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pep小学英语名词知识总复习

发布时间:2014-06-29 14:03:37  

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名词 (Nouns)

名词是指表示人和事物名称的词,可以分为专有名词和普通名词两大类。

1、专有名词:特定的人、地方、机构等专有的名称,多为独一无二的事物。第一个字母通常要大写,前面一般不加冠词(a an the)。

e.g. Jim Green, New York, Bank of China,Peking University

星期、月份、节日、学科、报刊名也是专有名词。

e.g. Monday,May,Christmas,Spring Festival,Maths,China Daily

2、普通名词:表示一类人或物或抽象概念的名称。普通名词又可以分为四类: 个体名词—— 表示某类人或东西中的个体,如:student , desk 集体名词—— 表示若干个体组成的集合体,如:class , family 物质名词—— 表示无法分为个体的物质名称,如:water , rice , sand,hair 抽象名词—— 表示情感,状态,品质等抽象名称,如:love ,carelessness

个体名词和集体名词多数可以用数目来计算,称为可数名词,有单、复数形式;

物质名词和抽象名词通常无法用数目计算,称为不可数名词,一般只有一种形式。

注 意:

1集体名词被看作一个整体时,表达单数概念。 e.g. His family was well known in the town. 他家在镇里是名门望族。

2集体名词被看作若干个体的集合时,表达复数概念。 e.g. His family are waiting for him. 她的家人正在等他。

3集体名词表达多个集体时,也有复数形式。 e.g. Our village is made up of 300 families. 我们村有300户人家。

练习题

圈出下列单词中的不可数名词

peach ink water zoo sister coffee knife snow ice tea orange fridge jeep rain wind car teacher music ear cola watermelon cherry juice shirt car cooker

3、可数名词复数形式的构成规则:

① 一般名词在末尾直接加s,清辅音后读/ s /,浊辅音和元音后读/ z / e.g. book-books, bag-bags, cat-cats, bed-beds

② 以s、x、sh、ch结尾,加es,读/ ?z /

e.g. bus-buses, box-boxes,brush-brushes,watch-watches

③ 以辅音字母+y结尾,变y为i,再加es, 读/ z /

e.g. baby-babies, library-libraries,factory-factories

④ 以f或fe结尾,变f或fe为v,再加es,读/ vz /

e.g. thief-thieves,knife-knives

⑤ 以o结尾,表示无生命的物体时加s, 表示有生命的物体时,加es,都读/ z / e.g. photo-photos, piano-pianos, radio-radios, zoo-zoos

potato-potatoes,tomato-tomatoes,mango-mangoes,hero-heroes

⑥ 不规则变化

e.g. man-men woman-women policeman-policemen

chil-children mouse-mice ox-oxen

foot-feet tooth-teeth goose-geese

fish-fish sheep-sheep deer-deer

▲ fish表示鱼的数量时,单复数同形;表示鱼的种类时,复数为fishes. e.g. My cat had two fish for lunch. You can see a lot of different fishes in the lake.

4、不可数名词

不可数名词一般只有原形,没有复数形式,但是可以借助量词表示一定的数量。如果表达两个或两个以上的概念时,量词需要用复数形式,不可数名词不变。

e.g. a bottle of water ,a cup of coffee,two glasses of milk ,five bags of rice

▲ 这种形式用于可数名词时,量词和可数名词都要用复数。

e.g. ten baskets of eggs

5、既可用作可数,又可用作不可数的名词:

不可数

glass 玻璃

paper 纸

iron 铁

wood 木头

beauty 美

room 空间

可数 a glass 一只玻璃杯 a paper 一份报纸、论文、文件 a iron 一个熨斗 a wood 一片森林 a beauty 一个美人 a room 一个房间

练习题

一. 写出下列名词的复数形式

1.watch__________ 2.class__________ 3.shelf__________

4.dog__________ 5.dish__________ 6.child__________

7.nurse__________ 8.desk__________ 9.boy__________

10.baby__________ 11.tooth_________ 12.eye__________

13.sheep_________ 14.tomato_______ 15.library_________

16.goose_________ 17.photo________ 18.telephone_________

1. dress- 2. box- 3. match-

4. mouth- 5. tomato-

6. radio- 7. family-

8. city- 9. baby- 10. photo-

11. day- 12. key- 13. life-

14. knife- 15. man- 16. sheep-

17. foot- 18. child- 19. zoo-

20. American- 21. German-

学生教案

22. class- 23. potato-

24. country- 25. story-

26. Frenchman- 27. Indian-

28. party- 29. way- 30. leaf-

二. 填入所给名词的适当形式

1. We have three________(pen).

2. This is an __________(apple).

3. Where is the__________(pencil)?

4. There is a little __________ in the bottle(juice).

5. Are you a __________(driver)? Yes, I am.

6. There are a few __________(watch)on the desk.

7. Many__________(shelf)are in our school library.

8. He has some__________(ink).

9. The__________(girl)in red is Mary.

10. How many__________(people)are there in your family? Three.

三. 将下列名词按所给例词的词义属性归类

school pineapple panda jacket peach cat pen library hat trousers ruler

classroom lemon dress tiger playground ink eraser shirt elephant ballpoint–pen computer room deer pencil-case snake shorts socks

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6、名词所有格

第 5 页 共 7 页

学生教案 ① 在英语中,有些名词可以加’s来表示所有关系,带这种词尾的名词形式称为该名词的所有格。大多数表示有生命的东西。

e.g. Tom’s book

② 如果复数名词末尾已有s,就直接加 ’ 。

e.g. the teachers’ office

③ 如果一些物品为两者共有,只需在后一个名词后加’s ;

如果为各自所有,则需在每个名词后加’s。

e.g. Lucy and Lily’s bedroom.(Lucy 和 Lily共用一个卧室)

Lucy’s and Lily’s bedrooms.(Lucy 和 Lily分别拥有各自的卧室)

④ 表示无生命的物体的名词所有格,一般与of短语连用。

e.g. a map of the world ,a photo of my family

⑤ 双重所有格:把of所有格和’s所有格结合在一起表示所有关系。

e.g. a friend of my father’s

练习题

一、 选择题

( )1.There is __________on the table.

a) Plate B.a plate C.plates

( )2.I can see many __________in the garden.

A.flowers B.a flower C.flowers

( )3.The_____on the hills are all white.

A.sheep B.sheeps C.dog

( )4.These new_____are for you.

A.skirt B.shoe C.shirts

( )5.The clock has three______

A.legs B.leg C.faces

( )6.They are not in the same_______.

A.class B.classes C.familys

( )7.Is this your_____?

A.a key B.keys C.key

( )8.They are having_____.

A.a class B.English class C.Chinese class

( )9.There are so many _____in the hall.

A.peoples B.people C.a people

( )10.The_____has some nice pictures.

第 6 页 共 7 页

学生教案

A.boys B.teachers C.child

( )11.The_____are dancing at the party.

A.woman B.women C.man

( )12.The _____are in Room408.

A.student B.a student C.students

( )13.Who’s that_____? She’s my mother.

A.man B.woman C.women

( )14.The_____are catching the thief.

A.policeman B.policemen C.policemans

( )15.There are new _____in my schoolbag.

A.knife B.knifes C.knives

( )16._____jacket is it? May be it’s_____.

A.Who’s;Toms B.What;Tom’s C.Whose;Tom’s

( )17.The books are the_____.

A.teachers’ B.teachers C.teacher

( )18.There are a lot of children in the park on_____Day.

A.children B.Children’s C.Childrens’

( )19.Is it the twins’ bedroom? Yes,it is. It’s_____bedroom.

A.Ann and Anna’s B.Ann’s and Anna’s C.Ann and Anna

( )20.That is _____dog.

A.Tom’s B.Toms C.Tom

( )21._____coats are very pretty.

A.Jim and Tim’s B.Jim’s and Tim’s C.Jim and Tim

( )22.They are going to their_____home for dinner.

A.uncles B.uncle C.uncle’s

( )23.The big room is_____.

A.the twin’s B.twins’ C.the twins’

( )24.March 8th is_____.

A.Woman’s Day B.Womans’ Day C.Women’s Day

二、英汉互译。

1.一位美国医生____________ 2.许多绵羊___________

3.不同的季节____________ 4.一杯牛奶_____________

5.凯特的家庭照__________ 6.my uncle’s friend___________

7.her cat’s name____________ 8.the doors of the classroom_______

9.the twins’ mother_________ 10.Lucy and Kate’s bedroom______

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