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英语基础知识

发布时间:2013-10-17 13:36:35  

英语国际音标表(48个)

元音(20个)

长元音 /ɑ:/ /?:/ / ?:/ /i:/ /U:/ 短元音 / ?/ /?/ /?/ /?/ /?/ /?/

双元音 /e?/ /a?/ /??/ /??/ /e?/ /??/ /??/ /a?/

辅音(28个)

轻辅音 /p/ / t/ / k/ /f/ /θ/浊辅音 /b/ /d/ /g/ /v/ /e/ 轻辅音 /?/ / h/ /ts/ /t?/ /tr/ 浊辅音 /?/ / r/ /dz/ /d?/ /dr/ 鼻音 /m/ /n/ /?/ 半元音 / j/ / w/

边音 / ?/

音标对应的单词

元音音标

单元音

/i:/ B C D E G he she me key meet we /i/ big sit eleven English is this six

/e/ F egg help ten seven let net

/?/ apple bad bag cat hat happy black / ?:/ bird her girl first T-shirt

/?/ banana China away about today doctor /a:/ car dark party star arm class

/ ? / bus but mother sun come number brother / ?:/ ball football four short small door / ? / not Bob clock doctor dog box fox /u:/ cool school ruler who too blue room / ? / book look good foot food

双元音

/ e? / A H Dale day play cake face / a? / I Hi my by like try nice five fine / ?? / boy joy toy oil

/ ?? / go no boat coat show OK old 1 / ? / /e/ /s/ /z/

/ a? / how now mouse mouth cow count brown /??/ ear here dear near hear

/e?/ there hair bear pear where

/??/ sure cure tour poor

辅音音标

/p/ put play policeman pen cup

/b/ bag bad bear bus but bird tub

/t/ it meet ten taxi time want

/d/ dog door bad do duck dad

/k/ key book clock drink come cat

/g/ pig big egg girl green go

/f/ five four flower wolf fish frog

/v/ love very vase violin van

/θ/ mouth birth three thank thirty

/e/ this that they there thirty cloth

/s/ face nice same sock sister

/z/ Z zero zebra nose keys hers his zoo size /?/ she shirt shoe show English ship / ? / usual pleasure measure leisure

/t?/ chair teacher watch China

/d? / large jacket orange juice joy

/tr/ tree trousers try train

/dr/ dress draw driver drink

/ts/ hats cats shorts wants T-shirts shirts /dz/ birds friends hands heads words

/h/ head hand hat hot how have

/r/ red read ruler great race rabbit

/m/ monkey mouse map room milk some /n/ nose no ten pen know run

/?/ English king sing song thank drink /l/ like ball lion lemon leg

/w/ we well want word watch

/j/ yes your yummy year yellow

英语音标及字母组合对照

1.元音:

1) [i:] 字母组合:ee ea e ie ei (eo ey i)

three tree green sheep meet beef see seek eat tea meat leave lead teacher team mean please

he she me

piece receive ceiling

2) [ I ]发音字母 i y e ui

2 speak clean

sit picture it is list six mix fix fit pig big build miss myth twenty happy dictionary

defect decide delicious

3) [ ? ] 发音字母 a

bag hand and ant happy hat map mad bad black back glad flag shall man

4) [e] 字母组合 ea e a (ue,u,ie,ai,ei,ay)

head bread pleasure

elephant electric remember sell shell lesson better bed desk hotel yes

many any

5) [?:] 字母组合ir ur ear er or

girl shirt skirt thirty thirteen third bird

turn burn murder nurse turtle Thursday burger learn earn earth heard

term her nerd serve

work worm work world

6) [?] 字母组合 er or ou ar o a e u

teacher leader remember player speaker farmer powder doctor actor mayor author tractor

delicious gracious pleasure

familiar collar dollar

together tomorrow today shallop lesson Washington control polite

around account ago elephant manta banana Canada Japan china

men listen

famulus Saturday

7) [a:] 字母组合 ar a

car farm card arm garden

fast class last glass plant aunt calm

8) [ ? ] 发音字母 u o ou oo

up supper lunch fun gun hunt cup bus

come mother dose brother love above

trouble rough flourish

blood flood

9) [?: ]字母组合 al or au our ar

small wall talk tall hall ball call walk

short more lord horse for forty sport door floor store author caught autumn

four mourn court bought

warm quarrel quarter

10) [ ? ] ([?])发音字母 o a ou

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hot lost lot fox box mop hop loss collar not want wash watch

11) [u:] 字母组合 oo o u

food moon room gloom broom doom goose tooth shoe do two

true truth blue full prude

12) [u] 字母组合 oo ou u o

look good foot book wood

should could

put full bull pull push

woman wolf

13) [ei] 发音字母 a ay ea ai ey

name cake late gate plane April

play say may way

great break

rain paint plain

they grey

14) [ai] 发音字母 i y

bike fine find die nine light night high my try fly eye

15) [au] 字母组合 ou ow

house out flour ground account count sound mouse

flower down now cow how town

16) [??] 发音字母 o ow oa

home cold go no phone host ghost

know low below grow blow show flow

boat coat goal

17) [ ?? ] 字母组合oy oi

boy toy joy

oil soil voice choice

18) [??] 字母组合 eer ear

beer deer

ear near

here fierce idea

19) [ ?? ] ([e?])字母组合ear air ere

pear bear

chair air fair

there where

care

20) [??] [au?]字母组合our ower

hour tour

flower shower

4 loud around

句子成分

概念

句子是由词按照一定的语法结构组成的。组成句子的各个部分叫做句子的成分。句子的成分包括:主语、谓语、表语、宾语(直接和间接宾语)、定语和状语、宾语补足语。主语和谓语是句子的主体部分(在英语中,一般句子必须有主语和谓语),表语、宾语和宾语的补足语是谓语里的组成部分。其他成份如定语和状语是句子的次要成分。

▲句子成分分类

1.主语

主语是谓语讲述的对象,表示所说的“是什么”或“是谁”。一般由名词、代词、不定代词或相当于名词的单词或短语来充当,也有从句充当的现象。大多数主语都在句首。如:

讲述“谁”

讲述“什么”

The classroom is very big.

数词作主语

Three are enough. 三个人就够了

不定式作主语

To operate on the blind is one of the ORBIS Doctor’s job.

从句作主语

What we need is food. 我们最需要的是食物.

▲ 在“There be …”句型中,主语的位置在中间。如: ▲ 在个别句型中,主语在整个句子后面,这时前面用it作形式主语。如: .

2.谓语

谓语时用来说明主语“做什么”、“是什么”或“怎么样”,谓语必须是动词,位置在主语之后,谓语和主语在“人称”和“数”两方面必须一致。如: 3.表语

表语说明主语“是什么”或“怎么样”,由名词、形容词、介词、副词、不定式及相当于名词的词或短语来充当,它的位置在系动词之后。系动词分两类:be, look, keep, seem等属一类,表示情况;get, grow, become, turn 5

等属另一类,表示变化。

形容词作表语 名词作表语

副词作表语 介词短语作表语 不定式作表语 动名词作表语 从句作表语 ’t come to school yesterday.

4.宾语

▲宾语是动作、行为的对象,由名词、代词、不定式、或相当于名词的词或短语或从句来充当,它和谓语动词一起说明主语是什么,通常放在实义动词(行为动词)之后。有时,会有双宾语。如:

名词作宾语 代词做宾语 不定式作宾语 动名词作宾语 从句做宾语

I believe that they can finish the work in time.

▲直接宾语和间接宾语(双宾语)

及物动词作谓语时,后面要跟宾语,宾语分直接宾语和间接宾语。直接宾语是及物动词的对象。但有些动词除了直接宾语外,还需要有一个间接宾语,间接宾语表语动作是对谁做的,所以只能用名词或代词来充当。如:

主 谓 间宾 直宾

间接宾语可以放在直接宾语后面,但必须加to 或 for。

Please give me a hand. Mr.Li teaches us English.

5.宾语的补足语

在英语的句子中有些句子里只有宾语并不能表达完整的意思,还必须在宾语后面加上宾语的补足语才能表达完整的意思。我们把“宾语+宾语补足语”合起来称为复合宾语。位置在宾语之后,名词、动词、 6

形容词、副词、介词短语、不定式、现在分词、过去分词都可以作宾语补足语.如:

名词作宾补

If you let me go, I’ll make you king.

形容词作宾补

Don’t make your hands dirty.

副词作宾补

We found Li Ming out when we arrived.

介词短语作宾补

Make yourself at home.

省略to的不定式作宾补

I saw a girl go into the building.

带to的不定式作宾补

The boy ordered the dog to lie down.

现在分词作宾补

The boss kept them working all day.

过去分词作宾补

Yesterday he got his leg broken.

在英语中,常见的“宾语+宾语补足语”的结构有:

▲“宾语+名词”。常用于改结构的动词有:call, name, make, find, choose, think, leave等。

We call him Jack.

They made Li Lei their monitor.

▲“宾语+形容词”。常见的动词有think, believe, leave, drive, make, keep, turn, wish, want等。如:

Do you think his idea wrong?

We must keep our classroom clean.

We can’t leave him alone.

Can you get everything ready for the party before Friday?

▲“宾语+副词”。副词作宾补常表示宾语的状态,与宾语有逻辑上的主表关系。常见的副词有:down, up, here, there, home, in, out, anywhere等。如: Let him in/ out.

Mr. Li drove us home.

When got there, we found him out.

▲“宾语+介词短语”。介词短语作宾补常表示其逻辑主语(即宾语)所处的状态,两者有主表的关系。如:

We found everything in good order.

We regard him as our good friend.

He opened the door and found some of his friends in the rain.

▲“宾语+不定式”。充当宾补的不定式有三种:

A 要求带to的不定式

The cool water of the lake invited us to swim.

B 要求不带to 的不定式 let, make, see, hear, watch等

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The boss made the workers work 12 hours a day.

I often hear him read English in his room.

C 单词help 后可加 to 或不加 to

She sometimes helps her mother (to) do housework.

▲“宾语+现在分词”。现在分词作宾补,此时在该句型中的宾语即为现在分词逻辑上的主语,有着主谓关系。

I saw them playing on the playground.

I heard Mary singing in the classroom.

▲“宾语+过去分词”。宾语和宾补之间是被动关系,过去分词表示被动和完成。

I had my bike stolen.

The teacher explained again and again to make himself understood.

▲ 形式宾语+形容词

We found it impossible to get there before Saturday.

▲宾语+what 从句

Call me what you like.

Mr. Li has made the factory what it is today.

The mountain village is different from what it was ten years ago.

6.定语

▲ 定语用来修饰名词或代词。位置通常在名词或代词之前,但不定式(to do),动词-ing ,不定代词(nothing,everythingnobody,everybody,everyone ,anyone),介词短语(in the room,on the desk等),或句子充当定语时须放在名词或代词之后,叫做“后置定语”。形容词、代词、数词、名词、介词短语、不定式或相当于形容词的词或短语等都可以充当定语。因为它是修饰名词或代词的,而名词和代词可以作主语、表语或宾语,所以定语的位置很灵活,凡是有名词、代词的地方都可以有定语。如:

形容词作定语

代词作定语

What’名词作定语 介词短语作定语

不定式作短语

从句作定语

▲ 在英语中,并不是所有的定语都放在被修饰词的前面,有的是放在被修饰词的后面,故称“后置定语”。

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▲ 修饰不定代词 something, anything, nothing, something, anyone, somebody, anybody, nobody 的定语必须后置。如:

We’ If you don’ ▲介词短语作定语时要后置。如:

▲动词的不定式作定语时要后置

动词不定式作主语时,to 后面的动词必须是及物动词或相当于及物动词 ▲nearby, below, downstairs等个别方位词作定语时要后置。如: 7.状语

状语用来修饰动词、形容词或副词。它表示行为发生的时间、地点、目的、方式、程度等,一般由副词、介词短语、不定式,从句或相当于副词的词或短语来充当。状语一般放在句末,但有时也可以放在句首、句中。如:

’t work it out.

句 子 结 构

英语句子有长在短,有简有繁,从现象看,似乎千变万化,难以捉摸,但从实质看,可以发现其内在联系,找出其共同规律。英语句子的基本结构可以归纳成五种基本句型及其扩大、组合、省略或倒装。掌握这五种基本句型,是掌握各种英语句子结构的基础。

英语五种基本句型列式如下:

基本句型一: S V (主+谓)

基本句型二: S V P (主+系+表)

基本句型三: S V O (主+谓+宾)

基本句型四: S V O O (主+谓+间宾+直宾)

基本句型五: S V O C (主+谓+宾+宾补)

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基本句型 一

此句型的句子有一个共同特点,即句子的谓语动词都能表达完整的意思。这类动词叫做不及物动词,后面可以跟副词、介词短语、状语从句等。

1. 太阳在照耀着。 2. 月亮升起了。

3. 宇宙长存。 4. 我们大家都呼吸、吃和喝。

5. 管它呢? 6. 他所讲的没有什么关系。

7. 他们谈了半个小时。 8. 这支笔书写流利。

基本句型 二

此句型的句子有一个共同的特点:句子谓语动词都不能表达一个完整的意*思,必须加上一个表明主语身份或状态的表语构成复合谓语,才能表达完整的意思。这类动词叫做连系动词。系动词分两类:be, look, keep, seem等属一类,表示情况;get, grow, become, turn等属另一类,表示变化。be 本身没有什么意义,只起连系主语和表语的作用。其它系动词仍保持其部分词义。

1. 这是本英汉辞典。 2. 午餐的气味很好。

3. 他堕入了情网。 4.

一切看来都不同了。

5. 他长得又高又壮。 6. 麻烦的是他们缺少钱。

7. 我们井干枯了。 8. 他的脸红了。

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基本句型 三

此句型句子的共同特点是:谓语动词都具有实义,都是主语产生的动作,但不能表达完整的意思,必须跟有一个宾语,即动作的承受者,才能使意思完整。这类动词叫做及物动词。

1. 谁知道答案? 2. 她微笑表示感谢。

3. 他拒绝帮他们的忙。 4. 他喜欢看书。

5. 他们吃了剩饭。 6. 他说:“早上好!”

7. 我想喝杯茶。 8. 他承认犯了错误。

基本句型 四

此句型的句子有一个共同特点:谓语动词必须跟有两个宾语才能表达完整的意思。这两个宾语一个是动作的直接承受者,另一个是动作的间接承受者。通常这一间接承受者用一个介词来连接,当动作的间接承受者在动作的直接承受者之前时,这一介词往往被省略。

1. 她给自己定了一套新衣裳。 2. 她给丈夫煮了一餐美馔。

3. 他给你带来了一本字典。 4. 他对她什么都不拒绝。

5. 我给他看我的照片。 6. 我洗了我的汽车。

7. 我告诉他汽车晚点了。 8. 他教我开机器。

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基本句型 五

此句型的句子的共同特点是:动词虽然是及物动词,但是只跟一个宾语还不能表达完整的意思,必须加上一个补充成分来补足宾语,才能使意思完

3. 这使得他们要细想一想。 4. 他们发现那房子无人居住。

5. 他怎么会这样想? 6. 我们送他出去。

7. 他要我早点回来。 8. 我看见他们上了那辆公共汽车。

英 语 动 词 的 种 类

◆提示:以下动词的分类并没有绝对的标准。有的分类只是为了更好地学习英语动词、掌握动词的用法和搭配,以及更好地学好与动词有关的语法。 ◆切记:有些动词作不同的意义解释时可以分属于不同种类的动词。因此,我们要特别注意一词多义现象。

◆ 动词的种类分类总表:(更多更详细的内容请参考其他复习内容.)

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13

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时态

一般现在时的用法

一、概述

一般现在时表示习惯性、经常性、反复性的动作或存在的状态。―

二、一般现在时的结构

1, 含be动词 主语+be(am is are)+其它。 如:I am a boy. (我用am,你用are,is跟着他她它,单数名词用is,复数名词要用are。)

2, 含行为动词 主语+行为动词+其它 如:we study English.

其中行为动词的形式有两种:a,当主语为第三人称时(三单主语),要在动词后加s或es。b,当主语为其他人称(非第三人称)时,动词一律用动词原形。三、谈谈―主语为三单,其后动词s或es添‖

在一般现在时中,当主语为第三人称单数时,谓语动词要用第三人称单数形式。可以简单叙述为―主语为三单,其后动词s或es添‖。何谓第三人称单数?用一句话概括就是―非你、非我、非复数‖,如he, she, it, my father, my mother, my sister, our English teacher, Tom, Mike, Liu Jia, China, my book, etc.

四、动词第三人称单数变化规则

动词第三人称变化的规则与可数名词复数变化的规则相同。

规则一、一般在词尾加-s。

如:looks, puts. reads, sees, skis等。

规则二、以-o, -s, -x, -sh, -ch结尾的加-es。

如:goes, does, misses, passes, mixes, fixes, pushes, wishes, watches, teaches,等。

规则三、以辅音字母加y结尾的,变y为i,再加-es。注意一定是辅音字母加y才变,若是元音字母加y,则直接加-s。

如:fly → flies, try → tries, fry → fries, copy → copies buy → buys, enjoy → enjoys, play → plays, say → says, pay → pays

五、一般现在时的句子转换(疑问句和否定句)

(1)当句子中有be动词或情态动词时,则把be动词或情态动词(can,could等等)提到主语的前面变成一般疑问句;在be动词或情态动词后面加not变成 15

否定句.例:(一般疑问be 或情态动词提前,否定be或情态动词后加not) ①陈述句:She is a student.

一般疑问句→ Is she a student?

否定句→ She is not a student.

②陈述句:一般疑问句→ Can you swim?

否定句→ I can not swim.

(2)当句子中即没有be动词,也没有情态动词时,则在主语前加助动词do或 does变成一般疑问句(三单主语加does,其他人称加do);在主语后谓语动词前加助动词don’t或 doesn’t变成否定句(三单主语加doesn’t,其他人称加don’t),助动词后的动词要变成动词原形。例:

① 陈述句:We get up at 7:00 every morning.一般疑问句→Do you get up at 7:00 every morning?

否定句→We don’t get up at 7:00 every morning.

②陈述句:She has a little brother.

一般疑问句→ Does she have a little brother?否定句→ She doesn’t have a little brother.

六、一般现在时主要用于下面几情况:

1) 描述当前时间内经常出现、反复发生的动作或存在的状态。 在这种情景中,句子常带有表示频率的时间状语:always , everyday , often , once a week (month , year , etc.) , sometimes , seldom , usually等等,以表示句中的动作或状态是习惯性的、经常性的。例如: They raise ducks as a sideline .他们以养鸭为副业。

She doesn't often write to her family, only once a month. 她不常给家里写信,仅一月一封而已。

I cycle to work every day .我每天骑自行车上班。

It seldom rains here .这儿很少下雨。

2)仅为了等等。

这里的目的是为了"描述现阶段的动作或状态",其重点"不是强调动作发生的时间、或进行的状态"。例如:

He can speak five foreign languages .他能说五种外语。 That is a beautiful city .那是座美丽的城市。

Changjiang River is one of the longest rivers in the world. 长江是世界上最长的河流之一。

She majors in music .她主修音乐。

All my family love football .我全家人都喜欢足球。

My sister is always ready to help others . 我妹妹总是乐于助人。

3) 描述状态、性质、特征、能力陈述客观事实、客观真理。

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顾名思义,客观的情况是"没有时间概念"的;也"不会在意动作进行的状态"。例如:

The sun rises in the east .日出东方。

The earth goes around the sun .地球绕着太阳转。

Ten minus two is eight.十减二等于八。

Light travels faster than sound .光的速度比声音的速度快。 The United States lies by the west coast of the Pacific Ocean. 美国位于太平洋西岸。

4) 根据英文语法规定,当主句的谓语动词是一般将来时,那么时间或条件状语从句的谓语动词只能用一般现在时来表示将来要发生的动作。例如:(用于if when引导的句中时用)

I'll tell him the news when he comes back. 他回来时,我将告诉他这个消息。

If you take the job , they will talk with you in greater details. 如果你接受这份工作,他们将和你谈谈细节。

用于一般现在时的副词,除了上面提到的一些表示频率的以外,常见的还有:now, today , nowadays等等。

五,用于名言警句中。

主将从现

归纳总结:

一般现在时表示习惯性、经常性、反复性、的动作或存在的状态。 标志词:always , everyday , often , once a week (month , year , ) , sometimes , seldom , usually

3, 动词的用法(随着主语的变化而变化):

A: be动词(我用am,你用are, is跟着他她它,单数名词用is,复数名词要用are。)一般疑问be提前,否定be后加not

B:实义动词 (三单主语,要在动词后加s或es,其他人称动词一律用动词原形)。

一般疑问句主语前加do/does(三单主语加does,其他人称加do),否定句在主语后加don’t/doesn’t(三单主语加doesn’t,其他人称加don’t)加了助动词后,原来的动词须还原。

练习巩固

1.写出下列动词的三单形式

go__________ catch_________ brush(刷)_____

wash___________do________ like________

have___________ watch________drink ___________ fly___________ 17

say_______ learn ___________

eat___________ read___________ sing___________ buy__________ study_______ stay __________ make __________ look ____ pass__________ carry ____ come__________plant(种植)______ teach_______ buy__________ wash_________ match

_______guess______ study______ finish_________ go________ snow______ carry_____

2.用括号内动词的适当形式填空。

1. We often___________(play) in the playground.

2. He _________(get) up at six o’clock.

3.__________you_________(brush) your teeth every morning.

4. What________ (do) he usually______ (do) after school?

5.Danny_______(study)English,Chinese,Maths,

Science and Art at school.

6. Mike sometimes __________(go) to the park with his sister.

7. At eight at night, she often__________(watch) TV with his parents.

8. ________ Mike________(read) English every day?

9.How many lessons_________your classmate________(have) on Monday?

10. What time_________his mother_________(do) the housework?

3.选择题

( )1. I ________to school at 7:00 in the morning.

A. go B. going C. goes

( )2. They _______books every day in the library.

A.reads B. read C. reading

( )3. The monkey________ eating bananas very much.

A.like B. likes C. liking

( )4. My father ________to read newspaper after supper every day.

A.like B. likes C. liking

( )5. I like watching TV, but my mother _________like it.

A. don’t B. doesn’t C. does

( )6. ____________ your father drink milk every day?

A.do B. are C. does

( )7. We will go shopping if it____ tomorrow.

A.don't rain B. didn't rain

C.doesn't rain D. isn't rain

( )8. He said the sun ____in the east and ____in the west.

A rose; set B rises; sets

C rises, set D rise; sets

( )9.Wang Mei ____ music and often ____ to music.

A like; listen B likes; listens

C like; are listening D liking ; listen

( )10. Jenny____ English every evening.

A has study B studies

C study D studied

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4.改错(划出错误的地方,将正确的写在横线上)

1. Is your brother speak English? __________________

2. Does he likes going fishing? __________________

3. He likes play games after class. __________________

4. Mr. Wu teachs us English. __________________

5. She don't do her homework on Sundays. _________________

2)用所给的人称改写句子

1.I take photos on Sunday. ( Mike)

2.We grow beautiful flowers. (she)

3.They like collecting stamps. (Ben)

4.I listen to music carefully. (my aunt)

5.You like making a model ship. (Helen)

6.We clean the classroom every day. (he)

7.They look after the pandas. (Mr Wang)

8.I draw a tree and some flowers. (Nancy)

9.We go to bed at eight. ( my sister)

10.I read newspapers in the evening. (Mr Green)

4)改句子

1.Do you often play football after school? (肯定回答)

2.I have many books. (改为否定句)

3.Gao Shan's sister likes playing table tennis (改为否定句)

4.She lives in a small town near New York. (改为一般疑问句)

5.I watch TV every day. (改为一般疑问句)

6.David has got a goal. (改为一般疑问句)

7.We have four lessons.(否定句)

8.Nancy doesn't run fast (肯定句)

9.My dog runs fast. 否定句: 一般疑问句:

10.Mike has two letters for him. 一般疑问句: 否定句: 11.I usually play football on Friday afternoon. 否定句: 一般疑问句: 划线提问 12. Tom does his homework at home. 否定句: 一般疑问句: 划线提问

现在进行时

(一)定义

(1)表示(说话瞬间)正在进行或发生的动作。

(2)也可表示当前一段时间内的活动或现阶段正在进行的动作。

(二)谓语构成:be (am/ is/ are)+v-ing (动词的现在分词)

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注意:be 动词在现在时里算作“助动词”,翻译正在进行时的时候,be不能解释为“是”,否则不通顺。它只是和现在分词一起构成“进行时”。

I’m watching TV now.

They’re playing football.

(三)现在分词(v-ing)的构成。

(1)一般情况下在动词词尾加ing。

go→going ask →asking look→looking

(2)以不发音的e结尾的动词,去掉e加ing。

have →having take→taking make→making write→writing

(3)以一个辅音字母结尾的重读闭音节,双写最后一个字母,再加-ing。

get→getting sit→sitting put→putting run→running swim→swimming begin→beginning shop→shopping

(四)现在进行时态的肯定式、否定式、疑问式及简略回答。

(1)肯定式:be+v-ing She is singing in the next room.

(2)否定式:be+not+v-ing (否定be 后加not)

The students aren’t cleaning the room.

(3)一般问句:be动词提前。(一般疑问be提前)

肯定答语Yes,主语+be,否定答语No,主语+be not。

Are you playing the computer game? Yes, I am. /No, I am not.

(4)特殊问句:对谓语动词进行提问的:What+be +主语+doing+其他?

What is the old man doing under the tree?

对其他成份进行提问的,疑问词+一般疑问句?

Where is the boy swimming?

Who is she waiting for?

(五)现在进行时的 使用场合

1.当句中出现的表示时间的词是now, at the moment (此刻、现在)等时,表示句子要说明的是现在正在发生的事,动词应用现在进行时。 Linda's brother is watching TV in his bedroom now. 琳达的哥哥现在正在他的卧室里看电视。

We're far from home. What are our parents doing at the moment? 我们现在远离家,我们的父母此刻在干什么呢?

2.当句中出现的时间状语是these days, this week, this month等时,如果句子所要表达的意义是在这一阶段正在发生的事,则动词应用现在进行时。

These days we are helping the farmers work on the farm. 这些天我们在农场帮农民们干活。

They're having a test this week. 这一周他们在进行一次考试。 20

Mr Cheng is visiting our village this month. 这个月程先生在我们村访问。

3.在句中出现了Look, Listen, Can't you see? 等暗示词时,说明后面谓语动词的动作正在发生,该动词应用现在进行时。

Look! Maria and Tom are dancing under the tree.

看!玛丽亚和汤姆正在树下跳舞。

Listen! Our English teacher is singing the popular English song.

听!我们英语老师正在唱那首流行的英文歌曲。

Many children are swimming in the river. Can't you see? 许多小孩在河里游泳,你难道看不见吗?

4.注意根据上下文的暗示,句子的谓语动词可能应用现在进行时。 — Where is Mr Wang? 王先生在哪儿?

— Oh, he is reading a newspaper in the office. 噢,他正在办公室看报。

(问句询问王先生在哪儿,应说明他现在在哪儿,故答句应说明他现在正在做的事,用现在进行时。)

—Is that boy Jack?那个男孩是杰克吗?

— No,Jack is doing his homework in the classroom. 不是,杰克正在教室做作业呢。

(答句中说明的杰克做作业的情况应发生在现在,应用现在进行时。)

(六)现在进行时的注意事项

1.在英语中,并不是所有的动词都要使用正在进行时。例如一些表示状态和感觉的动词,(hear,see,smell,touch)一般不用进行时态,而是用一般现在时表示。例如:

I hear someone singing. 我正听见有人唱歌。

Do you see anyone over there? 你看到那里有什么人吗? What does he think of it? 他觉得这怎么样?

如果这些词使用正在进行时态,句子带有某种感情色彩。例如: Are you seeing someone off? 你在给谁送行吗?

They are hearing an English talk. 他们在听一个英语报告。

2.现在进行时可以表将来,相当于一般将来时。能够用来表示将来状况的动词有:arrive, come, do, get, go, have, leave, meet, play, return, see, spend, start, stay, wear, work等。

We are leaving on Friday。我们星期五出发。

Are you going anywhere tomorrow?你明天准备去哪儿?

A foreign guest is giving a lecture this afternoon。今天下午一个外国客人将给我们作报告。

Are you staying here till next week? 你打算在这里呆到下个星期吗?

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在表示将来的情况下,特别是be going to do sth. 这种结构,已经没有多少“去”的意思了,几乎就是用来表达“将要、打算”做什么事情。例如:

It is going to be rather cold tomorrow。明天很可能非常冷。 She is not going to speak at the meeting。她不打算在那个会上发言。

3.当其与always、forever、continually、constantly 等副词连用时表示重复的动作,表示说话人的情感,如:赞许、批评;喜欢、厌恶等。例如:

①She is perpetually interfering in my affairs.

她老是干预我的事。 (不满)

②The students are making progress constantly.

学生们在不断进步。 (满意)

(七). 现在进行时与一般现在时的区别

1.现在进行时表示动作的暂时性,而一般现在时表示动作的习惯性和经常性

I am watching TV now. (暂时性)

I watch TV every day. (经常性)

2.现在进行时可表示短暂性动作,而一般现在时表示长久性动作。 Lucy is living in Beijing.(短时间居住)

Lucy lives in Beijing. (长久性居住)

3.现在进行时表示的动作可带有感情色彩,而一般现在时所表述的动作通常是事实。

You’re always forgetting the most important things. (责备) He is always helping others. (赞扬)

He often helps others. (事实)

4.有些动词不能用进行时,know, understand, love, like, hate, wish, want, think, hope, have, believe, agree, hear, see, notice,等等。这些动词通常用一般现在时表示说话时发生的动作。

I have a lot of friends here.

She wants to buy a new bike.

归纳总结:

现在进行时:

(1)表示(说话瞬间)正在进行或发生的动作。

(2)也可表示当前一段时间内的活动或现阶段正在进行的动作。

现在进行时标志词:now, at the moment (此刻、现在) ,these days, this week, this month

谓语构成:be (am/ is/ are)+v-ing

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(be动词随着主语的变化而变化,我用am,你用are, is跟着他她它,单数名词用is,复数名词要用are)

v-ing的构成:

1:直接加ing

2:去e加ing

3:词尾只有一个元音字母和一个辅音字母时双写辅音字母再加ing

4: ie结尾变y,再加-ing

现在进行时的句型转换:一般疑问be提前,否定be后加not

(八)练习

一、写出下列动词的现在分词:

play______run__________swim________make_______go________like________write________

ski_______read________have_______sing_______dance_______put______see_____buy______love__________live_______take________come________get________stop________sit________begin________shop__________

二、用所给的动词的正确形式填空:

1.The boy __________________ ( draw)a picture now.

2. Listen .Some girls __________( sing)in the classroom .

3. My mother ____________ ( cook )some nice food now.

4. What _____ you ______ ( do ) now?

5. Look . They _____________( have) an English lesson .

6.They ____________(not ,water) the flowers now.

7.Look! the girls ____________(dance )in the classroom .

8.What is our granddaughter doing?She _________(listen ) to music.

9. It's 5 o'clock now. We ___________(have)supper now

10.______Helen__________(wash )clothes? Yes ,she is

三、句型转换:

1. They are doing housework .(分别改成一般疑问句和否定

句) ①_______________________________________________ ②_______________________________________________

2.The students are cleaning the classroom . ( 改一般疑问句并作肯定和否定回答)

①_______________________________________________

②_ ___________________________________

③_____________________________

3.I'm playing the football in the playground .(改为否定句) ________________________________________________

4.Tom is reading books in his study . (改为一般疑问句) 23

________________________________________________

5. My mother is cooking some nice food now. ( 改一般疑问句并作肯定和否定回答)

①_______________________________________________

②_ ___________________________________

③_____________________________

6.They are not watering the flowers now. (改为肯定句)

现在进行时态提高题

一.填空题

1.Mr Zheng _______________ (read) a book now.

2. The rabbits _________________ (jump) now.

3.. Look ! Tom and John ________________ (swim).

4. My brother _________________ (make) a kite in his room now.

5. Look! The bus _______________ (stop).

6. We _______________ (have) an English class now.

7. Listen! Someone is__________________(come).

8. They ___________________(catch) butterflies now.

9. He ______________________ (do) an experiment now.

10. They _____________________(collect) stamps now.

11. Look! He _________ (dive) now.

12. Tom _________( watch ) TV in the diningroom.

13. The doctors ____________(get ) off the bus.

14. Come on. They _________________ ( leave ) now.

15. It _______________________ (eat) fish now.

16. My father _______________(work) in the office now.

17. Where is your mother?

She ________________________ (answer) the phone.

18. The teachers ________________ (run) now.

二、按要求改写句子

1. The boy is playing basketball.

否定句:____________________________

一般疑问句:_________________________

肯定回答:__________________________

否定回答:__________________________

对The boy提问:__________________________

2. 造句:

1).she,the window,open,now.(用现在进行时连词成句.)

_________________

2).is,who,the window,cleaning?(连词成句)

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______________________

3).She is closing the door now.(改成否定句

)______________________

4.)You are doing your homework.(用"I"作主语改写句子)

_______________

5).they,the tree,sing,now,under.(用现在进行时连词成

句.)______________

6).The Young Pioneers are helping the old woman.(改成一般疑问句)__________

三、用现在进行时完成下列句子:

1.What_________you__________(do)? 2.I_____________(sing) an English song.

3.What________he____________(mend)? 4.He______________(mend) a car.

5.______you__________(fly) a kite?Yes,_______.

6.______she___________(sit) in the

boat? 7.______you_____________(ask) questions?

8.We_______________(play) games now.

过去进行时

过去进行时与现在进行时基本相似,只需把行在进行时结构中的be(am,is are)改为过去式was/were即可。即:

be(am,is, are)+v-ing ------ was/were+v-ing

过去进行时表示在

的动作。 过去某一时刻或某一段时间内进行或发生

谓语构成:was /were + V-ing。

常与表示过去的时间状语(时间点或时间段)连用,如:last night, last Saturday the whole morning, all day yesterday, from nine to ten last evening,等;或者与when, while, as引导的过去时间状语连用

练习

一.用动词的适当形式填空

1. While we _____(wait) for the bus, a girl ______ (run) up to us.

2. I __________ (telephone) a friend when Bob _________(come) in.

3. Jim __________ (jump) on the bus as it __________ (move) away.

4. We ___(test)the new machine when the electricity ____ (go) off. 25

5. She __________ (not want) to stay in bed while the others______ (all, work) in the fields.

6. While mother ____(put) Cathy to bed, the door bell _____(ring).

7. As I __________ (walk) in the park, it _____ (begin) to rain.

8. Even when she ___________ (be) a child she ________________ (already, think) of becoming a ballerina (芭蕾舞演员).

9. It was quite late at night. George _____(read) and Amy __________ (ply) her needle when they _______(hear) a knock at the door.

10. There __________ (be) a group round the fire when they __________ (reach) it. An old woman __________ (sit) on the ground near the kettle; two small

children __________ (lie) near her; a donkey __________ (bend) his head over a tall girl.

二,改错:每处划线中有错误,在题后改正 1.Linda was write carefully at nine last night. 2.Tomorrow they were swimming in a river.

3.At that time, she listening to the radio. 4.Jim and I was playing when he came in. 5.I was studiing English when he knocked at the door. 6.Were you cooking a meal? ------Yes, I were.

7.I weren’t doing my homework while Jim was listening to the radio. 8.The students were put the apples in the box then.

按要求句型转换:Mary was riding a bike at that time.

否定句:__________________________________

一般疑问句:______________________________

两回答:__________________________________

特殊疑问句:______________________________

一般过去时

一、 一般过去时的概念:

一般过去时用来表示过去某一时间内发生的动作或存在的状态以及过去习惯性、反复性的动作。谓语动词要用动词的过去式,常和表示过去的时间状语连用,如yesterday昨天、last night昨晚、last week上周、last year去年,等。

二、 一般过去时的结构:(可分三类不同的结构)

1.Be动词的一般过去时

在没有实义动词的句子中使用be动词, am is 的过去式为was; are的过去式为were

肯定句式:主语 + be(was , were) + 其它.

否定句式:主语 + be(was , were) + not + 其它. (否定be后加not) 一般疑问句:Be(was , were) + 主语 + 其它? (一般疑问be提前)

注:在这种构成中,be动词有人称和数的变化,即要根据主语选用was / were。Be动词分为单数和复数,was是表示单数,were是表示复数。 26

2. 实义动词的一般过去时态

肯定句要使用动词的过去式,否定句和疑问句要使用助动词do和 does 的过去式 did.

肯定句式:主语 + 动词(过去式)+ 其它

否定句式:主语 + didn’t + 动词(原形)+ 其它 【did not = didn’t】 一般疑问句:Did + 主语+ 动词(原形)+ 其它【do , does的过去时均为did】?

注:did和didn’t 是构成一般过去时的助动词,其特点是要在其后跟动词的原形。

3. 情态动词的一般过去时态

含有情态动词的一般过去时与含有Be动词的一般过去时,是十分相似,请注意观察。

肯定句式:主语 + 情态动词 + 其它.

否定句式:主语 + 情态动词 + not + 其它.

一般疑问句:情态动词 + 主语 + 其它?

注:情态动词的过去式:can→could , may→might , must→must ,will-would,should-should。

4.特殊疑问句式:

特殊疑问词+be过去式+主语+其他?

特殊疑问词+情态助动词过去式+主语+动词原形+其他?

特殊疑问词+do/does过去式+主语+动词原形+其他?

What was your former name? 你以前叫什么名字?

Why did he late for school last Monday? 上星期一他为什么迟到? What could she do twenty years ago? 20年前她能做什么?

三、 一般过去时的判断标志词

yesterday , the day before yesterday , last + 时间 , this morning 时间 + ago , just now , a moment ago , in + 过去的时间 ,

四、规则动词的过去式

1.一般情况下,在动词原形后面加-ed。

look→looked play→played start→started visit→visited

2.以不发音e结尾的动词,在词尾直接加-d。

live→lived use→used persuade—persuaded like—liked hate--hated

3.以―辅音字母+ y‖结尾的动词,先将 y 改为i ,再加 –ed。

study→studied try→tried fly→flied supply--supplied

4.以重读闭音节(即辅音+元音+辅音)或r音节结尾,末尾只有一个辅音字母的动词,要先双写这个辅音字母后,再加 –ed。

stop→stopped plan→planned regret--regretted

prefer→preferred refer—referred ban--banned

5.不规则动词的过去式需特殊记忆。

如:am(is)-was, are-were(是), go-went(走), come-came(来), take-took(拿), have (has)-had(有), begin(开始)--began, 27

bring(拿来)--brought, can(能)--could, catch(捉住)--caught, cut(砍,割)--cut, do/does(做,干)--did, draw(画画,拉)--drew, drink(喝)--drank, drive(驾驶)--drove, eat(吃)--ate,

fall(跌倒,落下)--fell, feel(感觉)--felt, fly(飞)--flew,

get(获得)--got, give(给)---gave, grow(生长)--grew,

keep(保持)--kept, know(知道,认识)--knew, learn(学习)--learnt, leave (离开)--left, let(让)--let, lie(躺,平放)--lay,

make(使得,做)--made, may(可以)--might, must(必须)--must, read(读)--read, ride (骑)--rode, ring (鸣铃)--rang,

run (跑)--ran, say (说)--said, see (看见)--saw,

sell (卖)--sold, send(送)--sent, set (放)--set,

sing(唱歌)--sang, sit (坐)--sat, sleep (睡觉)--slept,

speak(说话)--spoke, spend (花费)--spent, stand (站立)--stood, swim (游泳)--swam, teach(教)--taught, tell (告诉)--told,

think(认为)--thought, throw(投掷)--threw, understand(懂得)

--understood,

wear(穿)--wore, will(将要)--would, win(获胜)--won,

五、 一般过去时的基本用法

① 表示过去某个特定时间发生的动作或存在的状态。

He suddenly fell ill last night.

他昨晚突然病倒了。

②表示过去的习惯性或经常发生的动作。

alShe went to the cinema once a month when she was at school.

她上学时每个月去看一场电影。

When I was in the countryside, I often walked by the riverside.

我在乡下时经常在河边散步。

一般过去时表示过去经常或反复发生的动作,常和often经常,

ways总是,once a week一周一次,等表示频度的时间状语连用。

③叙述过去连续发生的一件件事。

She got up early, fetched water, cleaned the room and then went out for a walk. 她早早起床,提水,打扫房间然后出去散步。

一般过去时口诀

一般过去时并不难,表示过去动作、状态记心间。

动词要用过去式,时间状语句末站。

否定句很简单,didn't 站在动词原形前,其它部分不要变。

一般疑问句也好变,did放在句子前,主语、动词原形、其它部分依次站。 特殊疑问句也简单,疑问词加一般疑问句记心间。

最后一条请注意,动词过去式要牢记。

归纳总结:

一,一般过去时用来表示过去 某一时间内发生的动作或存在的状态以 28

及过去 习惯性、反复性的动作。

二,一般过去时的构成:

1,主语 + be(was /were )+ 其它.

2,主语 + 实义动词过去式+ 其它

三,句型转换:

1,含be动词的句子,一般疑问be提前,否定be后加not

2,含实义动词的句子,一般疑问在主语前加did, 否定在主语后加didn’t,实义动词用原形

,四、动词过去式的构成

1.一般情况,动词原形后加-ed。

2.e结尾,直接加-d。

3.以“辅音字母+ y”结尾的动词, y 改i ,再加 –ed。

4.以“辅音字母+元音字母+辅音字母”结尾时, 要先双写末尾辅音字母,再加 –ed。

5.不规则动词的过去式需特殊记忆。

五,一般过去时的判断标志词:

yesterday , the day before yesterday , , this morning

时间 + ago , just now , a moment ago , in + 过去的时间 last+时间

一般过去时练习题

一, 写出下列动词的过去式

is\am_________ fly_______ plant________ are ________

drink_________ play_______ go________ make ________

does_________ dance________ worry________ ask _____

taste_________ eat__________ draw________ put ______

throw________ kick_________ pass_______ do ________

二,Be动词的过去时练习

1. I _______ at school just now.

2. He ________ at the camp last week.

3. We ________ students two years ago.

4. They ________ on the farm a moment ago.

5. Yang Ling ________ eleven years old last year.

6. There ________ an apple on the plate yesterday.

7. There ________ some milk in the fridge on Sunday.

8. The mobile phone _______ on the sofa yesterday evening.

三,请用正确动词形式填空

1. He 2. The cat 3. We 29

4. Nancy (pick) up oranges on the farm last week.

5. I (make) a model ship with Mike yesterday.

6. They (play) chess in the classroom last PE lesson.

7. My mother (cook) a nice food last Spring Festival.

8. The girls 9. I (watch) a cartoon on Saturday last week.

10. ______ you _______ (visit) your relatives last Spring Festival?

11. ______ he _______ (fly) a kite on Sunday? Yes, he ______.

12. Gao Shan _______ (put) up the picture last night.

13. I ____________ (sweep) the floor yesterday.

14. What ______ she _______ (find) in the garden last morning?

15. Her father _______ (read) a newspaper last night.

16. Mike _________________(not go) to bed until 12 o’clock last night.

17. I listened but ___________ (hear) nothing.

18. How many people ________ (be) there in your class last term? II. 改错题

1.How is Jane yesterday? _____________________

2.He go to school by bus last week. ____________________________

3.He often goes home at 6:00 last month.

____________________________

4.I can fly kites seven years ago. ______________________________

5.Did you saw him just now. ____________________________________

三、按要求变换句型。

1. Frank read an interesting book about history. (一般疑问句) _______ Frank _______ an interesting book about history? (划线提问)

What________ he _______?

3. Thomas spent RMB 10 on this book. (否定句)

Thomas _______ _______ RMB 10 on this book.

4. My last week. (划线提问)

________ ________ ________ family _______ last week?

现在完成时

一, 定义 现在完成时(Present perfect)表示过去发生并且已经完成的动作对现在造成影响或后果,还可表示动作从过去某一时间开始并一直持续到现在并且有可能还会持续的动作或状态。

它强调三点:(1)强调动作是从过去持续到现在,并有可能继续持续下去。

(2) 强调对现在的影响或结果,此用法容易和一般过去时混淆。两者的区别是:一般过去时有动作发生的时间点,即过去某一时间发生某一 30

动作(动作已完成);现在完成时则没有,即不强调是哪个时间点发生的动作,而强调过去的动作对现在造成的影响和结果。(可能未完成)

(3)在过去不确定的时间里发生的动作,但是结果对现在有影响。 常和现在完成时连用的时间状语:recently,lately,since...for加一段时间...,in the past few years。Yet,never,ever,already,just,so far,up to now,till now,before以及次数等。

二,基本结构: have/has+动词的过去分词(p.p)(V-ed)

① 肯定句中:主语+have/has+动词的过去分词(p.p)(V-ed)+宾语. 如,I have finished my homework.

②否定句中:主语+Haven't/Hasn't+动词的过去分词(p.p)(V-ed)+宾语. 如I haven’t finished my homework.

③一般疑问句中:Have/Has+主语+动词的过去分词(p.p)(V-ed)+宾语. Have you finished your homework?

④特殊疑问句中:特殊疑问词或词组+一般疑问句(have/has+主语+过去分词(V-ed)+其他)What have you done this morning?

三,过去分词的构成 规则动词的过去分词的构成规则与规则动词的过去式的构成规则相同。不规则动词的过去分词则需要特殊记。(参见课本后不规则动词的过去分词变化表。)

注意:1,现在完成时的未完成用法只适用于延续性动词,不可用于终止性动词,即瞬间完成或延续时间很短的动词。如:come,go,arrive,leave,join,become,die,buy 等。 如:史密斯先生已经死了三年了。不可以说成Mr.Smith has died for 3 years. 而要说Mr.Smith has been dead for 3 years.因为die是个瞬间动词,不能持续三年,而 dead是个形容词表状态,可以持续。现归纳总结一下由非延续性动词到延续性动词的转换: arrive→be here begin(start)→be on

die→be dead come back→be back

leave →be away fall ill(sick,asleep)→be ill(sick,asleep) get up→be up go out →be out

finish →be over put on →wear 或be on

open →be open join →be in或 be a member of… close →be closed go to school→be a student

borrow →keep buy →have

catch(a cold)→ have(a cold) get to know →know

begin to study→study come to work→work等

四、基本用法

(1)表示动作发生在过去某个不确定的时间,但对现在留下了某种影响和结果。常被just、already、yet 等副词修饰。不和具体的过去时间连用。 如:-Have you had lunch yet? -Yes,I have. I've just had it.

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(2)表示从过去某一时刻开始一直持续到现在的动作或状态。这个动作可能刚停止,可能仍然在进行。常带有for和since等表示一段时间的状语。 如:He has taught here since 1981

他自1981年就在这儿教书。(可能还要继续教)

I have't seen her for four years.

我有四年没见到她了。

(3)表示说话前发生过一次或多次的动作,现在成为一种经验,一般译为汉语―过‖,常twice,ever,never,three times等时间状语。 如: I have been to Beijing twice.我去过北 京两次。

(4)现在完成时还可以用来表示过去的一个时间到现在这段时间内重复发生的动作. We have had four texts this semester.

注意:have been(to)与have gone( to)的区别:have been(to)表示―去过某地(现在已经回来了)‖,可用于各人称;have gone(to)表示―去某地了(说话时某人不在当地)‖,常用于第三人称,前者可与once ,never,several times等连用,后者则不能。

如:They have been to Beijing twice.他们去过北京两次。

He has gone to Beijing . 他去北京了。

归纳总结:现在完成时(Present perfect)表示过去发生并且已经完成的动作对现在造成影响或后果,还可表示动作从过去某一时间开始并一直持续到现在并且有可能还会持续的动作或状态。

常和现在完成时连用的时间状语:recently,lately,since...for加一段时间...,in the past few years。不和具体的过去时间连用

Yet,never,ever,already,just,so far,up to now,till now,before以及次数等。

基本结构: have/has+动词的过去分词(p.p)(V-ed)

句型转换:一般疑问have/has提前,否定have/has后加not

过去分词的构成:规则动词的过去分词的构成规则与规则动词的过去式的构成规则相同。不规则动词的过去分词则需要特殊记。(参见课本后不规则动词的过去分词变化表。)

五,练习

一、单项选择

1、Both his parents look sad .Maybe

they _________what's happened to him .

A. knew B. have known C. must know D.will know

2、He has _______ been to Shanghai , has he ?

32

A. already B.never C.ever D. still

3、Have you met Mr Li ______?

A. just B. ago C.before D. a moment ago

4、The famous writer _____ one new book in the past two year A.

is writing B.was writing C.wrote D.has written 5、-Our country ______ a lot so far .

-Yes . I hope it will be even ______ .

A. has changed ; well B. changed ; good

C. has changed ; better D. changed ; better

6、Zhao Lan ______already ______in this school for two years .A. was ; studying B. will ; study

C. has ; studied D. are ; studying

7、We ______ Xiao Li since she was a little girl . A. know B. had known C. have known D. knew 8、Harry Potter is a very nice film .I_______ it twice .

A. will see B. have seen C. saw D.see

9、-These farmers have been to the United States . -Really ? When _____ there ?

A. will they go B. did they go

C. do they go D. have they gone

10、-______ you ___ your homework yet ?

-Yes . I _____ it a moment ago .

A. Did ; do ; finished B. Have ; done ; finished

C. Have ; done ; have finished D. will ; do ; finish

11、 His father ______ the Party since 1978 .

A. joined B. has joined C. was in D. has been in

12、-Do you know him well ?

- Sure .We _________ friends since ten years ago .

A. were B. have been C. have become D. have made

13、-How long have you ____ here ?

-About two months .

A. been B. gone C. come D. arrived

14、Hurry up! The play __________ for ten minutes .

A. has begun B. had begun C. has been onD. began

15、 It _____ ten years since he left the army . A. is B. has C. will D. was

16、 Miss Green isn't in the office .

she_______ to the library .

A.has gone B. went C.will go D. has been

17、My parents ______ Shandong for ten years .

33

A. have been in B. have been to C. have gone to D. have been

18、The students have cleaned the classroom, ?

A. so they B. don't they C. have they D. haven't they

19、has Mr White been a member of Greener China since he to China?

A. How soon, comes B. How often, got

C. How long, came D. How far, arrived

20、 His uncle for more than 9 years.

A. has come here B. has started to work

C. has lived there D. has left the university

二、句型转换

3、The old man _________ last year. He for a year. (die) (动词填空)

4、This factory opened twenty years ago.(同义句转换)

This factory ________ for twenty years.

5、Miss Gao left an hour ago. (同义句转换)

Miss Gao ________ _______ ________ ________ an hour ago.

6、Her mother has been a Party member for three years .(同义句) Her mother _______ the Party three years ________ .

7、The Green Family moved to France two years ago. (同义句转换) _______ two years ________ the Green family moved to Fra nce.

8、The bus has arrived here. It arrived ten minutes ago. (把两个句子合并成一个句子)

________________________________________

三、汉译英

1、 她还没有看过那部新电影。

2、 她去过上海。

3、 他这些天上哪儿去了?

过去完成时

一、过去完成时的概念与结构特点

概念:过去完成时表示在过去某一时间或动作之前已经发生或完成了的动作,即“过去的过去( past-in-the-past )”。

----|--------------------------

|-------------------------------|---------------------------->

那时以前 那时 现在 构成:主语+had+过去分词(p.p),其中 had 通用于各种人称。 34

They had already had breakfast before they arrived at the hotel. She had finished writing the composition by 10 :00 this morning. ①肯定句:主语+had+过去分词.

②否定句:主语+had+not+过去分词.

③一般疑问句:Had+主语+过去分词?

肯定回答:Yes,主语+had

否定回答:No,主语+hadn't

④特殊疑问句:特殊疑问词或词组+一般疑问句(Had+主语+过去分词)?

⑤被动语态:主语+had(hadn't)+been+过去分词

二、过去完成时的判断依据

1. 由时间状语来判定

一般说来,各种时态都有特定的时间状语。与过去完成时连用的时间状语有:

( 1 ) by + 过去的时间点。

如: I had finished reading the novel by nine o'clock last night.

( 2 ) by the end of + 过去的时间点。

如: We had learned over two thousand English words by the end of last term.

( 3 ) before + 过去的时间点。

如: They had planted six hundred trees before last Wednesday.

2. 由“过去的过去”来判定。

过去完成时表示“过去的过去”,是指过去某一动作之前已经发生或完成的动作,即动作有先后关系,动作在前的用过去完成时,在后的用一般过去时。这种用法常出现在:

( 1 )宾语从句中

当宾语从句的主句为一般过去时,且从句的动作先于主句的动作时,从句要用过去完成时。在told, said, knew, heard, thought等动词后的宾语从句。如:

She said that she had seen the film before.

( 2 )状语从句中

在时间、条件、原因、方式等状语从句中,主、从句的动作发生有先后关系,动作在前的,要用过去完成时,动作在后的要用一般过去时。如: When I got to the station, the train had already left. After he had finished his homework, he went to bed.

注意: before, after 引导的时间状语从句中,由于 before 和 after 本身已表达了动作的先后关系,若主、从句表示的动作紧密相连,则主、从句都用一般过去时。如:

Where did you study before you came here?

35

After he closed the door, he left the classroom.

( 3 )表示意向的动词,如hope, wish, expect, think, intend, mean, suppose等,用过去完成时表示"原本?,未能?"

We had hoped that you would come, but you didn't.

3. 根据上、下文来判定。

I met Wang Tao in the street yesterday. We hadn't seen each other since he went to Beijing.

三、过去完成时的主要用法

1. 过去完成时表示一个动作或状态在过去某一时间或动作之前已经完成或结束,即发生在“过去的过去”。如:

When I woke up, it had stopped raining.

我醒来时,雨已经停了。(主句的动作发生在“过去的过去”)

2. 过去完成时是一个相对的时态,表示的是“过去的过去”,只有和过去某一时间或某一动作相比较时才使用它。如:

He told me that he had written a new book. (had written 发生在 told 之前 )

3. 过去完成时需要与一个表示过去的时间状语连用,它不能离开过去时间而独立存在。此时多与 already , yet , still , just , before , never 等时间副词及 by , before , until 等引导的短语或从句连用。

如:Before she came to China, Grace had taught English in a middle school for about five years.

Peter had collected more than 300 Chinese stamps by the time he was ten.

4. 过去完成时表示某一动作或状态在过去某时之前已经开始,一直延续到这一过去时间,而且动作尚未结束,仍然有继续下去的可能。

如: By the end of last year, he had worked in the factory for twenty years. ( had worked 已有了 20 年,还有继续进行下去的可能)

5. 过去完成时还可用在hardly?when?, no

sooner?than?(刚??就??), It was the first (second, etc) time (that)?等固定句型中。

e.g:Hardly had he begun to speak when the audience interrupted him.

他刚开始演讲,听众就打断了他。

No sooner had he arrived than he went away again.

他刚到就又走了。

It was the third time that he had been out of work that year.

这是他那一年第三次失业了。

四、过去完成时与现在完成时的区别

现在完成时表示的动作发生在过去,但侧重对现在产生的结果或造成的 36

影响,与现在有关,其结构为“助动词 have (has) + 过去分词”;过去完成时则是一个相对的时态,它所表示的动作不仅发生在过去,更强调“过去的过去”,只有和过去某时或某动作相比较时,才用到它。试比较:

I have learned 1000 English words so far.

到目前为止我已经学会了 1000 个英语单词。

I had learned 1000 English words till then.

到那时为止我已经学会了 1000 个英语单词。

— I'm sorry to keep you waiting. 对不起,让你久等了。

— Oh, not at all. I have been here only a few minutes.

没什么,我只等了几分钟。(“等”的动作从过去某一时间点持续到现在) — John returned home yesterday. 约翰昨天回到家的。

— Where had he been?

他去哪儿了?(答语中使用过去完成时是指约翰在 returned home 之前去了哪些地方,即“过去的过去”)

归纳总结:过去完成时表示在过去某一时间或动作之前 已经发生或完成了的动作,即“过去的过去( past-in-the-past )”。

构成:主语+had+过去分词(p.p)

句型转换:一般疑问had提前,否定had后加not

二、过去完成时的判断依据

1. 由时间状语来判定

( 1 ) by + 过去的时间点。

( 2 ) by the end of + 过去的时间点。

( 3 ) before + 过去的时间点。

(4) 由“过去的过去”来判定。

过去完成时表示“过去的过去”,是指过去某一动作之前已经发生或完成的动作,即动作有先后关系,动作在前的用过去完成时,在后的用一般过去时。

练习

一. 单项选择

1.He asked me ___ during the summer holidays.

A. where I had been B. where I had gone C. where had I been D. where had I gone

2. What ___ Jane ____ by the time he was sever?

37

A. did, do B. has, done C did, did. D. had, done

3. I ___ 900 English words by the time I was ten。

A. learned B. was learning C. had learned D. learnt

4. She ___ lived here for ___ years.

A. had, a few B. has, several C. had, a lot of D. has, a great deal of

5. By the time my parents reached home yesterday, I ___ the dinner already.

A had cooked B. cooked C. have cooked D. was cooked

6. She said she ____ the principle already

A .has seen B. saw C. will see D. had seen

7. She said her family____ themselves ____ the army during the war.

A. has hidden, from B. had hidden, from C. has hidden, with D. had hidden, with

8. By the time he was ten years old, he _____.

A. has completed university B. has completed the university

B. had completed an university D. had completed university

9. She had written a number of books ___ the end of last year.

A. for B. in C. by D. at

10. He ___ to play ____ before he was 11 years old.

A had learned, piano B. had learned, the piano

C. has learned, the piano D. learns ,piano.

11. What _____ Annie ____ by the time he was ten?

A. did, do B. did, did C. has, done D. had done 12 .He __ in the factory for three years before he joined the Army.

A. has worked B. works C. had worked D. will work

13. By the end of last week, they ___ the bridge.

A. has completed B. Completed C. will complete D. had completed

14. Ben hates playing ____ violin, but he likes playing ____ football.

A. a…the B. the… the C. / …the D. the…/

15. By the time he was 4, he _____ a lot of German words.

A. had learned B. has learned C. learned D. learns 16 .Jim turned off the lights and then ___ the classroom.

A. was left B. had left C. has left D. left

17.They ____ in Guangzhou since 2000.

A. lived B. had lived C. have lived D. were living

18. The train from Beijing__ ten minutes ago.

A. has arrived B. was arriving C. arrived D. had arrived

19. The students ___ their classroom when the visitors arrived.

A . have cleaned B. had cleaned C. was cleaned D. have been cleaned

20. Fergie _____ the project in one hour.

A. have finished B. will finish C. finishes D. has finished

21. The man ___ his coat and went out.

A. put on B. had put on C. will put on D. was putting on

二.用动词的适当形式填空

1. We ______ (paint) the house before we _______ (move) in.

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2. That rich old man ______ (make) a will before he ______ (die).

3. They ______ (study) the map of the country before they _____ (leave).

4. The robbers _______ (run away ) before the policemen_____ (arrive).

5. I ______ (turn off) all the lights before I ______ (go) to bed.

6. Paul ______ (go) out with Jane after he ______ (make) a phone call.

7. Tom ______ (say) he ______ (read) the book twice.

8. Our plan ________ (fail ) because we _______ (make) a bad mistake.

9. When the chairman _______ (finish) speaking, he _______ (leave)the hall.

11.When I ________ (arrive) at the station, he ________ (leave).

12.We _______ (learn) about 4000 English words by the end of last term.

13. I waited until he _______ (finish) his homework.

14. We were surprised at what she ______already ______(do)

15.She _______ (not go) to Qingdao because she ______ (be) there before.

三.句型转换

1.I had sold the ticket when she came.(改否定句)

2.She had sung a song to us before she danced.(改否定句)

3.They began to climb the mountain after they had bought all the food and drinks.(否定)

4.By 10:00 a.m, I had been very hungry. (改一般疑问)

5.Lucy had already completed the project when I arrived.(改一般疑问) 6.By the time he got to the airport, the plane had taken off. (改一般疑问) (对划线部分提问)

(对划线部分提问)

9..Jack didn’t go to the cinema(对划线部分提问) (对划线部分提问)

(对划线部分提问)

12.We cooked the dumplings. We ate them up. (用过去完成时连接两句) 13.Jim’s father mended the car. It was broken. (用过去完成时连接两句) 39

14.We had our tests. Then we had a long holiday.( 用过去完成时连接两句) After we ________________________, we _____________________________

15.He showed us the picture. Then he showed us around the house. 用过去完成时连接两句)

Before he _______________________, he______________________________.

一般将来时

定义:

表示将来某个时间要发生的动作或存在的状态,也表示将来经常或重复发生的动作,常与表示将来的时间状语连用。如:tomorrow , soon , next Monday , next year , next weekend , this afternoon , this evening, the day after tomorrow(后天)等。

二. 构成及变化

一般将来时常用的两种结构

1.be(am,is ,are) going to+动词原形 : 表示打算、准备做的事或即将发生或肯定要发生的事。

2.shall/will +动词原形 : 表示将要发生的动作或情况,没有太多的计划性, 还用来表示意愿。

㈠ be going to +动词原形

1.肯定句:主语+ be(am ,is,are) going to +动词原形+其它成份。 My sister is going to learn English next year.

我姐姐准备明年学英语。

2.否定句:主语+be(am,is,are)not+going to +动词原形+其它成份(否定be后加not)

I am not going to(go to)the cinema tonight. 我今天晚上不打算去看电影。

3.一般疑问句:Be (am / is / are)+主语+going to+动词原型+其它成份…?(一般疑问be提前)

Is your father going to play basketball with you ?

No , he isn’t./Yes,he is.你父亲打算和你去打篮球吗?不,他不。

4.特殊疑问句 特殊疑问词(what where who why how等)+一般疑问句 ? Where are you going to spend Spring Fesital.? 春节你打算在哪过?

5.注意: be going to 结构后面习惯上不跟 go ,come 等表位移的动词,一般用该动词的进行时形式表示。如:

He’s going to New York next week.下周他要去纽约.

㈡ will /shall+动词原形

(在书面语中,主语是第一人称时,常用shall ,在口语中,所有人称都可以用will)

1.肯定句:主语+will/shall+动词原形+其它成份

I (shall) write to him next week. 下周我将给他写信。

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2.否定句 主语 + will /shall+ not + 动词原形 +其它成份(直接在情态动词后加not)

They won’t watch TV this evening.今天晚上他们不看电视。

3.一般疑问句 will/shall+主语 +动词原形+其它成份(把情态动词提前) Will you stay at home with us tomorrow ? 明天你和我们呆在家里好吗?

4.特殊疑问句 特殊疑问词(Wh-) +一般疑问句

When will your father be back? 你爸爸什么时侯回来?

附 :Shall I /we …常用来征求对方意见,而问对方是否愿意,或者表示客气的邀请,常用Will you…?他们的回答比较灵活。

(1).Shall we go to the park ?

肯定Sure , let’s go .

否定 No , let’s go to the cinema.

(2).Will you please come to my birthday party next week ?下周你请到我的生日聚会来?

肯定Yes, I will. / Sure .

否定 I’m sorry. I’m afraid I can’t.

区别:

(1)be going to主要用于:

1、表示事先经过考虑、安排好打算要做的事情。

E.g. Dad and I are going to see a Beijing opera this afternoon. 今天下午我和爸爸打算去看京剧。

2、表示根据目前某种迹象判断,某事非常有可能发生。

E.g.Look! There come the dark clouds. It is going to rain.

瞧!乌云密集,天要下雨。

I am afraid I am going to have a cold.

恐怕我要患重感冒。

(2) will主要用于在以下几个方面:

1、表示单纯的未来―将要‖通用各个人称。eg:

They will go to visit the factory tomorrow.

明天他们将去工厂参观。

2、表示不以人的意志为转移的自然发展的未来的事。eg:

Today is Saturday. Tomorrow will be Sunday.

今天是星期六。明天是(将)是星期日。

3、问对方是否愿意做某事或表示客气地邀请或命令。

eg: Will you please turn on the radio? 请打开收音机好吗?

Will you go to the zoo with me? 你和我一起去动物园好吗?

归纳总结:

一般将来时表示将来某个时间要发生的动作或存在的状态,也表示将来经

常或重复发生的动作

常与表示将来的时间状语连用:如:tomorrow , soon , next Monday , 41

next year , next weekend , this afternoon , this evening, the day after tomorrow(后天)等。

二. 构成

一般将来时常用的两种结构

1.be going to+动词原形

2.shall/will +动词原形

句型转换:1,一般疑问be提前,否定be后加not。

2,一般疑问shall/will提前,否定shall/will后加not。

练习:

一.填空

1. 我打算明天和朋友去野炊。

I_____ _______ _________ have a picnic with my friends.

I ________ have a picnic with my friends.

2. 下个星期一你打算去干嘛? 我想去打篮球。

What ________ ________ _________ _________ _________ next Monday?

I _______ ______ _____ play basketball.

What ______ you do next Monday? I ________ play basketball.

3. 你妈妈这个周末去购物吗?是,她要去买一些水果。

_____ your mother _______ ________ go shopping this

___________?

Yes, she ________. She ______ ________ __________ buy some fruit.

4. 你们打算什么时候见面。

What time _______ you _________ __________ meet?

二句型专换

5. Nancy is going to go camping.(改否定)

Nancy ________ going to go camping.

6. I’ll go and join them.(改否定)

I _______ go ______ join them.

7. I’m going to get up at 6:30 tomorrow.(改一般疑问句)

________ _______ ________ to get up at 6:30 tomorrow?

8. We will meet at the bus stop at 10:30.(改一般疑问句)

_______ ________ meet at the bus stop at 10:30.

9. She is going to listen to music after school.(对划线部分提问) ________ _______ she ________ ________ _________ after

school?

10. My father and mother are going to see a play the day after

tomorrow.(同上) _________ _________ going to see a play the day after tomorrow.

三.用所给词的适当形式填空。

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11. Today is a sunny day. We ______________ (have) a picnic this afternoon.

12. My brother _______________ (go) to Shanghai next week.

13. Tom often ______________(go) to school on foot. But today is rain. He ______________ (go) to school by bike.

14. What do you usually do at weekends? I usually ________ (watch) TV and ________(catch) insects?

15. It’s Friday today. What _____she _________ (do) this weekend? She ______________ (watch) TV and _____________ (catch) insects.

16. What ___________ (do) you do last Sunday? I ____________ (pick) apples on a farm.

What ______________ (do) next Sunday? I ______________ (milk) cows.

17. Mary ____________ (visit) her grandparents tomorrow.

18. Liu Tao ____________ (fly) kites in the playground yesterday.

19. David ______________ (give) a puppet show next Monday.

20. I ________________ (plan) for my study now.

四.选择题

1. There __________ a meeting tomorrow afternoon.

A. will be going to B. will going to be

C. is going to be D. will go to be

2. Charlie ________ here next month.

A. isn’t working B. doesn’t working

C. isn’t going to working D. won’t work

3. He ________ very busy this week, he ________ free next week.

A. will be; is B. is; is

C. will be; will be D. is; will be

4. There ________ a dolphin show in the zoo tomorrow evening.

A. was B. is going to have

C. will have D. is going to be

5. –________ you ________ free tomorrow?

– No. I ________ free the day after tomorrow.

A. Are; going to; will B. Are; going to be; will

C. Are; going to; will be D. Are; going to be; will be

6. Mother ________ me a nice present on my next birthday.

A. will gives B. will give

C. gives D. give

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现在完成时参考答案:

一、单项选择。 1、现在完成时主要强调过去发生的动作对现在造成的影响,或过去发生的动作还未结束,一直持续到现在或将来,重点在于对现在的影响。这种考查难度较大,往往无时间状语,需要从上下文分析、推理才行。故上两侧根据上下文分析、推理,正确答案是B。

2、现在完成时常与already(已经),just(刚刚,正好),ever(曾经),never(从来,也不;从不),before(以前),yet(仍然)等连用。故2应选B。

3、C

4、现在完成时常与recently(近来),so far(到目前为止),in the past/"last + 一段时间"等时间状语连用。因为上述短语表示的是从现在起往前推算的一段时间,句中的动作是从过去某一时间或时刻开始持续到现在的。故4应选D。 5、C

6、现在完成时时常与"for +时间段或since +过去时间点"连用(含从句,从句过去时)。故6应选C。

7、C

8、现在完成时还与once(一次),twice(两次),three times(三次),several times(几次)等表示重复次数的词语连用。故8应选B。

9、现在完成时与一般过去时容易混淆,就是因为它们所表示的动作都发生在过去,但二者又有区别:一般过去时表示过去某个时间发生的事、存在的状态或经常发生的动作,说话的侧重点在于陈述一件过去的事情,与现在没有关系;现在完成时表示与现在有关系的发生在过去的动作,它不与表示过去的时间状语(如yesterday , last week , a moment ago等)连用。故9的正确答案为B。

10、B

11、现在完成时中,非延续性动词不能与for和since引导的表示一段时间的状语连用,通常是用相应的延续性动词来代替。故11的正确答案依次为:D。

12、B 13、A 14、C 15、A。

16、"have/has gone to + 地点"表示"某人去了某地(还未回来)",指主语所指的人不在这儿。"have/has been in + 地点"表示"在某地呆了多长时间",常与表示时间的状语连用。

"have/has been to +地点"表示"曾经去过某地(但现在已不在那儿)。"故16的正确答案为A。

17、A 18、D 19、C 20、C

二、句型转换。

1、has he? 2、How long 3、died, has been dead

4、has been open 5、has been away 6、joined;ago

7、It is, since 8、The bus has been here for ten minutes.

三、汉译英。

1、Jim has finished doing his homework already. He is free now.

2、He received a letter yesterday.

3、My father has been to the Great Wall before.

4、She hasn't seen the new film yet.

5、She has been to Shanghai.

6、Where has he been these days?

过去完成时

一.A D C A A D B D C B D C C B B A

二.1.had paint ... moved 2.had made ... died 3.had studied ... left 4. had run away ... arrived 5. had turned off ... went 6.went ... had made 7.said ... had read 8.failed ... had made 9.(had) finished ... left 10.were having /had had ...got 11.arrived ... had left 12.had learned 13.(had) finished 14.had ... done 15.didn’t go ... had been

二.句型转换

1.I hadn't sold the ticket when she came.

2. She hadn't sung a song to us before she danced.

3. They didn't begin to climb the mountain after they had bought all the food and drinks.

4. Had you been very hungry by 10:00 a.m?

5. Had Lucy completed the project when I arrived yet?

6. Had the plane taken off by the time he got to the airport?

7. What had he done when you saw him?

8.What did he do when he had read the note?

9. Why didn't Jack go to the cinema?

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10. How long had you/we had the toys before you/we gave them to the child?

11.What had she written by the end of 1960?

12.After we had cooked the dumplings, we ate them up.

13.Jim’s father mended the car because it had been broken.

14.After we had had our tests, we had a long holiday.

15. Before he showed us around the house, he had showed us the picture

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