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在线阅读2单元课文Mortimer

发布时间:2014-03-08 12:03:02  

Born December 28, 1902 in New York 莫蒂默1902年12月28日生于纽约市移City to immigrants Ignatz and 民家庭。他的父母纳兹和克拉丽莎. 阿德Clarissa Adler, a jewelry salesman, 勒分别是珠宝推销员和学校的老师。年轻and a schoolteacher, respectively, 的莫蒂默14岁时就高中辍学。 他在纽约young Mortimer was a high school 太阳报担任秘书工作 ,负责复印。他希drop-out at age 14. He went to work 望成为一名记者。 他开始在哥伦比亚大as a copy boy and secretary at the New 学读夜校,学习如何写好文章。 York Sun newspaper where he hoped to

become a journalist. He began

taking night classes at Columbia

University to learn how to write well.

At Columbia he read the 在哥伦比亚,他阅读了英国哲学家约翰.autobiography of the English 斯图亚特.密尔的自传。 密尔三岁时会读philosopher John Stuart Mill. 希腊文,5岁时已读希腊式的柏拉图对Adler was impressed to read that Mill 话,这给阿德勒留下了深刻印象,而那时could read Greek at the age of 3 and 阿德勒甚至不知道柏拉图是谁。 因此,had read the dialogues of Plato in 15岁时,阿德勒买了柏拉图系列书籍,Greek at the age of 5, yet Adler did 从此终身爱上了哲学以及西方思想传统。 not even know who Plato was. So at 阿德勒留在了哥伦比亚大学,并获得了奖15 Adler bought a set of Plato and 学金。 他享誉古典界,尤其是哲学界,began a lifelong love of philosophy 并被授予了哥伦比亚大学哲学博士学位,and the Western intellectual 尽管他没有学士学位。 约翰.默里.库迪tradition. Adler stayed on at 在他书中评述道,阿德勒是“美国唯一一Columbia and received a scholarship. 个没有学士学位和硕士学位的哲学博士,His reputation in the 他甚至没有高中文凭。” 60年后,哥伦classics---particularly in 比亚态度转变,于1983年的毕业典礼上philosophy---became so great that he 授予他学士学位,阿德勒高兴地出席了毕was awarded a doctorate in philosophy 业典礼。

by Columbia even though he had no

bachelor's degree. John Murray

Cuddihy wrote in a book review that

Adler was "the only Ph.D. in America

with no B.A., no M.A., not even a high

school diploma." Columbia later

relented and awarded him a bachelor's

degree sixty years later, in 1983, in

a graduation ceremony Adler joyfully

attended.

Adler became a teacher of 阿德勒成为哥伦比亚大学的心理学老师,psychology at Columbia, but found his 却发现他的主要兴趣是对名著进行讨论,interest was mainly in leading 即古典著作。 他是“整体荣誉班”的学discussions in the great books---the 生,教授这个班的是伊丽莎白时代文学老

classics. He was a student in the 师兼作家的约翰.厄斯金教授。 厄斯金让General Honor's class initiated by 他的学生每周读一本书,为期两年。 数Professor John Erskine, an 年后,在罗伯特.赫钦斯的课程描述中,Elizabethan literature teacher and 阿德勒用“伟大的著作”来描述他的课程author. Erskine had his students 和书籍。 这个名字被卡住了,一般是指专read one book a week over a two-year 门研究从古典到现代的西方古典学。 period. A few years later, in 1901年在伯克利分校,就有一个早期的describing the course to Robert 由查尔斯M.盖利提出的“名著”课程,Hutchins, Adler used the phrase 但却由阿德勒(与赫钦斯)让这句名言流"great books course" to describe both 行开来。

the course and the books. The name

stuck, and is commonly used to refer

to courses that are devoted

exclusively to the study of the great

classics of the West, from the

classical to the modern. There had

been an earlier "great books" course

given by Charles M. Gayley in 1901 at

Berkeley, but it was Adler (and

Hutchins) who popularized the phrase.

At Columbia Adler was influenced by 在哥伦比亚,阿德勒受到厄斯金和约翰.Erskine and John Dewey, the 杜威的影响,杜威教授实用主义哲学,但pragmatist philosopher who taught 尤其给他最大影响的还是那些巨著本身。 there, but most especially by the 总之,通过他的阅读,阿德勒的老师们成great books themselves. In short, 为了古典作家。 比起任何一位在世的老through his reading, Adler's teachers 师们,阿德勒受亚里士多德和阿奎那的影became the authors of the classics. 响更大,阿德勒成了绝对的和普遍的真理Thus influenced more by the thought 和价值的信奉者,所以他反对杜威的科学of Aristotle and Aquinas than by any 方法是所有思想的卓越基础这一观点。 living teacher, Adler became a 阿德勒写道,杜威的实用主义导致道德和believer in absolute and universal 智力的混乱,这种结果在学校蔓延。 truths and values, and so came to

fight against Dewey's view that the

scientific method is the preeminent

foundation for all thought. Adler

wrote that Dewey's pragmatism results

in moral and intellectual chaos,

which was spreading into the schools.

His earliest work---Dialectic 他的最早的著作(1927)---辩证法---(1927)---was a summation of the great 是西方文明伟大的哲学和宗教思想的总philosophical and religious ideas of 结。 这一巨著的作者有关这些观点的对Western civilization. The dialogue 话帮助他整合了他的发现。 阿德勒随后

of the authors of the great books 评论道:在这一著作中,他把哲学混淆成concerning these ideas then helped 辩证,以致有关哲学观点的讨论,缺少结him integrate his discoveries. 论,对于他来说,这些讨论就是哲学本身Adler later remarked that in this work (他写道,他的哲学仅是“可能范围内的he confused philosophy with 理论思考,而不是试图陈述有关现实世界dialectic, so that discussion about 中的事实。”),他随后改正了这一错误。 philosophical ideas, short of any

conclusions, was for him philosophy

itself (he made philosophy, he wrote,

merely "a consideration of theories

in the realm of the possible, rather

than an attempt to state truths about

the actual world."), an error he later

corrected.

Adler enlarged Erskine's basic idea 阿德勒扩展了厄斯金的把阅读多样的领of bringing together various fields 域综合起来的基本观点,阿德勒把其观点for reading, into a broader view 带入一个包括科学,文学,宗教,历史更including the sciences, literature, 宽广的范围 (所有的知识领域),成为一religion, history---all fields of 个伟大的教育经验。 他和其他人在所有knowledge---into one great 的人类知识的领域中仔细地挑选了名著,educational experience. He and 得出了一个完整的阅读和研讨的总课程。 others thoughtfully selected the 这些课程越来越多地被划分成截然不同great books in all areas of human 的、看似不相关的专业知识领域,然后通knowledge that were already connected 过一门课程被整合成一个整体,即名著项into a great dialogue (by means of 目。 阿德勒写道:“一门课程本身就是references, quotations, or 一所大学,即,一种开放的教育的整体或refutations among them), yielding a 当然是开放教育的核心。 不仅仅是我们complete reading and discussion 阅读的书籍,也有一些讨论,即,有关重curriculum. What had become more 要主题的高度平民化的对话及精神世界and more compartmentalized into 的探询。”

distinct and seemingly unrelated

fields of specialized knowledge, was

integrated into a whole, by one

course/curriculum---the great books

program. Adler wrote of this, "that

one course was a college in

itself---the whole of a liberal

education or certainly the core of it.

Not just the books we read, but the

discussions---highly civil

conversations about important themes

and in a spirit of inquiry."

Adler thus became the great 在教育上,阿德勒因此成为一个伟大的综synthesist in education, bringing 合者,他把西方天才们的看似很多松散的what had seemed many loose threads of 线索综合起来成为一条清晰的思路。 就Western genius together into one 这条思路可能指引人们通向哪里或是在rope. Yet by withholding his 哪儿终止而言,他并没有讲出自己的思conclusions as to where the rope might 路,而是让他的学生做出他们自己的结lead, or end, he invited students to 论,要得出结论,他们只能依次研究并讨form their own conclusions, which 论每条线索。 和苏格拉底一样,他想让they could only do by studying and 他的学生们自己得出结论,基于他们共同discussing each thread in turn. 从名著中挑选出的文章做辩证讨论。 通Like Socrates, he wanted students to 过使用辩证法,对于他的学生们,阿德勒draw out conclusions themselves, in 的目标是让学生们理解他们自己的结论,dialectical discussion based on their 而不仅仅是记住老师的结论。 阿德勒写concurrent readings of selections 道:“我们会很快忘记我们记住的东西,from the great books. Through the 但是我们永远不会忘记通过理解记忆的use of the dialectic his goal was for 东西。 一种推论是阿德勒公开反对学校students to understand their own 的测试狂热,这样做只是把学生记忆的东conclusions--- not merely to memorize 西(通常是填鸭式的方式)通过测验来衡his. Adler wrote that what we 量,然后他们很快会忘记。” memorize we can soon forget, but what

we understand we never forget. One

corollary is that Adler decried the

testing mania of our schools, which

measure what students memorize (often

in cramming sessions), disgorge onto

tests, and then soon forget.

Adler's talent for 阿德勒对于多学科的组织和整合天赋在multi-disciplinary organization and 他随后的职业生涯中起了很大的作用,使synthesis marked a large part of his 得他成为众多套书的主编的自然人选。 subsequent career, and made him the 他发明的西方大观念10,即对名著中102natural choice to be editor of 个伟大思想所做的主题索引,体现了他的numerous sets of books. The 技能。 他真的能消化掉比他所理解的更Syntopicon 10, which he invented, a 多的东西,他认为这需要花费一年的时topical index to the 102 Great Ideas 间。 而这最终需要一个30个编索引的人preeminent in the Great Books, 及60个文员组成的团队花费十年的时间pressed his skills. He really bit 来完成,并要花费100万美元,这在当时off more than he could chew in the one 看来是一个天文数字。 当然,要不是因year he thought it would take to 为Adler超强的分析技能的话,这是不可complete. It finally took a staff 想象的。

of thirty indexers and sixty clerical

helpers ten years to complete, at the

then-astronomical cost of one million

dollars. This, of course, would not

have been possible had he not also

powerful analytical skills.

He had many co-workers in his 他有许多志同道合者,包括诗人马克凡多labors, including the poet Mark Van 伦,但其中最突出的一个是鲍勃.哈钦斯。 Doren, but the one that stands out the 阿德勒说服最近被任命为芝加哥大学校most is Bob Hutchins. Adler 长的哈钦斯,让他认为自己是没有受过正convinced Hutchins, who had recently 规教育的。 哈钦斯很谦虚地接受这项评been named president of the 价,要求阿德勒帮助他,并邀请他到芝加University of Chicago, that Hutchins 哥,开始共同研究和合作名著讨论小组。 was uneducated. Hutchins was 这项计划遇到顽强的抵抗,但哈钦斯仍然humble enough to accept that judgment 致力于这项课程,并逐渐有了影响。 不and asked Adler to help him, invited 管是哥伦比亚大学,还是芝加哥,伟大的him to Chicago, and began the joint 著作跟教育靠拢,在打击仍然占主导地位study and co-moderating of great 的“进步”的教育观中开始取得进展。 books discussion groups there, with

Adler. The program met stiff

resistance, but Hutchins remained

committed to the course which

gradually made an impact. From both

Columbia and Chicago the great books

approach to education began to make

inroads against the still-dominant

"progressive" view of education.

The publication of the huge 1940年阿德勒写的畅销书《如何阅读》,bestseller How To Read A Book by Adler (仍然在重印)使他家喻户晓。 1952年in 1940 (still in print) made him a 出版的大英百科全书,由阿德勒,哈钦斯,household word across the country. 等共同出版。这本书推动了古典运动进入The publication of the Britannica 美国寻常人家。 在50年代中期,年销售Great Books set in 1952, put together 量达到近5万套,并最终售出100万套。 by Adler, Hutchins, et al., advanced 因此,这项课程成为教育改革运动:是伟the classical movement into the homes 大的作品和西方文明思想的回归。 阿德of average Americans. In the 勒立刻成为美国卖弄学问的教师,特别是mid-1950s, sales reached nearly 教育机构攻击与辱骂的对象。 但至少从50,000 sets per year and 1 million 20世纪50年代,当古典著作在全美正回sets were eventually sold. Thus a 归课堂和国内时,阿德勒的名望在上升,course became a curriculum, which 使他赢得了“哲学超级推销员”和“西方became a movement for educational 思想的阿特拉斯。” 1977年哈钦斯去世reform: a return to the great works 后,莫蒂默J.艾德勒成为伟大的著作运and ideas of Western civilization. 动的代名词。

Adler became at once America's

reigning pedagogue as well as the

object of attack and scorn,

particularly by the educational

establishment. But at least

through the 1950s, Adler was in the

ascent as the classics were returning

to classrooms and homes across

America earning him the titles "super

salesman of philosophy" and "the

Charles Atlas of Western

Intellection." After the death of

Hutchins in 1977, one name became

synonymous with the great books

movement: Mortimer J. Adler.

Adler said at the time that "the 阿德勒当时说:“人类智慧的低估,是我underestimation of the human 们这个时代最严重的罪过。” 他看到他intelligence is the worst sin of our 在哲学恢复中的任务“让它在我们的文化time." He saw his task as the 中处于适当位置。” 关于现代哲学,阿restoration of philosophy "to its 德勒说,“在大多数情况下,20世纪是proper place in our culture." 一个相对主义,怀疑主义,主观主义猖獗Regarding modern philosophy, Adler 的时代,这些就是我主要反对的。 当笛said that "the twentieth century, for 卡尔和洛克范致力于‘困扰着现代思想的the most part, is an age in which 罪恶,’时,现代哲学开局并不好,他们relativism, skepticism, and 忽略了亚里士多德。”

subjectivism are rampant, and that's

what I'm mainly fighting against.

Modern philosophy got off to a bad

start when Descartes and Locke

committed the 'besetting sin of

modern thought', they ignored

Aristotle."

After Hutchins left Chicago, two 哈钦斯离开芝加哥后,发生了两件事情:things happened: the faculty at 芝加哥教师很大程度上把综合伟大的书Chicago largely tossed the integrated 籍的做法抛到了九霄云外;并且,赫钦斯great books approach overboard; and 帮助阿德勒筹集资金启动了哲学研究所。 Hutchins helped Adler raise the funds 前者激起了现代哲学系,教育部门和固守to initiate the Institute for 陈规的“进步的”教师组织反对古典巨著Philosophical Research. The former 复兴运动。 阿德勒写道,最终他们成功event stimulated the reaction of the 地粉碎了“在60年代中后期中的一般反modern philosophy departments, 传统,反追溯的气氛”的改革。 另一个education departments and entrenched 变化是,阿德勒更注重把他的哲学探索深"progressive" teachers' 化到极限境界。 由此产生了有关伟大思organizations against the great books 想的书籍,自由,正义,爱,美,幸福,

classical revival. Ultimately they 真理,宗教,上帝 -- 这些他要么自己写succeeded in crushing the reform "in 了,要么为研究所编辑。

the generally iconoclastic and

anti-retrospective atmosphere of the

middle and late sixties" as Adler

wrote. The other change was that

Adler focused more and more on

deepening his philosophical

inquiries into the realms of the

ultimate. Out came books on the

great ideas, freedom, justice, love,

beauty, happiness, truth, religion,

God---which he either wrote or edited

for the Institute.

Along with being the father of four 作为四个儿子的父亲,阿德勒资助创立了sons, Adler also helped found the 世界名著基金会,阿斯彭学会,及和别人Great Books Foundation, the Aspen 共同创办的伟大理念研究中心,致力于推Institute, and co-founded the Center 进他的教育和哲学思想。 同样,在1982for the Study of the Great Ideas, in 年,阿德勒和由教育工作者组成的小组出efforts to advance his educational 版了Paideia提议:这是阿德勒推进其改and philosophical ideas. Likewise, 革教育思想所做的教育宣言,主要通过把in 1982 Adler and a group composed 苏格拉底法(质疑和讨论组)及教学法和mostly of educators, published The 教学技能指令模式引进到学校,年级的高Paideia Proposal: An Educational 低不同,对苏格拉底法的侧重点也不一Manifesto to advance his ideas on 样。 不管在哪儿采取他的意见后,明显reforming education, principally by 的成果是:改善了教育环境,学术技能和introducing the Socratic method 参与进来的学生和教师的理解力。 不幸("questioning and discussion 的是,尽管美国教育机构在稳步地降低考groups") into the schools alongside 核标准,但改革的阻力已长期在美国的教the didactic ("lecturing") and skills 育机构存在。

instruction ("coaching") modes of

teaching, with emphasis on the

Socratic method increasing with grade

levels. Wherever his advice was

followed, the fruits were evident in

the improved educational

environment, academic skills and

understanding of the students and

teachers involved. Unfortunately,

the resistance to reform had long

since galvanized in American

educational institutions, despite

their steadily declining

performance.

He also promoted the idea that a 他还提出一个普遍的教育思想:一个全面generalized education, such as the 的教育,如名著和Paideia,应该推迟到great books and Paideia proposals 高中及在他们成功地完成了课程后授予provide, ought to be pushed back down 文学学士学位(BA),在16岁左右。 他into the high schools and a Bachelor 认为,教育的第三层次---学院或大学水of Arts degree awarded upon 平,应该在个人选择的领域进行专业化,successful completion of that 同时在学者社区内进行跨学科的意见交program, at age 16 or so. He 流。 他认为,在所有领域中,教师们应maintained that the third level of 该继续推行这种普遍的教育思想,因为作education---the college or 为专业学者,教师们应该成为学生的典university level---ought to be 范。 因此,他会废除所有的专业化的“师largely for specialization in one's 范院校”和教育学院。

chosen area, with some

interdisciplinary cross

fertilization of ideas in a community

of scholars. Teachers, he

believed, should continue a

generalized education since they are

to be exemplars for their students as

professional "learners," in all

areas. He would, therefore,

abolish all specialized "teachers'

colleges" and colleges of education.

No longer writing books, Adler told 艾德勒不再写书,他告诉笔者,他很高兴this writer that he was pleased his 他的想法正被传播至国内的学校运动,在ideas were now being disseminated 他的著作中存在着大量的材料来推进他into the home school movement and that 的教育思想。 事实上,通过长期的教育there exists plenty of material in his 生涯,阿德勒博士教育的重点首先是帮助writings to advance his educational 那些体制外的教育环境。 产生这种现象ideas there. Indeed, throughout 的部分原因源自于“进步的”教育机构改his long educational career, Dr. 革的阻力,部分原因是阿德勒自己作为一Adler focused first on helping 个自学成才的高中辍学生的经历;部分则educate those outside of the 来自他的信念和长期经验,在学校不可能institutional educational 获得一个完整的教育---作为终生工作environment. This stems partly ---那些认为他们能够培养出受到完整教from the resistance of the 育的年轻人的教师们并不明白这些年轻"progressive" educational 人不过仅是受到部分教育。 他说到60establishment to reform; partly to 岁左右,他最终就智慧的占有有了一些看Adler's own experience as a 法。 无论多大年纪,没有人说阿德勒应self-educated high school drop-out; 该停止学习。 他采取了自己的建议。

and partly from his belief and long experience that a complete education could not possibly be obtained in schools---being the work of a lifetime---and that teachers who thought they could produce

fully-educated young people did not understand that they too were merely partially-educated learners. He wrote that only by about age 60 had he finally some claim on the possession of wisdom. No one, no matter how old, says Adler, should stop learning. He has taken his own advice.

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