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小学英语语法精讲要点及习题

发布时间:2013-10-02 10:29:04  

小学英语语法精讲要点及习题

班级:_________________ 姓名:__________________

一、名词复数规则

1.一般情况下,直接加-s, 如:book-books, bag-bags, cat-cats, bed-beds

2.以s. x. sh. ch结尾,加-es,如:bus-buses, box-boxes, brush-brushes, watch-watches

3.以“辅音字母+y”结尾,变y为i, 再加-es,如:family-families, strawberry-strawberries

4.以“f或fe”结尾,变f或fe为v, 再加-es,如:knife-knives

5.不规则名词复数:

man-men, woman-women, policeman-policemen, policewoman-policewomen, mouse-mice child-children foot-feet,. tooth-teeth fish-fish, people-people, Chinese-Chinese, Japanese-Japanese

练习: 写出下列各词的复数

I _________ him _________ this ___________ her ______

watch (手表)_______ child _______ picture ________ diary(日记) ______

day________ foot________ book_______ dress ________

tooth_______ sheep ______ box________ strawberry _____

wolf_______ fish______ peach(桃子)______ sandwich ______

man______ woman_______ paper_______ juice___________

water________ milk________ rice__________ tea__________

二、一般现在时

一般现在时基本用法介绍

【No. 1】一般现在时的功能

1.表示事物或人物的特征、状态。如:The sky is blue.天空是蓝色的。

2.表示经常性或习惯性的动作。如:I get up at six every day.我每天六点起床。

3.表示客观现实。如:The earth goes around the sun.地球绕着太阳转。

一般现在时的构成

1. be动词:主语+be(am,is,are)+其它。如:

I am a boy.我是一个男孩。

2.行为动词:主语+行为动词(+其它)。如:

We study English.我们学习英语。

当主语为第三人称单数(he, she,it)时,要在动词后加"-s"或"-es"。如:Mary likes Chinese.

一般现在时的变化

1. be动词的变化。

否定句:主语+ be + not +其它。

如:He is not a worker.他不是工人。

一般疑问句:Be +主语+其它。

如:-Are you a student?

-Yes. I am. / No, I'm not.

特殊疑问句:疑问词+一般疑问句。如:Where is my bike?

2.行为动词的变化。

否定句:主语+ don't( doesn't ) +动词原形(+其它)。如:

I don't like bread.

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当主语为第三人称单数时,要用doesn't构成否定句。如:

He doesn't often play.

一般疑问句:Do( Does ) +主语+动词原形+其它。如:

- Do you often(经常) play football?

- Yes, I do. / No, I don't.

当主语为第三人称单数时,要用does构成一般疑问句。如:

- Does she go to work by bike?

- Yes, she does. / No, she doesn't.

特殊疑问句:疑问词+一般疑问句。如:How does your father go to work?

动词+s的变化规则

1.一般情况下,直接加-s, 如:run-runs, write-writes, read- reads

2.以s. x. sh. ch. o结尾,加-es, 如:guess-guesses, wash-washes, watch-watches, go-goes

3.以“辅音字母+y”结尾,变y为i, 再加-es,如:study-studies

一般现在时用法专练:

一、 写出下列动词的第三人称单数

drink ________ go _________ stay ________ make ________ look _________ have_______ pass_______ carry ________ come________ watch______ plant_______ fly __________ eat_______ brush________ do_________ teach________

二、用括号内动词的适当形式填空。

1. He often ________ (have) supper at home.

2. Daniel and Tommy _______ (be) in Class One.

(not watch) TV on Monday.

____ (not go) to the zoo on Sunday.

5. ______ they ________ (like) the World Cup?

6. What _______they often _______ (do) on Saturdays?

7. _______ your parents _______ (read) newspapers every day?

8. The girl _______ (teach) us English on Sundays.

9. She and I ________ (take) a walk together every evening.

10. There ________ (be) some water in the bottle.

11. Mike _______ (like) running.

12. They _______ (have) the same English teacher.

13. My aunt _______ (look) after her baby carefully.

14. You always _______ (do) your homework well.

15. I _______ (be) ill. I’m staying in bed.

16. She _______ (go) to school from Monday to Friday.

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17. Liu Tao _______ (do) not like PE.

18. The child often _______ (watch) TV in the evening.

19. Su Hai and Su Yang _______ (have) eight lessons this term.

20. -What day _______ (be) it today?- It’s Saturday.

三、按照要求改写句子

1. Daniel watches TV every evening.(改为否定句)

___________________________________________________

2. I do my homework every day.(改为一般疑问句,作否定回答)

________________________________________________________

3. She likes milk.(改为一般疑问句,作肯定回答)

___________________________

4. Amy likes playing computer games.(改为一般疑问句,作否定回答)

___________________________________________________

5. We go to school every morning.(改为否定句)

_______________________________________________________

6. He speaks English very well.(改为否定句)

___________________________________________________ 对划线部分提问)

________________________________________________________ 对划线部分提问)

___________________________________________________

9. She is always a good student.(改为一般疑问句,作否定回答)

________________________________________________________

10. Simon and Daniel like going skating.(改为否定句)

___________________________________________________

三、现在进行时

1.现在进行时表示现在正在进行或发生的动作,也可表示当前一段时间内的活动或现阶段正在进行的动作。

2.现在进行时的肯定句基本结构为be+动词ing.

3.现在进行时的否定句在be后加not。

4.现在进行时的一般疑问句把be动词调到句首。

5.现在进行时的特殊疑问的基本结构为:

疑问词不达意 + be + 主语 + 动词ing?

但疑问词当主语时其结构为:

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疑问词不达意 + be + 动词ing?

动词加ing的变化规则

1.一般情况下,直接加ing, 如:cook-cooking

2.以不发音的e结尾,去e加ing,如:make-making, taste-tasting

3.如果末尾是一个元音字母和一个辅音字母,双写末尾的辅音字母,再加ing,如:run-running, stop-stopping

现在进行时专项练习:

一、写出下列动词的现在分词:

play________ run__________ swim _________ make__________

go_________ like________ write________ _ ski___________

read________ have_________ sing ________ dance_________

put_________ see________ buy _________ love____________

live_______ take_________ come ________ get_________

stop_________ sit ________ begin________ shop___________

二、用所给的动词的正确形式填空:

1.The boy __________________ ( draw)a picture now.

2. Listen .Some girls _______________ ( sing)in the classroom .

3. My mother _________________ ( cook )some nice food now.

4. What _____ you ______ ( do ) now?

5. Look . They _______________( have) an English lesson .

6.They ____________(not ,water) the flowers now.

7.Look! the girls ________________(dance )in the classroom .

8.What is our granddaughter doing? She _________(listen ) to music.

9. It’s 5 o’clock now. We _____________(have)supper now

10.______Helen____________(wash )clothes? Yes ,she is .

三、句型转换:

1. They are doing housework .(分别改成一般疑问句和否定句)

_____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

2.The students are cleaning the classroom . ( 改一般疑问句并作肯定和否定回答)

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

3.I’对划线部分进行提问)

_________________________________________________________________

4.对划线部分进行提问)

四、将来时理论及练习

一、概念:表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态及打算、计划或准备做某事。句中一般有以下时间状语:tomorrow, next day(week, month, year?),soon, the day after tomorrow(后天)等。

二、基本结构:①be going to + do;

②will+ do.

三、否定句:在be动词(am, is, are)l后加not或情态动词will后加not成won’t.

例如:I’m going to have a picnic this afternoon.→ I’m not going to have a picnic this afternoon.

四、一般疑问句: be或will提到句首,some改为any, and改为or,第一二人称互换。

例如:We are going to go on an outing this weekend. → Are you going to go on an outing this weekend?

五、对划线部分提问。一般情况,一般将来时的对划线部分有三种情况。

1. 问人。Who 例如:I’m going to New York soon. →Who’s going to New York soon.

2. 问干什么。What ? do.例如: My father is going to watch a race with me this

afternoon. →What is your father going to do with you this afternoon.

3. 问什么时候。When.例如:She’s going to go to bed at nine. →When is she going

to bed?

六、同义句:be going to = will

I am going to go swimming tomorrow(明天). = I will go swimming tomorrow.

练习:

一、填空。

1. 我打算明天和朋友去野炊。

I_____ _______ _________ have a picnic with my friends.

I ________ have a picnic with my friends.

2. 下个星期一你打算去干嘛? 我想去打篮球。

What ________ ________ _________ _________ _________ next Monday?

I _______ ______ _____ play basketball.

What _________ you do next Monday? I ________ play basketball.

3. 你妈妈这个周末去购物吗?是,她要去买一些水果。

_____ your mother _______ ________ go shopping this ___________?

Yes, she _________. She ______ ________ __________ buy some fruit.

4. 你们打算什么时候见面。

What time _______ you _________ __________ meet?

二、改句子。

5. Nancy is going to go camping.(改否定) Nancy ________ going to go camping.

6. I’ll go and join them.(改否定) I _______ go ______ join them.

7. I’m going to get up at 6:30 tomorrow.(改一般疑问句)

________ _______ ________ to get up at 6:30 tomorrow?

8. We will meet at the bus stop at 10:30.(改一般疑问句)

_______ ________ meet at the bus stop at 10:30.

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(对划线部分提问)

________ _______ she ________ ________ _________ after school?

10. My father and mother are going to see a play the day after tomorrow.(同上)

_________ _________ going to see a play the day after tomorrow.

三、用所给词的适当形式填空。

11. Today is a sunny day. We ___________________ (have) a picnic this afternoon.

12. My brother _______________ (go) to Shanghai next week.

13.Tom often ______________(go) to school on foot. But today is rain. He ______________ (go) to school by bike.

14.What do you usually do at weekends? I usually __________ (watch) TV and ____________(catch) insects?

15. It’s Friday today. What _____she _________ (do) this weekend? She ______________ (watch) TV and _____________ (catch) insects.

16.What ___________ (d0) you do last Sunday? I ____________ (pick) apples on a farm. What ______________ (do) next Sunday? I ______________ (milk) cows.

17.Mary ____________ (visit) her grandparents tomorrow.

18. Liu Tao ____________ (fly) kites in the playground yesterday.

19. David ______________ (give) a puppet show next Monday.

20. I ________________ (plan) for my study now

五、一般过去时

1.一般过去时表示过去某个时间发生的动作或存在的状态,常和表示过去的时间状语连用。一般过去时也表示过去经常或反复发生的动作感谢。

2.Be动词在一般过去时中的变化:

⑴am 和is在一般过去时中变为was。(was not=wasn’t)

⑵are在一般过去时中变为were。(were not=weren’t)

⑶带有was或were的句子,其否定、疑问的变化和is, am, are一样,即否定句在was或were后加not,一般疑问句把was或were调到句首。

3.句中没有be动词的一般过去时的句子

否定句:didn’t +动词原形,如:Jim didn’t go home yesterday.

一般疑问句:在句首加did,句子中的动词过去式变回原形。

如:Did Jim go home yesterday?

特殊疑问句:⑴疑问词+did+主语+动词原形?

如: What did Jim do yesterday?

⑵疑问词当主语时:疑问词+动词过去式?

如:Who went to home yesterday?

动词过去式变化规则:

1.一般在动词末尾加-ed,如:pull-pulled, cook-cooked

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2.结尾是e加d,如:taste-tasted

3.末尾只有一个元音字母和一个辅音字母的重读闭音节,应双写末尾的辅音字母,再加-ed,如:stop-stopped

4.以“辅音字母+y”结尾的,变y为i, 再加-ed,如:study-studied

5.不规则动词过去式:

am,is-was, are-were, do-did, see-saw, say-said, give-gave, get-got, go-went, come-came, have-had, eat-ate, take-took, run-ran, sing-sang, put-put, fly-flew,

make-made, read-read, write-wrote, draw-drew, drink-drank, ride-rode, speak-spoke, sweep-swept, swim-swam, sit-sat

过去时练习

一、写出下列动词的过去式

is\am_________ fly_______ plant________ are ________

drink_________ play_______ go________ make _____ ___

does_________ dance________ worry________ ask _____

taste_________ eat__________ draw________ put ______

throw________ kick_________ pass_______ do ________

二、用be动词的适当形式填空

1. I ______ (watch) a cartoon on Saturday.

2. Her father _______ (read) a newspaper last night.

3. We _________ to zoo yesterday, we _____ to the park. (go)

4. ______ you _______ (visit) your relatives last Spring Festival?

5. ______ he _______ (fly) a kite on Sunday? Yes, he ______.

6. Gao Shan _______ (pull) up carrots last National Day holiday.

7. I ____________ (sweep) the floor yesterday, but my mother ______.

8. ---What ______ she _______ (find) in the garden last morning?

---She __________ (find) a beautiful butterfly.

六、形容词和副词的比较级复习及练习

一、形容词的比较级

1、形容词比较级在句子中的运用:两个事物或人的比较用比较级,比较级后面一般带有单词than。比较级前面可以用more, a little 来修饰表示程度。than后的人称代词用主格(口语中可用宾格)。

2.形容词加er的规则:

⑴一般在词尾加er ;

⑵以字母e 结尾,加r ;

⑶以一个元音字母和一个辅音字母结尾,应双写末尾的辅音字母,再加er ;

⑷以“辅音字母+y”结尾,先把y变i,再加er 。

3.不规则形容词比较级:

good-better, beautiful-more beautiful

二、副词的比较级

1.形容词与副词的区别 (有be用形,有形用be;有动用副,有副用动)

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⑴在句子中形容词一般处于名词之前或be动词之后

⑵副词在句子中最常见的是处于实义动词之后

2.副词比较级的变化规则基本与形容词比较级相同 (不规则变化:well-better, far-farther)

三、练习

一)、写出下列形容词或副词的比较级

old__________ young________ tall_______ long________ short________ strong________ big________ small_______ fat_________ thin__________ heavy______ light________ nice________ good_________ beautiful____________________ high_________ slow_______ fast________ low______

late__________ early_________ far_________ well_______

二)、根据句意填入单词的正确形式:

1. My brother is two years __________(old)than me.

2. Tom is as ________(fat) as Jim.

3. Is your sister __________(young) than you? Yes,she is.

4. Who is ___________(thin),you or Helen? Helen is.

5. Whose pencil-box is __________(big),yours or hers? Hers is.

6. Mary’s hair is as __________(long) as Lucy’s.

7.Ben ______ (jump) ________ (high) than some of the boys in his class.

8.________ Nancy sing __________ (well) than Helen? Yes, she _____.

9.Fangfang is not as _________ (tall) as the other girls.

10.My eyes are __________(big) than ________ (she)..

11.Which is ___________(heavy),the elephant or the pig?

12.Who gets up _________(early),Tim or Tom?

13._____the girls get up_______(early) than the boys?No,they______.

14. Jim runs _____(slow). But Ben runs _____(slow).

15.The child doesn’t______(write) as ____(fast) as the students.

三)、翻译句子:

1、谁比Jim年纪大?是你。

________ is _________than Jim? ________ are

2、谁比David更强壮?是Gao Shan.

________ _________ than David? Gao Shan ________.

3、谁的铅笔更长,他的还是她的?我想是她的。

_________ pencil is _________,______or________?________is,I think.

4、谁的苹果更重,你的姐姐的还是你的弟弟的? 我的弟弟的。

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_________ apples ________ ________,your _______ or your _______? My ____________ ___________.

5、你和你的叔叔一样高吗?是的。

_________ ________as _________as your uncle?Yes,I am.

6、他和他的朋友Jim一样年轻。

He _______ as __________ as ________ ________ Jim.

7、她和她的双胞胎哥哥一样胖吗?不,她比他瘦。

________ ________ as _________ as______ twin _______?

No, _________ _________ than him.

8.Yang Ling每天睡得比SuYang晚。

Yang Ling ________ to _______ ________ than Su Yang every day.

9.我跳得和Mike一样远。

I _________ as _______ as Mike.

10.Tom比你跑得快吗?不是的,他和我跑得一样快。

____ Tom _____ _____ than you?No,he _______. He_____ as_____ as_____.

11.多做运动,你会更强壮。

________ more exercise,you’ll ________ _________ soon.

12.我的科学很好,但是语文不好。

I ______ ________ at Science.But I don’t _________ well in Chinese.

13. 你放风筝比王兵放得高吗?不,我比他放得低。

____you_______the kite_____than Wang bing?No,I______it _____than___.

14.我喜欢游泳。我所有的朋友都游得比我慢。

I like_______.All my______ _______ _______than me.

15.我的姐姐起得比我早。

My_____ _____ up _____than me.

16.女孩比男孩唱得好吗?是的。

____the girls______ ______ ______the boys? Yes,they ____.

17.她不擅长体育。但我跳得没有她高。

She doesn’t ____ _____ in PE. But I don’t ______ _____than_____.

18.你足球踢得比你的同班同学好吗?不,他们踢得和我一样好。

___ you ____football _____than your classmates?No,they____as____as me.

19.我母亲比我父亲年纪小。

My_____ _____ ______than my ______.

20.她的毛衣和我的一样重。

_____sweater_____ as_______as_____.

21.我的连衣裙太短了。我想买一条大点的。

My dress_____ too_____. I want to _____a______one.

22. I'm taller than Mike .(该成用原级的比较)

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I'm _________ as ________ as Mike .

七、There be 句型与have, has的区别

1、There be 句型表示:在某地有某物(或人)

2、在there be 句型中,主语是单数,be 动词用is ; 主语是复数,be 动词用are ; 如有几件物品,be 动词根据最*近be 动词的那个名词决定。

3、there be 句型的否定句在be 动词后加not , 一般疑问句把be 动词调到句首。

4、there be句型与have(has) 的区别:there be 表示在某地有某物(或人);have(has) 表示某人拥有某物。

5、some 和any 在there be 句型中的运用:some 用于肯定句, any 用于否定句或疑问句。

6、and 和or 在there be句型中的运用:and 用于肯定句, or 用于否定句或疑问句。

7、针对数量提问的特殊疑问句的基本结构是:

How many + 名词复数 + are there + 介词短语?

How much + 不可数名词 + is there + 介词短语?

8、针对主语提问的特殊疑问句的基本结构是:

What’s + 介词短语?

No.1Fill in the blank with “have,has”or “there is , there are”.

1. I________a good father and a good mother.

2. ____________a telescope on the desk.

3. He_________a tape-recorder.

4. _____________a basketball in the playground.

5. She__________some dresses.

6. They___________a nice garden.

7. What do you___________?

8. ______________a reading-room in the building?

9. What does Mike___________?

10. ______________any books in the bookcase?

11. My father_________a story-book.

12. _______________a story-book on the table.

13. _______________any flowers in the vase?

14. How many students____________in the classroom?

15. My parents___________some nice pictures.

16. _____________some maps on the wall.

17. ______________a map of the world on the wall.

18. David__________a telescope.

19. David’s friends___________some tents.

20. ______________many children on the hill.

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二、用恰当的be动词填空。

1、There__________a lot of sweets in the box.

2、There__________some milk in the glass.

3、There __________some people under the the big tree.

4、There__________a picture and a map on the wall.

5、There__________a box of rubbers near the books.

6、There__________lots of flowers in our garden last year.

7、There__________a tin of chicken behind the fridge yesterday.

8、There __________ four cups of coffee on the table.

三、用 “ have或 has 填空

1. I_________ a nice puppet. 2. He_________a good friend.

3. They__________ some masks. 4. We___________some flowers.

5. She___________ a duck. 6. My father____________ a new bike.

7. Her mother___________a vase. 8. Our teacher_________ an English book.

9. Our teachers___________a basketball. 10. Their parents___________some blankets

11. Nancy_________many skirts. 12. David__________some jackets.

13. My friends__________a football. 14. What do you__________?

15. What does Mike__________? 16. What do your friends___________?

17. What does Helen___________? 18. His brother________a basketball.

19. Her sister_________a nice doll. 20. Miss Li__________an English book.

八、人称代词和物主代词

1、人称代词主格和宾格的区别:主格通常位于句中第一个动词之前(有时候位于than 之后),宾格一般位于动词或介词之后。

2、物主代词形容词性与名词性的区别:形容词性用时后面一般要带上名词,名词性则单独使用,后面不带名词。

人称代词 物主代词

主格 宾格 形容词性 名词性

我 I me 我的 my mine

你,你们 you you 你的,你们的 your yours

他 he him 他的 his his

她 she her 她的 her hers

它 it it 它的 its its

我们 we us 我们的 our ours

他(她,它)们 they them 他(她,它)们的 their theirs

一、用所给词的适当形式填空

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1. That is not _________ kite. That kite is very small, but _________ is very big. ( I )

2. The dress is _________. Give it to _________. ( she )

3. Is this _________ watch? (you) No, it’s not _________ . ( I )

4. ________is my brother. _______ name is Jack. Look! Those stamps are ________. ( he )

5. _________ dresses are red. (we) What colour are _________? ( you )

6. Here are many dolls, which one is _________ ? ( she )

7. I can find my toy, but where’s _________? ( you )

8. Show _________ your kite, OK? (they)

9. I have a beautiful cat. _________name is Mimi. These cakes are _________. ( it )

10. Are these _______ tickets? No, _______ are not _______. ________ aren’t here. ( they )

11. Shall _________ have a look at that classroom? That is _________ classroom. ( we )

12. _________ is my aunt. Do you know _________ job? _________ a nurse. ( she )

13. That is not _________ camera. _________is at home. ( he )

14. Where are _________? I can’t find _________. Let’s call _________ parents. ( they )

15. Don’t touch _________. _________ not a cat, _________ a tiger!

16. _________ sister is ill. Please go and get _________. ( she )

17. _________ don’t know her name. Would you please tell _________. ( we )

18. So many dogs. Let’s count _________. ( they )

19. I have a lovely brother. _________ is only 3. I like _________ very much. ( he )

20. May I sit beside _________? ( you )

21. Look at that desk. Those book are on _________. ( it )

22.The girl behind _________ is our friend. (she )

九、系动词Be(am, is, are)的用法

一、请记住以下口诀:

我用am,你用are,is连着他,她,它; 单数名词用is,复数名词全用are。

变疑问,往前提,句末问号莫丢弃。 变否定,更容易,be后not莫忘记。

疑问否定任你变,句首大写莫迟疑。

二、Be动词在一般过去时中的变化:

1.am 和is在一般过去时中变为was。(was not = wasn’t)

2.are在一般过去时中变为were。(were not = weren’t)

3.带有was或were的句子,其否定、疑问的变化和am,is, are一样,即否定句在was或were后加not,一般疑问句把was或were调到句首。

相关练习题

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一、用am, is, are 填空

1. I ______ a boy. ______ you a boy? No, I _____ not.

2. The girl______ Jack's sister.

3. The dog _______ tall and fat.

4. The man with big eyes _______ a teacher.

5. ______ your brother in the classroom?

6. Where _____ your mother? She ______ at home.

7. How _______ your father?

8. Mike and Liu Tao ______ at school.

9. Whose dress ______ this?

10. Whose socks ______ they?

11. That ______ my red skirt.

12. Who ______ I ?

13.The jeans ______ on the desk.

14.Here ______ a scarf for you.

15. Here ______ some sweaters for you.

16. The two cups of milk _____ for me.

17. Some tea ______ in the glass.

18. Gao shan's shirt _______ over there.

19. My sister's name ______ Nancy.

20. This ______ not Wang Fang's pencil.

21. ______ David and Helen from England?

22. There ______ a girl in the room.

23. There ______ some apples on the tree.

24. _______ there any kites in the classroom?

25. _______ there any apple juice in the bottle?

26. There _______ some bread on the plate.

27. There _______ a boy, two girls, three men and ten women in the park.

28. You, he and I ______ from China.

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