Test 1 Reading Comprehension
On her first day in Micronesia, Lisa said she thought people were ignoring her requests. The day was hot, and she needed a cold ( 47 ). She went into a store and asked, “Do you have cold drinks?” The woman there didn’t say anything. Lisa ( 48 ) the question. Still the woman said nothing. At this ( 49 ), Lisa gave up and left the store. She soon learned that the woman had answered her: She had ( 50 ) her eyebrows, which in Micronesia can mean “yes”.
This ( 51 ) Jan of an experience in Bulgaria. She had gone into a restaurant that was famous for its stuffed cabbage. “Do you have stuffed cabbage today?” she asked the waiter. He nodded his head. Jan ( 52 ) waited. The cabbage never arrived. In Bulgaria, a nod means “no”.
In China, David said he had had a different kind of problem. When David asked his students, “Can we meet at 8:00 next week ( 53 ) at our usual time?” they immediately answered “yes”. So David was greatly surprised when the students never came to class. His ( 54 ) explained that the students couldn’t come at 8:00 but said they could. In China, it’s ( 55 ) to disappoint someone—especially a ( 56 )—by saying “no”.
答案：d l h g k e f b c n
Reading Comprehension (in depth)
The government is to ban payments to witnesses by newspapers seeking to buy up people involved in prominent cases such as the trial of Rosemary West.
In a significant ( 1 ) of legal controls over the press, Lord Irvine, the Lord Chancellor, will introduce a draft bill that will propose making payments to witnesses ( 2 ) and will strictly control the amount of publicity that can be given to a case before a trial begins.
In a letter to Gerald Kaufman, Chairman of the House of Commons media select committee, Lord Irvine said he ( 3) with a committee report this year which said that self-regulation did not offer sufficient control.
Publication of the letter came two days after Lord Irvine caused a storm of media protest when he said the interpretation of privacy controls contained in European legislation would be left to judges ( 4 ) Parliament.
The Lord Chancellor said introduction of the Human Rights Bill, which ( 5 ) the European Convention on Human Rights legally binding in Britain, laid down that everybody was ( 6 ) to privacy and that public figures could go to court to protect themselves and their families. 1
“Press freedoms will be in safe hands with our British judges,” he said.
Witness payments became an ( 7 ) after West was sentenced to 10 life sentences. Up to 19 witnesses were ( 8 ) to have received payments for telling their stories to newspapers. Concerns were raised ( 9 ) witnesses might be encouraged to exaggerate their stories in court to ( 10 ) guilty verdicts.
a. illogical i. ensure
b. makes j. issue
c. tightening k. binding
d. shared l. entitled
e. agreed m. rather than
f. Publication n. that
g. popularity o. said
1. c h e m b 6. l j o n i
Test 3 Reading Comprehension
An important task of the space shuttle is to launch a space telescope and place it in an orbit about 500 kilometers above the earth. This orbiting telescope is the largest ( 47 ) instrument in space. It is about 13 meters long and 4 meters in diameter, and it ( 48 ) about 10,000 kilograms. With the space telescope astronomers are able to study other space objects, i.e. stars, comets, planets, and other galaxies. The telescope also makes it possible to ( 49 ) space objects seven times more distant than those that can be seen with earth-based telescopes. Instruments ( 50 ) the satellite take pictures and measure the distance between space objects as well as the distance of the objects from earth. The pictures also aid in the determination of the space objects’ ( 51 ). All this information is converted into electronic ( 52 ), or pulses, and sent to earth. On earth astronomers use computers to reconstruct the ( 53 ) and display them on television screens.
The space telescope ( 54 ) earth-based telescopes for another reason. The main problems faced by users of telescopes on earth are the clouds and bad weather that can prevent accurate viewing of objects in space. ( 55 ), in space there is an absence of weather and therefore no such interference. The space telescope is able to provide astronomers with a clear view of the ( 56 ) every day of the year.
答案： o d a c l e g f n
Many teachers believe that the responsibilities for learning lie with the students. If a long reading assignment is given, instructors expect students to be familiar with the ( 1 ) in the reading even if they do not discuss it in class or take an examination.
The ( 2 ) student is considered to be one who is motivated(激发) to learn for the sake of learning, not the one interested only in getting high grades. Sometimes homework is returned with brief written comments but without a grade. Even if a grade is not given, the students are ( 3 ) for learning the material assigned. When research is ( 4 ) the professor expects the students to take it actively and to complete it with ( 5 ) guidance. It is the students’ responsibility to find books, magazines, and articles in the library. Professors do not have the time to explain how a university library works; they expect students, ( 6 ) graduate students, to be able to exhaust the reference ( 7 ) in the library: Professors will help students who need it, but ( 8) that their students should not be too dependent on them. In the United States professors have many other duties besides teaching, such as administrative or research work. Therefore, the time that a professor can spend with a student outside of class is ( 9 ). If a student has problems with classroom work, the student should either ( 10 ) a professor during office hours or make an appointment.
a. ideal i. approach
b. responsible j. assigned
c. minimum k. information
d. distribute l. abstract
e. context m. exactly
f. sources n. prefer
g. dismissed o. particularly
1. k a b j c 6. o f n h i
Test 5 Reading Comprehension
In the last fifty years, computers in many forms have become increasingly ( 47 ). For example, today the calculator is regarded as an essential tool for basic calculations by students and business people. The word processor, is considered ( 48 ) by most writers, researchers, and office workers. In addition, many families use computers to ( 49 ) information, to ( 50 ) budgets, and to provide entertainment.
( 51 ) the growing popularity of computers, some people are genuinely afraid of these machines. They fear that computers have ( 52 ) and that they will take control over people and things. Because of this fear, people lack the confidence to try to the new technology.
This is ( 53 ). Computers perform many important functions. What would happen if we did not have any computers? Not only would the cost of communications increase, and many processes would require more time than before to carry out. Further, technological achievements 3
such as space programs and scientific ( 54 ) would probably slow down. Computers have become an integral and important part of daily life. To those of you who are afraid, we should remember that computers are ( 55 ) advanced adding machines and ( 56 ).
答案： a g k b h I o e m n
Drunken driving—sometimes ( 1 ) America’s socially accepted form of murder—has become a national epidemic. Every hour of every day about three Americans on ( 2 ) are killed by drunken drivers, adding up to a(n) ( 3 ) 250,000 over the past decade.
A drunken driver is usually ( 4 ) as one with a 0.10 blood alcohol content or roughly three beers, glasses of wine or shots of whisky drunk within two hours. Heavy drinking used to be an ( 5 ) part of the American macho(男子气概) image and judges were lenient(宽大的) in most courts, but the drunken slaughter has recently ( 6 ) so many well-publicized tragedies, especially involving young children, that public opinion is no longer so tolerant.
Twenty states have ( 7 ) the legal drinking age to 21, reversing a trend in the 1960s to reduce it to 18. After New Jersey lowered it to 18, the number of people killed by 18-20-year-old drivers more than doubled, so the state recently upped it back to 21.
Reformers, however, fear raising the drinking age will have little ( 8 ) unless accompanied by educational programs to help young people to develop “responsible attitudes” about drinking and teach them to resist peer pressure to drink.
Tough new laws have led to more arrests and tests and in many areas already, to a marked ( 9 ) in fatalities(死亡事故). Some states are also penalizing bars for serving customers too many drinks. A tavern in Massachusetts was fined for serving six or more double brandies to a customer who was “obviously intoxicated” and later drove off the road, killing a nine-year-old boy.
As the fatalities continue to occur daily in every state, some Americans are even beginning to speak well of the 13 years national ( 10 ) of alcohol that began in 1919, which President Hoover called the “noble experiment.”
a. incredible i. defined
b. acceptable j. total
c. increase k. effect
d. raised l. average
e. available m. purpose
f. prohibition n. decline
g. usage o. called
1. o l a I b 6. h d k n f
Test 7 Reading Comprehension
The British describe themselves as a nation hating foreign countries. This helps to ( 47 ) the fact that they are living in one of the world’s most international countries. Saloon-bar patriots may be happy to read tabloid newspapers which ( 48 ) to laugh at continental neighbors. But the bar itself is likely to ( 49 ) Australian staff, who ( 50 ) Thai food and Mexican beer to people who work for Korean companies, wear Italian clothes and—they still can’t ( 51 ) a complete sentence in French—are beginning to talk like Americans. The bar is also likely to be ( 52 ): a Japanese bank, Nomura, recently became the largest landlord in Britain.
Though ethnic minorities ( 53 ) less than 10% of the resident population, Britain is one of the easiest countries to enter, ( 54 ) its insistence (often quoted as evidence of insularity) on border maintaining controls within the EU. All 300 million citizens of the European Economic Area con live and work in Britain if they ( 55 ) without having to fill in so much as a form. At least 18 million of them will ( 56 ) Britain each year.
答案： c n d k i f h b e m
The shifting profile of a city in the United States is apparent in the ( 1 ) definitions used by the United States Bureau of the Census(人口普查局). In 1870 the census officially ( 2 ) the nation’s “urban” from its “rural” population for the first time. “Urban population” was defined as persons living in towns of 8,000 inhabitants or more. But after 1900 it meant persons living in incorporated places having 2,500 or more inhabitants.
Then, in 1950 the Census Bureau radically changed its definition of “urban” to take ( 3 ) of the new vagueness(含糊) of city boundaries. In ( 4 ) to persons living in incorporated units of 2,500 or more, the census now included those who lived in unincorporated units of that size, and also all persons living in the densely settled urban fringe, ( 5 ) both incorporated and unincorporated areas located around cities of 50,000 inhabitants or more. Each such unit ( 6 ) as Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMSA), was conceived as an integrated economic and 5
social unit with a ( 7 ) population.
Each SMSA would contain at ( 8 ) one central city with 50,000 inhabitants or more or two cities having shared boundaries. Such an area included the county in which the central city is located, and neighboring counties that are found to be metropolitan in character and economically and socially integrated with the county of the central city. By 1970, about two-thirds of the population of the United States was living in these urbanized areas, and of that figure more than half were living outside the central cities.
While the Census Bureau and the United States government used the term SMSA, social scientists were also using new terms to describe the vaguely defined areas reaching out ( 9 ) what used to be simple “towns” and “cities.” A host of terms came into ( 56 ): “metropolitan regions,” “metropolitan clusters,” “megalopolises,” and so on.
a. addition i. distinguished
b. including j. outside
c. except k. large
d. least l. first
e. changing m. use
f. account n. comparison
g. most o. named
1. e I f a b 6. o k d h m
Test 9 Reading Comprehension
During the early years of this century, wheat was seen as the very ( 47 ) of Western Canada. When the crops were good, the economy was good; when the crops failed, there was ( 48 ). People on city streets watched the yields and the price of wheat with almost as much feeling as if they were ( 49 ). The marketing of wheat became an increasingly ( 50 ) topic of conversation.
War ( 51 ) the most dramatic events in marketing the western crop. For years, farmers mistrusted speculative ( 52 ) selling as carried on through the Winnipeg Grain Exchange. Wheat prices were generally low in the autumn, but farmers could not wait for markets to improve. It had happened too often that they sold their wheat soon after harvest when farm debts were coming ( 53 ), only to see prices rising and speculators getting rich. On various ( 54 ), producer groups asked for firmer controls, but governments had no wish to become involved, at least not until wartime wheat prices threatened to run wild.
Anxious to ( 55 ) inflation and rising living costs, the federal government appointed a board of grain supervisors to handle deliveries from the crops of 1917 and 1918. Grain Exchange trading was suspended, and farmers sold at prices fixed by the board. To handle the crop of 1919, the government ( 56 ) the first Canadian Wheat Board, with full authority to buy, sell, and set prices.
答案: j e i g m h f k d b
During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, almost nothing was written about the contributions of women during the colonial period and the early history of the ( 1 ) formed United States. Lacking the right to vote and absent from the ( 2 ) of power, women were not considered an important force in history. Anne Bradstreet wrote some significant ( 3 ) in the seventeenth century, Mercy Otis Warren produced the best contemporary history of the American Revolution, and Abigail Adams penned important letters showing she ( 4 ) great political influence over her husband, John, the second President of the United States. But ( 5 ) or no notice was taken of these contributions. During these centuries, women remained ( 6 ) in history books.
Throughout the nineteenth century, this lack of visibility continued, ( 7 ) the efforts of female authors writing about women. These writers, like most of their male ( 8 ), were amateur historians. Their writings were celebratory in ( 9 ), and they were uncritical in their selection and use of sources.
During the nineteenth century, however, certain active women showed a keen sense of history by keeping records of activities in which women were ( 10 ). These records have provided valuable materials for later generations of historians.
a. invisible i. counterparts
b. exercised j. poetry
c. despite k. significant
d. engaged l. little
e. representative m. reformers
f. nature n. seats
g. demonstrated o. generally
1. h n j b l 6. a c I f d
Test 11 Reading Comprehension
Before the early 1960’s interest in the different roles of the left and right hemispheres of the brain depended almost ( 47 ) on findings drawn from animal research, from studies of neurological patients with one-sided brain damage. But it was possible to ( 48 ) which brain hemisphere was most ( 49 ) in speech and other functions in normal people by having them listen to two different 7
words coming to the two ears at the same time. This became ( 50 ) the “dichotic listening” procedure. When several word ( 51 ) are given in a row, people are unable to report them all, and most right-handers prefer to report, and report more accurately, words given to their right ear. This seems to ( 52 ) the fact that signals from the right ear, although sent to both hemispheres, are better sent to the left hemisphere which controls speech. People who have speech represented in the right hemisphere, a very unusual ( 53 ) even in left-handed people, more accurately report what their left ears hear.
( 54 ) the right-ear advantage for speech, there is generally a left-ear advantage for another type of ( 55 ) signal: music. When right-handed people listen to melodic ( 56 ) they report them better from the left ear.
答案： f d h i l c j g a m
President Coolidge’s statement, “The business of America is business,” still points to an important truth today—that business institutions have more prestige(威望) in American society than any other kind of organization, including the government. Why do business institutions ( 1 ) this great prestige?
One reason is that Americans view business as being more firmly based on the ideal of competition than other institutions in society. Since competition is seen as the major source of progress and ( 2 ) by most Americans, competitive business institutions are respected. Competition freedom, ( 3 ) of opportunity, and hard work are protected.
Competition protects the freedom of the individual by ( 4 ) that there is no monopoly(垄断) of power. In contrast to one, all-powerful government, many businesses compete against each other for profits. Theoretically, if one business tries to take unfair advantage of its customers, it will lose to competing business which treats its customers more fairly. Where many businesses compete for the customers’ dollar, they cannot afford to treat them like ( 5 ) or slaves.
A contrast is often made between business, which is competitive, and government, which is a monopoly. Because business is competitive, many Americans believe that it is more supportive of freedom than government, even though government leaders are ( 6 ) by the people and business leaders are not. Many Americans believe, then, that competition is as important, or even more important, than ( 7 ) in preserving freedom.
Competition in business is also believed to strengthen the ideal of equality of opportunity. 8
Competition is seen as an open and fair race where success goes to the ( 8 ) person regardless of his or her social class background. Competitive success is commonly seen as the American ( 9 ) to social rank based on family background. Business is therefore viewed as an expression of the idea of equality of opportunity rather than the aristocratic(贵族) idea of inherited ( 10 ).
a. administrative b. alternative c. democracy d. elected e. equality
f. exhausted g. ensuring h. inferiors i. library j. orientation k. possess l. privilege m. prosperity n. substituting o. swiftest
1. k m e g h 6. d c o b l
Test 13 Reading Comprehension
The producers of instant coffee found their product strongly resisted in the market places despite their manifest(明显的) advantages. Furthermore, the advertising ( 47 ) for instant coffee was far greater than that for regular coffee. Efforts were made to find the cause of the consumers’ seemingly unreasonable resistance to the product. The reason given by most people was dislike ( 48 ) the taste. The producers ( 49 ) that there might be deeper reasons, however. Their view was ( 50 ) by one of motivation research’s classic studies, one often cited in the trade. Mason Haire, of the University of California, constructed two shopping lists that were ( 51 ) except for one item. There were six items common ( 52 ) both lists: hamburger, carrots, baking powder, bread, canned peaches and potatoes, with the brands or amounts ( 53 ). The seventh item, in the fifth place on both lists, ( 54 ) “11 b. Maxwell House Coffee” on one list and “Nescafe Instant Coffee” on the other. One list was given to each person in group of fifty women, and the other list to those in another group of the same size. The women were asked to ( 55 ) their lists and then to describe, as far as they could, the kind of woman (“personality and character”) who would draw up that shopping list. Nearly half of those who had received the list including instant coffee described a housewife who was lazy and a poor planner. On the other hand, only one woman in the other group described the housewife, who had included regular coffee on her list, as lazy; only six of that group ( 56 ) that she was a poor planner. Eight women felt that the instant-coffee user was probably not a good wife! No one in the other group drew such a conclusion about the housewife who intended to buy regular coffee.
答案： e f n b g o k j l m
The loudest outcry about poverty seemed to come in the wealthiest country by far in the world. According to most calculations, through most of the 1945-1970 period, the United States had a standard of living well ( 1 ) Europe’s, which are many times also higher than the world ( 2 ).
( 3 ) protests about poverty, hunger, and dreadful need are ( 4 ) from the United States than from countries with one-fortieth of their living standard. An annual per capita income(个人平均所得) of eight dollars is ( 5 ) of much of Africa and Asia.
It would seem strange to these people who were only ( 6 ) of the fact that American radicals(激进派) demand a retreat(撤回) from an American commitment(承诺) to the far corners of the globe so that the money thus saved can be used to ( 7 ) the standard of living of low-class Americans.
What this last point suggests is not that human wants are never to be satisfied which is doubtlessly true. ( 8 ), it suggests the extent of contemporary breach of social standards. People have learned to ( 9 ) any barrier to personal fulfillment as an unbearable offense. They have greatly expanded the circle of self-awareness and no longer ( 10 ) sharp limitations on individual desires in the name of the group.
a. average i. Rather
b. Furthermore j. less
c. raise k. typical
d. above l. opposed
e. standard m. Yet
f. more n. aware
g. below o. consider
1. d a m f k 6. n c I o h
A land free from destruction, plus wealth, natural resources, and labor supply—all these were important ( 1 ) in helping England to become the center for the Industrial Revolution. But they were not enough. Something else was needed to start the industrial process. That “something special” was men, ( 2 ) individuals, who could invent machines, find new ( 3 ) of power, and establish business organizations to reshape society. The men who ( 4 ) the machines of the Industrial Revolution came from many backgrounds and many occupations. Many of them were more inventors than scientists. A man who is a ( 5 ) scientist is primarily interested in doing his research ( 6 ). He is not necessarily working so that his findings can be used.
An inventor or one interested in applied science is usually trying to make something that has a concrete ( 7 ). He may try to solve a problem by using the theories of science or by experimenting through trial and error. Regardless of his method, he is working to obtain a ( 8 ) result; the construction of a harvesting machine, the burning of a light bulb, or one of many other 10
Most of the people who ( 9 ) the machines of the Industrial Revolution were inventors, not trained scientists. A few were both scientists and inventors. Even those who had ( 10 ) or no training in science might not have made their inventions if groundwork had not been laid by scientists years before.
a. little i. specific
b. use j. worse
c. pure k. factors
1. k m o e c
l. appeared m. creative n. situations o. sources 6. g b i d a 11