

13.-able: changeable, comfortable,affordable,unforgetable,respectable,

14.-ed:worried,surprised,disappointed,married,seated,excited,interested

15. –ing: worring,surprising,disappointing,exciting,interesting.

16.-al:cultural,personal,regional,musical,natural,national,logical,typical

17.-ous:glorious, dangerous,famous,poisnous,various,generous

18.-ive:attractive, talkative,restrictive,defensive,preventive,constructive,sensitive,respective.

19.-ly :happily, sadly,unfortunatly,carefully,beautifully,successfully,generally,wonderfully.

20.-ward(s):upward,forward,downward,,backward(s),westward

三.巩固练习

1. That man was ________enough not to tell the manager that he would not do the job.

A. care B. careful C. careless D. carelessness

2. The soldier died for saving the child,so his________ is heavier than Mount Tai.

A. die B. dead C. died D. death

3. The child looked ________at his brother who was badly wounded.

A. sadly B. sadness C. sadely D. sad

4. He is an expert at chemistry. We all call him a ________.

A. chemistry B. chemical

C. chemist D. physician

5.The three- ________chair isn’t suitable for a young child. He may fall off.

A. legging B. legged C. legs D. leged

6. Stephenson became the________railway engineer in the world.

A. lead B. leader C. leading D. leadership

7.When the teacher praised him for working out the maths problem,Jack looked________about at his classmates.

A. proud B. proudly C. pride D. pridely

8.To everyone’s ________,the girl finished the job quite well.

A. satisfied B. satisfactory C. satisfying D. satisfaction

9.—What are you doing here?

—Oh,my teacher asked me to write a passage about ________in English.

—You can write________passage in English?

A. 600 words;a 600-words

B. 600-word;a 600-words

C. 600 words;a 600-word

D. 600 words;a 600-words

10. No one should enter the spot without the________of the police.

A. permit B. permission

C. permitting D. permittance

11. You must come with us to the police ________.Our head is waiting for you.

A. headquarters B. headline C. headmaster D. headache

12.Letting that animal escape was no accident;you did it ________.

A. intend B. intention C. intentionally D. intentional

13. The shop owner welcomed all the guests with a________smile.

A. practice B.practise C. practical D. practiced

14. The________ordered him to pay a $100 fine.

A. judger B. judgment C. judge D. judgement

15. My TV is out of order. Can you tell me what is the________news about Iraq War?

A. lately B. latest C. later D. latter

16. The Great Wall is more than 6000 li in ________.

A. longer B. length C. long D. longing

17.To my ________,I passed the exam easily.

A. joy B. joyful C. joyless D. joyness

18. Canada is mainly an________country.

A. English-speaking B. speak-English

C. spoken-English D. English-spoken

19. How________ he is! He is always acting________.He is really a ________.

A. foolish;foolishly;fool B. fool;foolish;fool

C. foolish;fool;fool D. foolishly;foolish;fool

20. The necklace that she lost is very expensive. It’s of great ________.

A. valuable B.value C. valueless D. unvaluable

21. There were________fish in the river in South America.

A. in danger B. danger C. dangerous D. endangered

22.The letter ―b‖ in the word ―doubt‖ is________.

A. sound B. silent C. silence D. sounded

23. The child looked at me________.

A. stranger B. strangely C. strange D. strange less

24.The black people were against slavery and fought for their________bravely.

A. free B. freely C. freedom D. frees

25. What you said sounded________ but in fact it was untrue.

A. reasonable B.reasonful C. reasonless D. unreason

26. We have to learn ________technology from other countries.

A. advance B. advancing C. advantage D. advanced

27. The children live in a village ________.They come here almost every day.

A. nearby B. near C. nearly D. near by

28.Mr Black is an ___in the army,not an ____in the government. You can not easily find him in his________.

A. official;officer;office B. officer;office;official

C. official;official;official D. officer;official;office

29.You’d better give up smoking if you want to keep ________.

A. health B. healthy C. healthily D. healthier

30.________ speaking,I didn’t do it on purpose.

A. Honestly B. Honest C. Honesty D. Dishonest

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