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小学英语课堂教学案例分析

发布时间:2013-10-07 09:33:21  

小学英语课堂教学案例分析
—任务课堂教学的视角
湖北省教研室 周诗杰 2013年9月

主要内容
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从课堂教学案例的角度
分析总结小学英语课堂需要体现的新课程核心 理念; ? 如何构建以意义为中心的小学英语课堂教学模 式
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三个类型案例:会话、语法和阅读 主要学习方法:
Think ? Pair (Group) ? Share
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案例分析一:对话教学对比分析

Task 1
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Teaching Material:Book V,New Parade
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Unit 2 My Time
Think
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Task
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下面的一段教材,如果按照您平时的授课方式,您一 般会采取怎样的教学方法和步骤呢? 两人一组讨论,小组内达成一个一致的意见。 将讨论的结果与我的案例对比。

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Pair
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Share
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两个不同的教学设计
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一份来自网络的教学设计
来自外教的教学实录

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从教学设计的角度来思考这两节课
教学目标设计

教学策略设计 教学设计 教学过程设计

教学技术设计

学习活动 教学活动设计 评价活动 目标达成评价 过程性评价

教学目标对比分析
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1. 掌握重点词组start a ? Your task today is to start chess club, take care of a new club with your little sister, grocery store, friend. mow the lawn, start piano ? You will be able to: lessons, chess set和句型: I have to… I’m going ? Talk about your schedule to… (your jobs at home (chores), your lessons and 2. 了解Lee的课余作息表。 other things you have to 3. 会运用句型设计成立 do). 各种俱乐部的海报。 ? Make plans. ? Explain.

目标分析
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任何教学在设计以前必须回答的问题是“经过教学 之后学习者将能做哪些他们以前不会做的事?”’或者 “教学之后学习者将会有何变化?”(加涅:《教 学设计原理》)
网络教案的着重点在于教授一些词组和句子,后面 “会运用句型设计成立各种俱乐部的海报”,其实 质是为了巩固所学习的语言知识。第二条“了解 Lee的课余作息表” ,似乎对教材理解有误。 外教课的目标在于做事情:to start a new club with your friend. 所有的语言教学是为了顺利完成这个任务, 而且在完成任务的过程本身之中,来学习语言。

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教学策略设计分析
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教学媒介的选择 教学模式的选择 教学技巧的利用 教学技术的运用 教学评价的设计

语言教学观:

Form-based?
Meaning-based?

Form-based approaches
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… are based on the belief that we need to take great care, at each stage of learning, that learners produce the language accurately. 这种教学法往往在课的开始就呈现一两个语言点, 这些语言点要么是本课的主要功能句,要么是本 课的主要语法现象。每呈现一点,就操练一点。 学生也明白,在一节课的最后,他

们会被要求把 这些目标语言点准确地运用出来,如果能够这样, 就算是学到了东西。 网络课的设计大致是按照这个思路来的。

Form-based approaches
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典型代表:PPP 典型特征:
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A focus on one or two forms, specified by the teacher, which are later to be incorporated in the performance of a communicative activity. This focus on form comes before learners engage in communicative activity. Teacher control of learner language. This is imposed strictly in the early stages of the cycle and gradually relaxed. The success of the procedure is judged in terms of whether or not learners do produce the target forms with an acceptable level of accuracy.

Meaning-based approaches
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… are based on the belief that it is more effective to encourage learners to use the language as much as possible, even if this means that some of the language they produce is inaccurate. 这种教学法往往是课的开始就提出一个交际任务, 学生考虑到所有已学的语言来试图完成交际任务, 教师帮助学生重塑语言,让其清楚地表达意思。 最后,教师引导学生学习使用中的一些目标语言。 学生的学习结果是:学会用英语做一件事情,并 附带学习了一些有用的表达。 外教课堂呈现出了这类教学的一些特点。

Meaning-based approaches
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典型代表:TBLT 主要特征:
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A focus on meaning, in which participants are concerned with communication. A focus on language, in which learners pause in the course of a meaning-focused activity to think for themselves how best to express what they want to say, or a teacher takes part in the interaction and acts as a facilitator by rephrasing or clarifying learner language. A focus on form in which one or more lexical or grammatical forms are isolated and specified for study, or in which the teacher comments on student language by drawing attention to problems.

教学过程对比
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The actual teaching procedures of the first lesson Before the dialogue
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Get ready for the class Let’s chant Present and practice several new language items, such as “Be going to”, “Have to” Elicit the dialogue through a listening activity Get the Ss to understand the dialogue by checking the answers with them, teaching some more language items like “mow the lawn”, “grocery store” etc. Practice reading or acting out the dialogue

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While the dialogue
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After the dialogue
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Let’s sing about a chess club. Make a poster of a club End the class

The actual teaching procedures of the second lesson
Preparation
1. 2. 3.

Topic explanation Making class rules Setting the goals

Task reflection
1. How did you do? 2. What was easy? 3. What was hard? 4. What did you learn?

Pre-task priming activities
1. Warm-up: charade games, 2. Teaching more vocabulary:. 3. Dialogue presentation and comprehension.

Form focus
1. Discussing what language Ss used today. 2. Correcting Ss’ errors.

Task cycle
Task 1: Ss Complete the schedule. Task 2: Start your own club.

Reporting back
Demonstration by a pair.

Task repetition and/or evaluation
1. Starting a new club with a new partner. 2. Evaluation

The PPP paradigm
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First, the teacher presents an item of language in a clear context to get across its meaning. This could be done in a variety of ways: through a text, a situation build, a dialogue etc. Students are then asked to complete a controlled practice stage, where they may have to repeat target items through choral and individual drilling, fill gaps or match halves of sentences. All of this practice demands that the student uses the language correctly and helps them to become more comfortable with it. Finally, they move on to the production stage, sometimes called the 'free practice' stage. Students are given a communication task such as a role play and are expected to produce the target language and use any other language that has already been learnt and is suitable for completing it.

The problems with PPP
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Students can give the impression that they are comfortable with the new language as they are producing it accurately in the class. Often though a few lessons later, students will either not be able to produce the language correctly or even won't produce it at all. Students will often produce the language but overuse the target structure so that it sounds completely unnatural. Students may not produce the target language during the free practice stage because they find they are able to use existing language resources to complete the task.

教学过程
最近发展区 i+1 Comprehensible input Activity n

Target level New Schema

Activity 2

Present Level
Current Schema

Activity 1

教学活动设计
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Activity: things students do in the classroom, especially in order to achieve a particular aim. 课堂教学活动是课堂教学的核心内容,活 动是否适应儿童的需求,是否能够帮助达 成教学目标,将直接影响教学效果。

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Activities in the first lesson

优点:

1. 直观性
缺点:

2. 游戏化

目标指向单一和零散,不利于习得语言

Activities in the second lesson

点评: 1. 目标指向明确:综合语言运用能力 2. 体现了一下活动设计的原则: 1. 以学生为中心设计原则 3. 循序渐进原则 2. 体验原则 4. 注重语言习得原则

评价活动设计
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T: My name is Spring. Hello, boys and girls. I will divide you into two groups. You are Group 1. You are Group 2. Let’s have a competition. If you can answer my questions, you can turn back a card for your group. Let’s see which group can get to the top first. Next, when I say “Pair work”, you should practice with your deskmates. When I say “Group work”, you should practice in groups of four. Let’s try.

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Target-oriented
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Start the lesson

End the lesson

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Self-reflection on the main task
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How did you do? What was easy? What was hard? What did you learn?

构建以意义为中心的课堂设计思路
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Re-ordering activities: PPP upside-down
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Brainstorm words and phrases and ideas related to the topic with the class. (pre-task preparation) Get learners to do the task, plan what to say and report the results to the class. (task cycle) After commenting or giving feed-back on the content of their task reports, go back to the text-book, saying “Let’s look more closely at some of the forms you might have used when doing your task”, and do the form focused exercises quickly.

If you can remember what other language they used to express their meanings (or if you have made a note of this in your notebook), highlight those patterns and expressions too, this gives value to their own efforts, and shows there is not just one correct way of expressing those meanings. ? Get the students to repeat the task or do a similar one with a different partner.
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案例分析二: 如何让语法课更有意义?

思考
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本节课主要教授什么语法点?
语法点的教授是通过什么主要任务来实施 的? 这样的任务能用到你自己的课堂吗?

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What are these in English?

Objects we use in our daily life.

Where can you put them?

Where is the glass?
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In the middle of the tray At the top on the left of the tray At the bottom on the right of the tray Behind the tray Under the tray In front of the tray (use real objects)

This is Joe’s tray. Please look at the tray and try to remember what’s on the tray in three seconds?

Task 1
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Make a list in English of as many things as you can remember by yourself. Work in pairs to share your list.
Let’s see how many objects we can remember together. Let’s double check the answer together.

Let’s double check the answer together.

Are the following sentences true or false?
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

There is an exercise book on the left of the coins. The keys are between the coins and the banana. There are some bananas at the top on the left. The ten pound note is in the middle of the tray. There is a glass on the left of the ruler. There are some keys between the coins and the address book.

Task 2

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Work in pairs to write sentences of your own about the picture — three true sentences and three false.

Let’s have a competition!
Between Beauty and Beast
1. One player from Beauty reads out one sentence and choose a player from Beast to tell from memory if the sentence is true or false. Correct the sentence if it is false. If the player answers correctly, Beast will get one point. 2. Exchange the roles and game continues. 3. The team with more points will be the winners.

What are the six correct sentences?

Useful structures
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There is a … on the right of the … The … is next to the … There are …

keys between the … and the … The … are on the left of the …

Task repetition

Reflection
1. As a language learner, how do you feel during the above learning activities? 2. What do you focus on when you talk about the objects on the tray? 3. What language skills can you practice when taking part in the above activities?

思考回顾
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本节课主要教授什么语法点?
There is/are a/some …+ prepositional phrases ? The … is/are + prepositional phrases ? 上述两种结构的表意功能
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语法点的教授是通过什么主要任务来实施 的?
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A memory challenge task

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这样的任务能用到你自己的课堂吗?
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改变任务难度:词汇的数量和难度、位置关系

A task or not?
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Determine how task-like a given activity is by asking the following questions:
Does the activity engage learners’ interest? ? Is there a primary focus on meaning? ? Is there an outcome? ? Is success judged in terms of outcome? ? Is completion a priority? ? Does the activity relate to real world activities?
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案例分析三:任务阅读教学

Stage 1 Priming for prediction

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Hello, I’ve just jumped off the Empire State Building

Task 1 Listing
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How could someone who has just jumped off the Empire State Building possibly be alive to tell the tale? Work in groups to think of as many explanations as you can. You can use simple drawings to help with your explanations.

Possible responses
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He was wearing a parachute; He was abseiling; He only jumped from the ground floor; He was bungee-jumping; He had a safety net. 如果学生的语言不好,可以在图片或者手势的帮 助下完成预测: He have thing on his back, like rubber, like elastic. He jump like this.

Stage 2 Prediction task
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Here are some words and phrases taken from the article. They appear in the same order here as in the article:
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All alone in New York — decided to kill himself — the 86th floor — held on to the safety fence — over 1000 feet below — a narrow ledge — the offices of a television station — the strong wind — poured myself a stiff drink — a great Christmas

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Work in groups to decide what happened. Try to include information from as many of the clues as possible.

Comment
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这个阶段任务的核心是… involves meaningfocused language use. 学生自己根据提示预测 故事,或者列出问题等,通过这个任务, 教师可以有效地实施语言教学,教师可以 在这个阶段给学生教授一些必要的语言知 识,激活学生的背景知识,有了教师的提 示,学生会更加注意到文本中的语言现象。

Stage 3: Preparing for report
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Ask learners to prepare one member of their group to tell the story they have decided on, so that he or she can tell that story to the whole class. Comment
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因为学生要给全班讲述这个故事,所以讲述的人必须 同时

兼顾准确性和流畅性。他们想做的最好,因此必 须流利。他们肯定用自己认为的最好的和最有效的语 言来讲述故事,这个就是准确了,他们甚至还会要争 论已达成最好的版本。教师这时候的主要工作就是给 学生提供语言帮助和解决学生的争端。

Stage 4: Report
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Target task: storytelling
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Members from two or three groups tell their story to the whole class who listen in order to compare stories.

Comment
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每个讲故事的人得到了很好的语言操练;故事真实性强。 学生在听故事时,教师要注意给学生足够听的理由,经 常问的问题是: Listen carefully to X’s story. Is it the same as yours? Does X miss anything important out? Now listen carefully to Y as he tells the story. Is it different from X’s story in any way? Does it have any more details? Does Y miss anything out? 教师可以把故事再讲一遍,在讲的过程中更正学生在讲 解故事时的语言错误。还可以提醒学生注意这些语言错 误。从更加积极的方面来看,教师可以强调学生已经用 的比较好的语言,这个就需要教师在听学生讲解时记录 下学生使用比较成功的、得体的语言。 下一步就是学生回去把故事重新构思,然后写出来当做 家庭作业。下次课拿着这个故事和真正的故事对照。

Stage 5: Reading
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Comment:学生阅读的目的和过程非常真实。他 们带着强烈的好奇心来阅读故事,正如现实生活 中的读者读报纸或杂志的文章一样。阅读目的性 非常强:验证自己的猜测,或者满足自己的好奇 心,这样阅读就成了任务中的任务了。 Read Comment: 似乎阅读本身的过程需要的时间不长, 但是,这种方式符合所有的语言学习的理念。教 师可以问学生猜测是否正确,还是部分正确?接 着,他们可以重复任务,一遍让学生对词汇和语 法更加熟悉,意义也更加清楚。最后,他们可以 仔细研究文本的词汇、语法和文本特征等。

Stage 6: Focus on form
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教师可以让学生划出这些表示地点的表达法。另 外还有一个结构很重要,即I took the … from … to …,还有一个语法现象是关于反身代词的用法, 如表强调的反身代词:Jim Burney himself,反身代 词作直接宾语:to kill himself, threw himself off, found himself on a narrow ledge,还有一个反身代词 作间接宾语的:I poured myself a stiff drink.教师也 可以让学生找出这些带反身代词的句子,以便提 请学生今后注意这些反身代词的用法。

Stage 7: Evaluation
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Did the students find the prediction task too difficult or too easy? Would the students have liked more help? Did the students like the story? Did the students need more help with vocabulary before the reading stage? Did the students feel the

language was useful?

The framework of task-based reading
Stage 1: Priming for prediction Stage 2: Prediction task Stage 3: Preparing for report Stage 4: Report Stage 5: Reading Stage 6: Focus on form Stage 7: Evaluation

小结:主要观点
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从形式入手还是从意义入手课堂教学是区 分传统教学与新课程教学的重要分水岭;
在操作时,一个非常有用的范式是把传统 的PPP颠倒过来,先考虑本节课要输出什么, 然后再考虑怎样通过任务链来完成任务, 最后落实到语言形式的习得上来; 设计真实、有意义、与学生生活密切相关 的任务是一堂课能否成功的关键。

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新课程理念下的小学英语 课堂教学原则
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意义先于形式原则(Meaning first) 真实性原则 (Authenticity) 循环性原则 (Recycling) 任务依存原则 (Task dependency) 在做中学原则 (Learning by doing) “脚手架”原则 (Scaffolding) 互动性原则 (Interaction)

主要参考书目
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龚亚夫,罗少茜. 任务型语言教学(修订版). 北 京:人民教育出版社, 2003. Dave Willis & Jane Willis. Doing task based teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007. David Nunan. Task-Based Language Teaching. 北京: 外语教学与研究出版社, 2011. Rod Ellis. Task-based Language Learning and Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003. 陈琳等. 义务教育英语课程标准(2011年版)解读. 北京:北京师范大学出版社, 2012.

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