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小学英语语法复习小结

发布时间:2013-10-14 10:33:32  

英语复习小结

一、 名词:有可数名词和不可数名词。

1、可数名词有单数、复数之分,

名词复数形式的构成规则:

(1) 一般在名词词尾加“s”

如:teacher—teachers egg---eggs

(2) 以s, x, sh, ch结尾的名词加es

如class---classes box-- boxes bus --buses watch--watches

(3) 以辅音字母+y 的名词变y为i再加es

如:story---stories library---libraries,

dictionary----dictionaries hobby---hobbies

(4) 以f, fe 结尾的名词,变f, fe为v加es

如:life ---lives leaf ---leaves half---halves

knife---knives wolf-wolves wife---wives

(5) 以o结尾的名词“黑人英雄喜欢吃芒果土豆西红柿”加es hero---heroes mango--- mangoes Negro---Negroes

potato--- potatoes tomato--- tomatoes

其余加s(目前所学的词) zoo---zoos kilo---kilos

radio—radios photo--- photos piano-- pianos

(6)不规则名词单复数形式

如: child — children woman --- women

man ---men foot---feet tooth---teeth

有的可数名词单、复数形式相同,如 Japanese,Chinese,sheep,

如: I have one sheep. He has two sheep.

people 是集体名词 复数还是people

2、不可数名词没有复数形式

不可数名词有:(1)milk, water, juice, tea, ice;

(2) food, rice, meat, fish, chicken, bread, cheese

(3) paper , hair, time, money, homework, housework

不可数名词的数量常表示如下

two bottles of milk a cup of juice half a kilo of cheese a bag of rice three kilos of meat some water

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二、人称代词

人称代词包括主格和宾格。主格在句中作主语,宾格用于动词或介词

We are going to have a picnic. Let us go.

I miss everyone in China. Who can help me?

What is he doing? He is trying to get on the bus. Look at him. She can’t hear. This dog helps her.

Tell me more about the Great Wall.

四.物主代词

物主代词包括形容词性物主代词和名词性物主代词。

形容词性物主代词后需跟名词,名词性物主代词后不用跟。

名词性物主代词含义=形容词性物主代词+名词 的含义

This is my book. = This book is mine.

This is his bag. = This bag is his.

Your watch is old, but hers is new.

Thanksgiving is my favourite festival.

We say “Thank you” for our food, family and friends.

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三.动词过去式形式

规则动词的过去式构成

1.一般在动词词尾加ed

如: work --- worked play---played watch-- watched

1. 以e 结尾动词在词尾加d

如: live --- lived

2. 以辅音字母 + y结尾的动词,把y变为i 再加ed

如: study ---studied copy---copied cry---cried carry---carried

3. 有些动词双写最后一个字母再加ed,

如:stop ---stopped drop--- dropped

5、不规则动词的过去式变化规律性不强,须多加记忆。

动词原形 动词过去式 动词原形 动词过去式

go went come came become became bring brought

say said put put

teach taught can could read read give gave

am/is was are were

do did fly flew have had make made

run ran see saw

ride rode win won

get got tell told eat ate send sent take took buy bought sit sat meet met write wrote draw drew swim swam find found

drink drank wear wore ring rang fall fell

四.现在分词形式也是动词ing形式

现在分词的构成规则

1.一般在动词词尾直接加“ing”

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sleep---sleeping look---looking wear---wearing

send---sending eat---eating sing---singing

go---going jump---jumping play---playing

2.以不发音的e结尾的动词要去掉e再加上“ing”

write---writing come---coming ride---riding

have---having make---making shine---shining take---taking close-- closing

3.有些动词双写最后一个字母再加“ing”

get---getting put---putting sit---sitting run---running swim---swimming skip---skipping shop---shopping

五.动词第三人称单数形式

动词第三人称单数的构成规则

1.大多数动词在词尾加“S”.

stop-stops make-makes read-reads

play-plays say [sei]-says [sez]

2.以辅音字母加“y”结尾的,要先将“y”变为“i”,然后在加“es”

fly-flies carry-carries study-studies worry-worries

3.以“s, x, sh,ch, o”结尾,在词尾加“es”.

teach-teaches watch-watches go— goes do-- does

六.在英语中表示“两者之间的比较”时,形容词要用比较级形式。

A. 形容词的比较级构成规则

1. 一般在形容词词尾加er

原级 比较级 原级 比较级

young younger long longer

old older tall taller

strong stronger short shorter

2. 以e结尾的词直接加r

nice---nicer

3. 有些形容词双写最后一个字母再加er

big---bigger thin---thinner hot---hotter

fat ---fatter wet---wetter

4. 以辅音字母加y结尾的词,变y 为i再加er

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busy---busier easy---easier heavy---heavier

5. 有些形容词在词前加more构成比较级

difficult---more difficult interesting---more interesting dangerous ---more dangerous beautiful ---more beautiful

B. 不规则变化

good--- better bad--- worse many/ much--- more

C. 比较级句型中常用than 进行比较

如:Circle A is bigger than Circle B. 圆A 比圆B大

Lingling is better than Daming.

Amy is taller than Lingling.

七. There be 句型意思是“有 ”。 表示某地或某时间有某物或某人。 There is 后加单数名词或者不可数名词。

There are 后加可数名词的复数形式。

There be后有多个名词时,采用就近原则,与第一个名词保持一致。 否定句在is, are后加not。 一般疑问句把is, are提到句首.

肯定回答Yes, there is.或者Yes, there are.

否定回答No, there isn’t. 或者No, there aren’t.

There are ten pencils in the blue box.

There weren’t any buses many years ago.

There is a Chinatown in New York.

There was a small house four years ago.

There is some water in the bottle.

There are lots of Chinese shops there.

There are lots of bicycles in China.

There’s Chinese dancing.

---Is there a letter for me? ---Yes, there is.

There is a book and two pens on the desk.

八. 情态动词 can 过去式could 后加动词原形

否定句在can, could 后加not

can not = can’t could not = couldn’t

一般疑问句把can, could提前到句首。

I can write English.

I can carry this bag. I can help you.

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We can always be friends. Later she could read and write. We can’t go now. I can’t write Chinese.

I can’t carry everything. His friends can’t hear him. She couldn’t see and she couldn’t hear.

Can you swim? Yes, I can. / No, I can’t.

Can you speak English? Can I write to your friends?

Can you be my Chinese pen friend? Yes, of course.

九. have got 意思是“有” 第三人称单数形式has got

否定句在have, has后加not

一般疑问句形式把have, has提前到句首

I’ve got lots of stamps.

I have got some chopsticks. I haven’t got a basketball. Daming has got a Chinese kite. It’s got eight million people. Beijing’s got about fourteen million people.

Have you got any stamps from China? Yes, I have./ No, I haven’t Have you got a book about America?

十.a, an 意思是一个,一只……等。

辅音音素前用a, 元音音素前用an

a hot dog a car an hour an ice cream an apple an orange an egg an email an animal an elephant

十一. 1. 表示方位时,在某一范围之内用in

New York is in the east of America.

San Francisco is in the west of America.

Qingdao is in the east of China.

Beijing is the capital of China. It’s in the north of China.

Hainan is in the south of China.

2. 询问职业身份时可以用What + am/is/are + 主语?

What am I? Are you a teacher? Yes, I am.

What are you? I am a doctor.

What is your father? He is a policeman.

3. 动词做主语常用动词ing形式。

Collecting stamps is my hobby.

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Reading is my hobby. Flying kites is my hobby.

4. a picture of 一张……的图片

It’s a picture of the Great Wall.

This one has got a picture of the Great Wall on it.

5. 喜欢做某事 like doing sth.

I like collecting stamps. He likes playing the trumpet.

I like reading and swimming.

6. too 当“也”用时,放在句尾。 The cola is falling, too.

too 还可以当“太”讲 It’s too big for you.

too many 太多 There are too many books on the desk.

7. Thank you for…… .

Thank you for your email. Thank you for talking to us.

8. What about……? 等于How about……? 后加名词,代词宾格,动

词ing 形式。

What about chopsticks? How about you? What about swimming?

9. some 用于肯定句中, any 用于否定句和疑问句中

I am sending some photos. I can speak some English.

These are some stamps from Canada.

There weren’t any televisions many years ago.

Have you got any American stamps?

10. let’s 等于let us 后加动词原形

Let’s go. Let’s send an email to Dad.

11. 许多的lots of 等于a lot of 后加复数名词或者不可数名词

many 后加复数名词 much后加不可数名词

lots of people lots of mistakes many books much milk

12.. 在星期几,具体的某一天用on

I had a very funny day on Saturday.

on Teachers’ Day on Flag Day on Thanksgiving Day

13.在某年,某月,某季节,在上午,下午,晚上用in

in October 2003 in 1809 in spring

in the morning in the afternoon in the evening

14. 球类前不加the, 乐器前加the

Daming is playing the trumpet. I can play the violin.

I’m going to play football with my friends.

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16. be 动词包括 am , is, are. 用法我接am你接are, is跟着他她它。

单数不可数用is, 复数用are.

I am in Class One. You are in Class Two. He is in Class Three. Our picnic is wet. My newspaper is flying away. These ducks are very noisy. The oranges are falling.

These postcards are great.

17. 想做某事 want to do something

What do you want to eat? What do you want to drink? Do you want to go to Chinatown? I want to go swimming.

想让某人做某事 want somebody to do sth

I wanted you to bring the baseball caps.

I want you to be my friends.

18. look 表示看,看起来 look at 表示看某物某人

see表示看见 look out of 往……外看

Look! He is running. It looks good. I can see you.

We are looking at some ducks. I am looking out of the window. Look at this one.

19. 名词所有格表示某人的, 一般在名词词尾加 ’s .

I’m making Daming’s birthday card.

This is Lingling’s bag.

20. 在某一时刻用at

We are going to have a party at half past six.

21. the same as 与……一样

Line A is the same as Line B.

22. wait for…. 等候某人某物 Wait for us.

23. should 应该 shouldn’t 不应该 后加动词原形

You should eat fruit. You shouldn’t walk in the road.

24. 说某种语言用speak

We are going to speak Chinese. I can speak English. He can speak French.

25. 询问天气用What’s the weather like? 或者How is the weather?

描述天气用动词或者be+表示天气的形容词

It’s going to snow in Harbin. It’s going to rain soon.

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It’s going to be sunny tomorrow.

26. give sth. to sb.=give sb. sth. 给某人某物

Please give these pencils to Amy. = Please give Amy these pencils. He gives presents to the children.

Grandma gives Daming a present.

27. ---Happy birthday to you. ---Thank you.

28. ---Thank you very much. ---You are welcome./ That’s all right.

29. ---I’m sorry. ---It doesn’t matter. / Not at all. / That’s all right. That’s all right. = That’s okay/ OK.

30.---Nice to meet you. ---Nice to meet you, too.

31.---How are you? ---I’m fine, thank you.

32.---How do you do? --- How do you do?

33.---Would you like to come to school with us? ---Yes, I’d love to.

34.---Would you like some juice? ---Yes, please.

--- Would you like some bread? ---No, thanks.

35. ---What’s the date today? --- It’s June 1.

36. ---Can I ask you some questions? ---Yes, of course.

37. ---What’s the time? = What time is it?(几点了?) ---It’s six.

38. --- Good morning. --- Good morning.

39. --- Good afternoon. --- Good afternoon.

40. --- Good evening. --- Good evening.

41. --- Goodbye. --- Goodbye.

42. It’s time to do something. 该做某事了。

It’s time to say goodbye. It’s time to have dinner.

43. I’m going to walk to school. = I’m going to go to school on foot.

44. I’m going to ride my bike to school.

= I’m going to go to school by bike.

十二.反义词 对应词

big--- small long--- short new--- old tall--- short young--- old heavy--- light easy--- hard/ difficult

up--- down early---late fat--- thin white--- black cry--- laugh different --- same

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十三.同音词

for--- four son--- sun hour--- our too-- two --

right--- write eye --- I aren’t--- aunt sent---cent

where--- wear their--- there by--- buy hear---here

十四. 近义词

good--- well study --- learn

十五.缩写形式与完全形式

I am = I’m he is = he’s she is = she’s it is = it’s

that is = that’s what is = what’s let us = let’s we are = we’re they are = they’re you are= you’re

can not= can’t could not = couldn’t should not = shouldn’t will not = won’t I’ll = I will we’ll = we will

do not = don’t does not = doesn’t did not = didn’t it has got = it’s got I have got = I’ve got

have not = haven’t has not = hasn’t

are not = aren’t is not = isn’t

十六。疑问词

who 谁 what 什么 when 什么时候 what time 几点

where 哪里 why 为什么 how 怎样 how much 多少

how many 多少 how old 多大 whose 谁的

what colour 什么颜色 how long 多长

1. 对人物提问用 who

Who gave it to you? Who can help me? 2. 对事物或做某事提问用 what

What do you want? What are you doing? What are you going to study? I’What are you going to do? We’What’s it about? It’3. 对时间提问用 when

When are you going to eat? We’ 10

When was he born? 4. 对点钟提问用 what time

What time is it? It’What time do you get up? 5. 对地点提问用 where

Where was he born? Where are you? Where’s your mum? She’6. 对原因提问用 why

Why are you wearing a raincoat? 7. 对身体状况或方式提问用 how

How are you? I’How are you going to go to school? I’8. 对价钱或不可数名词的数量提问用 how much

How much is it? It’How much milk do you want? 9. 对可数名词的数量提问用 how many

How many books are there on the desk? 10. 对年龄提问用 how old

How old are you? I’11. 对“某人的”提问用 whose

Whose cap is this? It’Whose pen is that? It’12. 对颜色提问用 what colour

What colour is it? It’13. 对星期提问用 what day

What day is it today? It’14. How long is it?

It’s about six thousand seven hundred kilometers.

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特殊疑问句语序: 疑问词 + 一般疑问句语序?

疑问词(做主语)+ 谓语动词+……?

对划线部分提问相当于把句子变成特殊疑问句。

十七。 时态

1. 一般过去时

表示过去某个时间发生的动作或存在的状态。经常与表示过去的

时间连用。如yesterday(昨天), last week(上周), last month(上个月), last year(去年), two months ago(两个月前)等。

构成:(1)肯定句:主语+动词过去式+ ……

He made a video.

否定句:主语+didn't +动词原形+ ……

He didn’t make a video.

一般疑问句:Did +主语+动词原形+ …….?

Did he make a video?

(2) be动词用was, were . 否定句在was, were后加not. 一般

疑问句把was, were提前到句首。

She was born in America.

She was not born in America.

Was she born in America?

2. 现在进行时

表示现在正在进行的动作

构成:主语+am /is / are+ 现在分词+……

The birds are singing in the trees.

否定句在am /is / are后加not.

The birds are not singing in the trees.

一般疑问句把am /is / are提前到句首。

Are the birds singing in the trees?

3.一般将来时

表示将来某个时间要发生的动作或存在的状态。经常与表示将来的时间连用。如tomorrow (明天), next week(下周), next year(明年)等。

构成:(1) 主语+ will + 动词原形+……

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He will pick up the apples.

否定句在will后加not.

He will not pick up the apples.

一般疑问句把will提前到句首。

Will he pick up the apples?

(2) 主语+ be going to + 动词原形+……

We are going to study French.

否定句在am /is / are后加not.

We are not going to study French.

一般疑问句把am /is / are提前到句首。

Are you going to study French?

4. 一般现在时

表示经常性,习惯性的动作或存在的状态。

构成:(1)主语+am /is / are+……

否定句在am /is / are后加not. 一般疑问句把am /is / are

提前到句首。

Helen Keller is a model for blind people and for you and me.

(2) 肯定句:主语+动词原形+ ……

The ducks like it.

否定句:主语+don't +动词原形+ ……

The ducks don’t like it.

一般疑问句:Do +主语+动词原形+ …….?

Do the ducks like it?

(3) 肯定句:主语(三单)+动词第三人称单数形式+ ……

He likes noodles.

否定句:主语+doesn't +动词原形+ ……

He doesn’t like noodles.

一般疑问句:Does +主语+动词原形+ …….?

Does he like noodles?

十八。祈使句

表示请求、命令、叮嘱、邀请、劝告等。祈使句的主语you通常

省略,肯定句以动词原形开头。否定句Don’t+动词原形+其他。 13

Be careful. Be quiet. Look at the balloons. Stand up.

Please stand in line. Let’s go under that tree. Turn right.

Don’t worry. Don’t talk in the library. Don’t walk on the grass. Go straight on. Turn left. Look at the library rules.

二十. 小学英语分类单词和词组

天气:

rain下雨 snow下雪 rainy有雨的 snowy有雪的

hot炎热的 cold 寒冷的 warm温暖的 cool凉爽的

windy有风的 sunny晴朗的

食物:

hamburger汉堡 hot dog热狗 sandwich三明治 chip 薯条 chicken鸡肉 fish鱼肉 meat肉 noodles面条 rice大米

soup汤 cake蛋糕 bread面包 cheese奶酪

vegetable蔬菜 fruit水果 sausage香肠 biscuit饼干

sweets糖果 ice cream冰激凌 peanut花生

饮料:

milk牛奶 tea茶 orange juice橙汁 coffee咖啡

cola可乐 water水 juice果汁

颜色:

red红色的 green绿色的 yellow黄色的 black黑色的 white白色

的 orange橙色的 blue蓝色的 purple紫色的 pink粉红色的

星期:

Monday星期一 Tuesday星期二 Wednesday星期三

Thursday星期四 Friday星期五 Saturday星期六 Sunday星期日

月份:

January一月 February二月 March三月 April四月 May五月 June六月 July七月 August八月 September九月

October十月 November十一月 December十二月

季节:

spring春天 summer夏天 autumn秋天 winter冬天

数字:

one一 two 二 three三 four四 five五 six六 seven七

eight八 nine九 ten十 eleven十一 twelve十二

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thirteen十三 fourteen十四 fifteen十五 sixteen十六 seventeen十七 eighteen十八 nineteen十九 twenty二十

thirty三十 forty四十 fifty五十 sixty六十 seventy七十 eighty八十 ninety九十 one hundred一百

one thousand 一千 one million 一百万

衣服:

T-shirt T恤衫 dress裙子 sweater毛衣 trousers裤子 skirt短裙 sock袜子 shoe鞋 coat 外套,上衣

动物:

cat猫 dog狗 monkey猴 panda熊猫 elephant大象 tiger老虎 lion狮子 pig猪 chameleon变色龙 snake蛇 mouse老鼠 bear熊 kangaroo袋鼠 frog青蛙

parrot鹦鹉 bird鸟 owl猫头鹰 camel骆驼

家庭成员:

grandmother奶奶 grandfather爷爷 grandparents 祖父母

mother妈妈 father爸爸 parents 父母亲 brother 兄弟 sister姐妹 uncle叔,伯,舅 aunt 阿姨 cousin表兄弟 学科:

Chinese语文 English 英语 Math数学 PE体育 Art艺术 Science科学 Physics物理 Chemistry化学 History历史 Geography地理

节日:

Flag Day国旗日 Thanksgiving Day感恩节 Halloween万圣节 Easter Festival复活节 Christmas圣诞节

Spring Festival春节 Lantern Festival元宵节

Dragon Boat Festival端午节 Mid-Autumn Festival中秋节

名胜景点:

Big Ben大本钟 the River Thames泰晤士河 Hyde Park海德公园 Tower Bridge塔桥 the London Bridge伦敦桥

the British Museum 大英博物馆 the London Eye 伦敦眼

the Great Wall长城 the Summer Palace颐和园 the Changjiang River长江 the West Lake西湖 the Huangshan Mountain黄山 The Ming Tombs明十三陵 Mount Qomolangma珠穆朗玛峰

球类:

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play football踢足球 play basketball打篮球 play baseball打棒球 play table tennis打乒乓球 play volleyball打排球

棋类:

play chess下象棋

乐器:

play the guitar弹吉他 play the drums敲鼓 play the zither弹吉他 play the piano弹钢琴 play the flute吹笛子 play the trumpet吹小号 体育运动:

have a Sports Day举行运动会 do morning exercises做早操

do Taijiquan打太极拳 do the high jump跳远 do the long jump跳高 run the 100 meters跑一百米 run fast跑得快 jump high跳高 jump long跳远 swim游泳 go swimming去游泳 skip跳绳

control the ball控制球 catch the ball 接球 row a boat划船

生日:

Happy Birthday! 生日快乐 make a birthday card制作生日卡片 have a birthday party举办生日派对 have a great birthday过愉快的生日 交通工具:

by bus乘公共汽车 by car乘小汽车 by bike骑自行车 by plane乘飞机 by ship乘轮船 by train坐火车 on foot步行

词组:

fly kites或者fly a kite放风筝 go to see films去看电影

watch TV看电视 play computer games玩电脑游戏

have a picnic吃野餐 go to school去上学 go home回家

go to the park去公园 go to middle school去上中学 go to bed去睡觉 go there 去那里 go shopping去购物 go to the doctor去看病say goodnight道晚安 fly away飘走

make a video制作录像 make mistakes犯错误

write a letter写信 write a book写书 take pictures=take photos照相 listen to music听音乐 read a book读书 read stories读故事

do homework做作业 make a cake做蛋糕 make dumplings做饺子 wash clothes洗衣服 make an e-card制作电子卡片 ride a horse 骑马 climb mountains爬山 climb trees爬树 have a lovely time玩的开心 ask questions问问题 make a list 列清单 shopping list购物单 collect stamps收集邮票 sing songs唱歌 turn left向左转

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clean the classroom打扫教室 eat fast food吃快餐

turn right向右转 go straight on直走 have a cold感冒

have a headache头疼 have breakfast 吃早餐 have lunch吃午餐 have supper吃晚餐 = have dinner

have a baseball team组建棒球队 come on加油 come in进来

come from 来自= be from come back回来 click on点击 go up the hill上山 go down the hill下山

play with dolls玩洋娃娃 find out查找 be good at擅长

bring back归还 out of 往外 of course当然可以

in English用英语 all over the world=all around the world全世界 stand up起立 sit down坐下 at the weekend在周末

not…at all一点也不 get up起床 get on上车 get off下车 in a hurry匆忙 next to挨着 turn on the light打开灯 point to指向 talk about谈论 talk to sb和某人谈话 give out分发 write to sb给某人写信 say hello to sb向某人打招呼

缩写:

the PRC=the People’s Republic of China中华人民共和国

the USA=the United States of America 美国 the UN=the United Nations 联合国

the UK=the United Kingdom 英国

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