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英语词汇学_Unit_03_Word_fromation_2

发布时间:2014-07-04 14:20:09  

English Lexicology Unit 3

Word formation 2

Contents
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Abbreviation (shortening)
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Clipping Initialism Acronym Blending Aphesis

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Back-formation Onomatopoeia Words from Proper Names Exercises

Clipping
(shortening a word or words by leaving out letters or syllables)
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apocope (back clipped)
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dorm(itory), disco(theque), expo(sition), gas(oline), hi(gh)fi(delity), memo(randum), rep(resentative), (violon)cello, bus, cab, phone, flu, fridge fossil(iz)ation, pacif(ic)ist gov't (government), can’t

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aphaeresis (front clipped)
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front and back clipped
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syncope (middle clipped, contraction)
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Clipping
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Clipping in phrases:
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daily (paper), finals (final examinations) IOU (I owe you), informal

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Clipping in style
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Changes needed in clipping for the sake of sound
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bike (bicycle), coke (Coca-Cola),

Initialism—General
(the use of initialization in words where each letter is pronounced)
CPPCC (the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference) D.J. (disc jockey) GDP (Gross Domestic Product) GNP (Gross National Product) CPI (consumer price index) IOC (International Olympic Committee) BBC, ABC, NBC, CBS, CNN, AP c/o =care of P.S. =postscript RSVP=Reponde s’il vous plait

Initialism—IT
AGP ← Accelerate Graphics Processor AI ← Artificial Intelligence BBS ← Bulletin Board System CAD ← Computer-Aided Design CAI ← Computer-Assisted Instruction CD ← Compact Disk CPU ← Central Processing Unit DPI ← Dots Per Inch FTP ← File Transfer Protocol HTTP ← Hypertext Transfer Protocol IC ← Integrate circuit IP ← Internet Protocol LCD ← Liquid Crystal Display LED ← light-emitting diode OS ← Operating System PPM ← Pages Per Minute USB ←Universal Serial Bus VGA ← Video Graphics Array

Initialism—Web-chatting
ASAP AAMOF (as a matter of fact) BTW BBL (be back later) BRB (be right back) CU (see you) CUL (see you later) FE (for example) FTF (face to face) FYI (for your information) IC (I see) IMO (in my opinion) IOW (in other words) LOL (laughing out loudly) OIC (Oh, I see) TIA (Thanks in advance) TTUL (Talk to you later) TY (Thank you) VG (very good)

Initialism—Compound
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E-school = electronic school(网络学校) E-tail = electronic retail(电子零售); H-bomb = hydrogen bomb(氢弹) V-day = victory day(胜利日) U-boat = undersea boat(潜艇)

Acronym
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(words derived from the initials of several words, pronounced as a word, not as a list of letters)
APEC ← Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (亚太经济合作 组织) ASEAN ← the Association for South-East Asian Nations(东 南亚国家联盟) NATO ← the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (北大西洋公 约组织) UNESCO ← the United Nations Education, Science and Culture Organization(联合国教科文组织) laser ← light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation (激光) ROM

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