高级英语（上） Advanced English (Book A)
Die as You Choose 生死由你
SESSION ONE: PREVIEW
? arguably 可争辩的，按理的 + able 可… ? if sth has a reason for it , that means it is arguable
? atrocity: outrage; terrible, cruel and violent acts, esp. in a war 暴行
? atrocity 经常pl， ? Nazi medical atrocities ? atrocious 残暴的；糟糕的
? Blameless: doing no wrong, free from responsibility for doing sth bad 无过错的，无 指责的。 ? ? culpable: responsible and deserving blame ? 应受谴责的，难辞其咎的 ? ? The accident was the result of a culpable failure to consider the risks involved. ? 这场事故是没有考虑到有关风险引起的，应 该追究责任。
? gruesome(line3) ：very unpleasant and filling you with horror, usually because it is connected with death or injury. ? 令人厌恶的，可怕的，恐怖的
? Intrude on/into/upon ? To go or be somewhere you are not wanted or are not supposed to be 闯入；to disturb sth 侵扰，扰乱 ? The Qing governments after 1840 were corrupt and weak, and Japan seized the opportunity to intrude into China. ? Invade ? 非法入侵者 illegal intruder invader
? languish : ? 1) to be forced to stay somewhere, and suffer sth unpleasant for a long time ? 被迫滞留 长期受苦 受煎熬 ? languish in prison/ in his dull job ? 由于坐牢/工作乏味而萎靡不振
? living will ? A living will is a legal document that a person uses to make known his or her wishes regarding life prolonging medical treatments ? libertarian ? A proponent of libertarianism, a political philosophy that upholds individual liberty, especially freedom of expression and action ; ? A member of a libertarian political party
? Macabre: ? unpleasant and strange because connected with death and frightening things. ? 可怕的，恐怖的。
? ? ? ? monstrosity Monster 怪兽 ogre Monstrous 丑恶的，丑陋的，骇人的 Monstrosity 巨大而丑陋之物/事情
? ★Polemical argumentative, disputatious ? ? polemic论战（c.) ? involving strong arguments for or against sth. Often in opposition to the opinion of others. ? Polemicist 善辩者
支持 VS 反对
? proponent <-> opponent
? 支持：sustain, support, back, stand by, back sb up, ? 反对： oppose, be against, object(objection-sustained, overruled), be opposed, fight/struggle/go against, take a stand against (stand against)
? refer to either a mild feeling of nausea or the quality of being easily disgusted or upset. May also cause feeling faint or general uneasiness.
? ? ? ? ? Squeamish neurotic psychotic 易心烦意乱的，神经质的， 神经脆弱的 -ish: 似…的，有点儿…的 -ly:像…的 childish , girlish , mannish , boyish, reddish womanly , motherly ， sisterly, brotherly,
★ Taboo ; tatoo ? a cultural or religious custom that do
es not allow people to do 禁忌， 戒律; ? a general agreement not to do sth or talk about sth 避讳 ? “Death‖ is one of the great taboos in your culture.
? tenacious = persistent, insistent, dogged, stubborn, obstinate, strong-willed, ? ~ belief/tradition ? 牢固的传统，坚定不移的信念 ? With tenacity
? ★Terminal ? adj. Can not be cured and will lead to death ? 晚期的，不治的，致命的
? terminal lung cancer 晚期肺癌 ? airport/bus/train terminal ? 航空终点站/汽车终点站/铁路终点站
? throes (line 3): violent pains, especially at the moment of death ? (尤指死亡时的)剧痛,(总是以复数的形 式出现）, 阵痛（child delivery）， ? in death throes 处于临终痛苦
? usher 引座员
The girl ushered me along the aisle to my seat. 引 座小姐领我沿着通道到我的座位。
? usher in: to be the beginning of sth new, or to make sth new begin 开创，开始，开启，带来
? usher in a new age of prosperity ? 走进了一个繁荣的新时代
? ★withhold: to refuse to give sth to sb ? 拒绝给某物；抑制 ? She was accused of withholding information from the police. ? 她被指控对警方知情不报。
? withhold the payment
? ? ? ? ? ?
1. dodge: 1)avoid , evade or elude He was accused of dodging his taxes. 他被指控逃税。 2)move aside suddenly I dodged out of the way when he threw a chair at me. ? 他将椅子向我扔来的时候,我急忙闪开。
? ? ? ?
to come to light: to be discovered or revealed On investigation some new facts came to light. 一经调查,一些新的事实就被暴露了。 It has now come to light that he was financially backed by some interest group. ? 人们刚刚得知,他受到了某个利益集团的经济 支持。
? Bring to light 揭示 显露
? We hope the investigator will bring to light more facts about this murder.
Which of these countries has a mercykilling doctor now languishing in its jails？It is the small one， Holland， which has rules for euthanasia and so can police it effectively. （which 指？）The Dutch doctor broke his country's rules. 在上述哪个国家有医生因为实施安乐死而 在监狱里服刑呢？是在小国荷兰。荷兰制定 了有关安乐死的法律，能有效地管理它。那 位荷兰的医生违反了他国家的规定。
There is a moral here for all the countries， and not just for the big deathforbidding country， America. Right now it is going over the arguments about euthanasia once again. （moral about what？ Deathforbidding 只是禁止死亡吗？It 指的是？）
这里涉及到的（有关安乐死的）道德问题 在所有国家都存在，决不仅只针对美国这个 禁止安乐死的大国。目前美国正再次展开有 关安乐死的辩论。
6. bizarre : weird （adj.) ? unusual in appearance, st
yle , or characters 外貌,风格或性格怪异 ? his bizarre behavior ? 他古怪的行为 ? Bizarrely dressed ? 穿着奇装异服
? 7. at her own request =at the request of sb ? 应她本人的要求 ? ? 他按照经历的请求到了那里。 ? He was there at the request of his manager/at his manager’s request. ? 8. vote on: 就......进行表决 ? Let's vote on this issue, since we can't agree. ? 既然我们不能达成一致意见,就来投票表决吧。
? Rumble on ? 1. Thunder is rumbling in the distance. ? 2. rumble on : ( an argument or a dispute, to continue slowly and steadily for a long time) 缓慢而长久地持续
? Discussions rumble on over the siting of the new airport. ? 关于新机场的选址问题，讨论起来没完没了。
? ? ? ? ?
★ On purpose =deliberately I'm sorry, I didn't do it on purpose. 对不起，我不是存心这么做的。 ★ Taboo ; a cultural or religious custom that does not allow people to do 禁忌，戒律; a general agreement not to do sth or talk about sth 避讳 “Death‖ is one of the great taboos in your culture. ★ syringe: a plastic or glass tube for injection 皮下注射器
Most say they know somebody else who does. But because they can rarely discuss euthanasia openly with patients – even when those patients beg them for it – doctors tend to kill only when the dying are too far gone to consent. ? ( 如何理解 be too far gone to consent) ? sb is gone ? 多数医生说他们知道其他医生也有同样的行 为。但是因为医生也几乎不能与病人公开讨论安乐 死--即使在病人乞求他们的时候—所以医生往往倾 向于仅在要死的人处于垂危昏迷之际而无法表达是 否同意安乐死时，才结束其生命。
? Questions for discussion : ? How do you understand ―voluntary euthanasia‖? And ―involuntary euthanasia‖?
? According to the author’s opinion, which of the above is more humane ? Does the author accept voluntary euthanasia or not ? Where can you find proof? ?
? the Almighty: ? Thank Almighty, we are free at last! ? A mighty warrior 强而有力的，威猛的
? ? A pen can be mightier than a sword
? ? ? ? ?
12. prosecution (line 6) prosecute ：officially charge sb 控告 ( ~ sb for sth/doing sth) charge sb with sth accuse sb of sth/doing v
? violate violation violent ? The company was prosecuted for breaching the Health and Safety Regulation. ? 这家公司被控违反《卫生安全条例》 ?
? 12. controversial ? controversy : 争议 a controversial figure 有争议的人物。 ? hold out (the last line) : continue to last, ? 坚持,挺住. ? The rebels hold out in the mountains for several years. Mountainous area ? 反叛分子在山区顽抗了几年。
? How long can the distinction between killing and letting die hold out？ ? forms of euthanasia ? passive euthanasi
a ? -a patient doesn’t want his life prolonged; letting patients die, do not save patients ? active euthanasia – ? a patients want to die, kill him ( Para 4)
? Just as there can be culpable omissions, so too can there be blameless acts. ? Omission, negligence 疏忽 不作为 ? ignorance, ? Culpable negligence 重大疏忽
? Stand to do sth ? To be in a situation where you are likely to do sth; is likely to ? 可能做某事 ? stand to gain 处于有利地位….. ? You stand to make/gain a lot from this deal. ? 你很可能会从这笔生意中大赚一笔。
– 敲击，打击，撞击 He was struck by a heavy blow. – 突然发生 A powerful earthquake struck the Italian island of Sicily early this morning... – 给…印象，让觉得 It struck me as stupid at first.
? N. 打击， 罢工, 突然袭击
– Staff at the hospital went on strike in protest at the irresponsible doctor. – Air strike, nuclear strike
? ★withhold: to refuse to give sth to sb ? 拒绝给某物；抑制 ? She was accused of withholding information from the police. ? 她被指控对警方知情不报。
? ? ? ? ?
★ administer ： to apply as a remedy administer laws 执行法律 The doctor administered some medicine to the girl. prescribe prescription Diagnose diagnosis
Suppose – to take an example from the moral philosophy books – that a man stands to gain from the death of a certain child. The child strikes his head in the bath and falls unconscious. The man sits down and watches him drown. ? The fact that the man has performed no action does not excuse him.（ 把the fact放到后 面翻译） ? 让我们从道德伦理著作中举例说明。假定一个 人会从某个孩子的死亡中获益，当这个孩子在浴 缸中撞伤头部而失去知觉时，那个人坐视不管， 任其溺水身亡。 ? 虽然这个人什么都没有做，但这不能使他因此 逃避罪责。
Similarly， suppose that a doctor does no wrong by withholding some treatment in order that death should come sooner rather than later. Is he then necessarily wrong if he administers enough painkillers to kill？ (passive euthanasia vs active euthanasia, 在病 人的要求之下; should表示对将来的虚拟) Does the fact that the doctor performed an action， rather than an omission， condemn him？ 类似地，再假设，假设医生停止某种治疗措 施，以期病人更早地而不是更迟地死去，他没有 做错什么。那么，如果这位医生使用足够的镇痛 剂让那位病人死去，他就一定大错特错吗？ 这位医生采取了某种作为，而不是不作为，这 会使他有罪吗？
西方医学之父 Father of Western Medicine ? Hippocrates 希波克拉底 ? ancient Greek physician ? four humors： blood, phlegm, black bile, yellow bile ? 体液学说：血液、粘液、黄胆、黑胆 ?
? The Hippocratic Oath is an oath historically taken by doctors swearing to practice medicine ethically. It is widely believed to have been written by Hippocrates, often regarded as the father of western medicine, in Ionic Greek (late 5th century BCE), or by one of his students, and is usually included in the Hippocratic Corpus.
I will neither give a deadly drug to anybody if asked for it, nor will I make a suggestion to this effect.
? ? ? ?
★ rule out Rule sb/sth out (as adj) 认为…而把sb/sth排除之外； 认为…而觉得sb/sth 不合适
? The proposed plan was ruled out as too expensive. ? 建议的解决方案被认为花钱太多而遭否决。 ? We can't rule out the possibility of his quitting the new job. ? 我们无法排除他辞掉新的工作的可能性。
? Let your heart rule your head 感情用事
There is nothing new in this view. When Hippocrates formulated his oath for doctors， which explicitly rules out active killing， most other Greek doctors and thinkers disagreed with his ban. ? 这个观点并不新颖。当希波克拉底为医 生制定信条的时候，曾明确禁止安乐死，而 多数其他希腊医生和思想家都不赞成这一禁 令。 ? Let the past be a guide. ? 前事不忘，后事之师。
? ? ? ?
agree with 同意，和…意见一致 agree on 对…取得一致意见 agree in 在…方面意见一致；在…相同 agree about 对…有相同的看法；就…取得 一致意见 ? agree upon 对…取得一致意见
? Embrace ? 1. hug ? They embraced and swept and promised to keep in touch ? 2. to accept an idea, a proposal , a set of beliefs, etc, when it is done with enthusiasm ? ~ democracy/feminism ? 3. include ? The talks embraced a wide range of issues. ?
? ? ? ? ?
14. comply with : to obey a rule/order 遵守(意愿,要求或条 件等). Abide by . Follow, obey ~ the rules /the demands/ the law/ the requests. in compliance with …… According to in accordance with
? 15. prescribe ? 1. to tell sb to take particular medicine ? 2. ( a person or an organization with authority ) to say that what should be done and how sth should be done ? 指定， 规定 ，命令 ? The prescribed textbook
? ? ? ? ?
15. pose danger to/for sth/sb 给….造成危险 Pose: cause sth. to exist 引起；产生；造成（威胁、问题等） pose a threat/challenge/danger/risk 构成威胁/挑战/危险/风险
? Give rise to… ? Bring about
? ? ? ? ? ?
Precedent antecedent ---descedent 范例；先例，前例 set a precedent for sth 为…提供了范例 There is no precedent for a disaster of this scale. 这种规模的空难的空前的。 precede unprecedented 史无前例的
? Heroic 英雄般的，英勇的 ? Heroically 英雄般地 ? Historic historically historical
? Hero heroin heroine
Another worry is that a legal framework for euthanasia
， permitting a doctor to comply with a dying man's request in a prescribed set of circumstances， might pose dangers for society by setting a precedent for killing. ? 另一个担忧是 ,这种安乐死的法律框架(体 系),允许一个医生在一套规定的限制下顺从 一个垂死病人的要求, 也许会给谋杀开了先 例,从而对社会造成危害.
It is probably no coincidence that it was Dutch doctors who most heroically resisted pressure to join in the Nazi medical atrocities that have given euthanasia its worst name.
? 当年就是荷兰医生们英勇无比地顶住了压力，拒绝 参与纳粹进行的令安乐死声名狼藉的（人体）医学 实验，这恐怕不是巧合。
The same tenacious respect for individual liberty that stopped them killing healthy people， who did not want to die， now lets them help dying people who do. 这些医生对个人自由坚定不移的尊重使他们没 有杀害渴望活下去的健康人。今天正是同样的精 神又使他们去帮助不愿活下去的垂危病人。
? libertarian: a person who strongly believe that people should have the freedom to do and think as they like 自由论者 ? liberate V. 解放 ? liberty N. 自由 ? a liberated woman 不受传统思想羁绊的女性 ? liberation ? PLA
Opposition is too fierce， because of the shadow of the past. Countries with an uninterrupted recent libertarian tradition have less to fear from setting some limited rules for voluntary euthanasia. ? By refusing to discuss it, they usher in something worse. ? 由于历史的阴影,反对(安乐死)的力量异常 强大。而在那些近年来有着持续的自由主义 传统的国家，在为自愿安乐死制定有限的规 定时，则担忧会比较少。 ? 拒绝讨论这个问题，则会使他们走进更糟 糕的境地。
? In January the Journal of the American Medical Association published a bizarre letter, in which an anonymous doctor claimed to have killed a 20year-old cancer patient at her own request. This started a debate that will rumble on into the autumn, when Californians may vote on a proposed law legalizing euthanasia. The letter was probably written for polemical impact. It is scarcely credible. It’s author claims that he met the cancer patient for the first time, heard five words from her – ―Let’s get this over with‖ – then killer her. A. credible B. Journal E. on C. with D. at F. anonymous
? Yet medical monstrosities that are hardly any better undoubtedly continue, almost as a matter of macabre routine, in America, Britain and many other countries. It is disturbingly easy to find doctors who will say, in private, that they sometimes kill patients on purpose. Most say that know somebody else who does. But because they can rarely discuss euthanasia openly with patients – even when those patients beg them for it – doctors tend to kill only when the dying are too far gone to co
nsent. Thus, because voluntary euthanasia is taboo , a doctor makes the decision himself – and the patient is killed involuntarily in the night with a syringe. : A. involuntarily B. on E. routine C. consent D. monstrosities F. for
? Because many people accept that it is sad, undignified and gruesome to prolong the throes of death will all the might of medical technology, passive euthanasia – letting patients die – is widely accepted. Most American states have ―living – will‖ legislation that protects doctors from prosecution if they do not try to save someone who has said he does not want life prolonged. Active euthanasia – killing – remains controversial. How long can the distinction between killing and letting die hold out? : A. throes B. prosecution E. distinction C. controversial D. undignified F. legislation
? Just as there can be culpable omissions, so too can there be blameless acts. Suppose – to take an example from the moral philosophy books – that a man stands to gain from the death of a certain child. The child strikes his head in the bath and falls unconscious. The man sits down and watches him drown. The fact that the man has performed no action does not excuse him. Similarly, suppose that a doctor does no wrong by withholding some treatment in order that death should come sooner rather than later. Is he then necessarily wrong if he administers enough painkillers to kill? : A. administer B. perform E. omissions C. strikes D. withholding F. does
? Many doctors working on the battlefield of terminal suffering think that only squeamishness demands a firm difference between passive and active euthanasia on request. Their argument for killing goes like this: one of a doctor’s duties is to prevent suffering; sometimes that is all there is left for him to do, and killing is the only way to do it. There is nothing new in this view. When Hippocrates formulated his oath for doctors, which explicitly rules out active killing, most other Greek doctors and thinkers disagreed with his ban. Let the past be a guide. . A. formulated B. be E. for C. battlefield D. demand F. explicitly
? Some people believe that the time of death is appointed by God and that no man should put the clock back on another. Yet if a patient’s philosophical views embrace euthanasia, it is not clear why the religious objections of others should intrude on his death. Another worry is that a legal framework for euthanasia, permitting a doctor to comply with a dying man’s request in a prescribed set of circumstances, might pose dangers for society by setting a precedent for killing. A. embrace B. setting E. prescribed C. appointed D. intrude F. comply
?West Germany, by contrast, will not be able to legalize any form of euthanasia for a long time to come. Opposition is too fierce, because of the shadow of the past. Countries with an uninterrupted recent libertarian tradition have less to fear from setting some limited rules for volunt
ary euthanasia. By refusing to discuss it, they usher in something worse. . A. usher B. fierce E. by C. uninterrupted D. from
? This article is about the legalization of euthanasia. Euthanasia is a problem having been discussed for a long time. There are two different attitudes about it at present. Holland accepted euthanasia and openly practiced it a few thousand times each year; America condemned it. Euthanasia is divided into two kinds - -the active and the passive. The first one is that doctors administers enough painkillers to kill, and the latter one is that doctors don' t give medical treatment and let the patient die. Passive euthanasia is accepted by many countries. But if euthanasia is legalized, it will be used by many people to murder. The author's idea is to let patients die as they choose.
? ? ? ? ? ?
1. come to light: 显露，揭露 2. on request= at the request of sb 3. pose danger to/for sth 构成危险 4. on purpose: 并非偶然地，故意地 5. hold out: last, remain; resist an attack 6. rule out: exclude as irrelevant, ineligible 7. comply (with): 按要求做；听从 ? 8. pose dangers to 带来危险 ? 9. usher in: 开创； 引导
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 dodged statesman intrude withhold ushered legalize precedent credible arguable politician
? 1. He ___ left and right as the gunman opened fire. ? A. dodged B. evaded (2005,10,47) ? evade 逃避（尤其指法律或道德上的责任） ? dodge 逃避；闪开，躲开
? He was accused of dodging his taxes.
? 2. They speaker’s last few words were
(drowned out, stopped) by the audience’s thunderous applauses. ? Drown out: if a loud noise drowns out another sound, it prevents it from being heard ? Stop: prevent, not continue
? 3. 27. Would I be (intruding, invading) if I
joined in your discussion? Intrude: to interrupt someone or become involved in his or her private affairs in an annoying and unwanted way Invade: to enter a country, town, or area using military force, in order to take control of it invade 侵犯 侵略 intrude 侵入 侵扰
? 4. 28. The (omission, exclusion) of a full stop at the end of the sentence is a deliberate act by the writer. ? Omission: when you do not include or do not do something ? Exclusion: when someone is not allowed to take part in something or enter a place ? exclude
? 5 The newly-recruited soldiers swore an (oath, promise) of loyalty to their country ? Oath: a formal and very serious promise ? Promise: to tell someone that you will definitely do or provide something or that something will happen ? swear/take an oath 发誓，宣誓 ? promise 许诺，答应
? 6. The suspect was accused of
(preventing, withholding) some important evidence from the court. ? Prevent: to stop something from happening, or stop someone from doing somethin
g ? Withhold: to refuse to give someone something(隐瞒)
? 7. 31. Whether or not he is the best person for the promotion is (debatable, arguable). ? Debatable: things that are debatable are not certain because people have different opinions about them ? Arguable: not certain, or not definitely true or correct, and therefore easy to doubt ? 有疑问的，可争辩的 ? It is arguable that legislation has little effect on young people’s behavior. 有疑问的、 ? arguably 按说，按理
? Now there is an urgent need for laws on euthanasia. Forbidden in many countries, Euthanasia, can only be secretly practiced by doctors in those countries. However, it is openly practiced in some other countries, for instance, Holland. ?
Why prolong a patient’s life when he suffered from a certain disease for a long time and had no hopes of recovery ? Why not put an end to his life through euthanasia? Why let a patient continue to suffer from throes when he has been tortured by an incurable disease for a long time? why did you come so early ? why come so early ?
When a patient has been suffering for a long time but is too far gone to be cured, why let his throes continue ? Why not use euthanasia to get his throes over with? Why did you come so early ? Why come so early ? Why not
Why must we prolong a patient’s throes when he is suffering from a certain disease for a long time and there is no hope of recovering ? Why can’t we terminate his pains through euthanasia ? put an end to sth
? Currently , more and more countries are going over the arguments about euthanasia.
? Currently , more and more countries are going over debates on the legitimacy of euthanasia. ? enter debates on whether euthanasia should be legalized or not. ? Currently, a debate on whether euthanasia should be legalized or not is rumbling on in more and more countries.
But, if eu is legalized, it may pose a danger— someone might murder others/sb else through euthanasia a danger that someone might use it to commit murder.
Take advantage of it to commit murder. innate to In a word, on the whole, to sum up Euthanasia is an issue that cannot be dodged. The problem with euthanasia is cannot be dodged
When a patient had suffered for a long time and had no hope of recovery, why let him continue his suffering ? Why not use euthanasia to end his suffering?
? Why prolong a patient’s throes, when he had suffered for a long time and had little hope of recovery? Why not put an end to his suffering with the help of euthanasia?
However, if euthanasia is legalized, it may pose a danger—someone may murder by it. In a word, the problem of euthanasia can’t be dodged. may take advantage of it to murder sb else. Someone may murder sb else through it
? But, if euthanasia is legalized, there might be another danger— someone may use euthanasia to kill. On the whole, euthanasia is a problem that can not be dodged for too much longer. ?
However, legalizing euthanasia may pose a danger. ? However, if euthanasia is legalized, it may pose a danger—someone may take advantage of it for murdering/killing. To sum up, euthanasia is an issue/somthing that can not be dodged for too much longer.