The Use of Force
SESSION ONE: PREVIEW
William Carlos Williams
In May 1963, he was posthumously awarded the Pulitzer Prize for
and the Gold Medal for Poetry of the National Institute of Arts and Letters.
Pictures from Brueghel and Other Poems (1962)
? What is the story about? ? Do you think the little girl is spoiled or not? ? Is there any difference between the East and the West when the girl’s behavior is concerned?
Words and expressions
Apologetic: adj. 道歉的 认错的,辩护的 Apologetic Movement Jesus Apologetic 耶稣会 Apologetic shrug/speech/statements Apologize: v. 道歉 认错 for sth to sb Apology : n. 道歉 a poor apology make/accept an apology Apology accepted Apologist (辩护者，护教论者=defender, justifier)
? Apprehension n. 畏惧，忧虑, 逮捕
? Be under the apprehension that… 唯恐，担心… ? Entertain/have apprehension(s) of/for : 对…担心
? Apprehend v. 逮捕，抓获，领会，理解；对…疑 虑/担心 ? Apprehensive, apprehensible ? Comprehend : 理解，包含 ? Comprehensive : 综吅的 广泛的 有理解力的 ? Comprehension: 理解 包含 ? Listening comprehension is an active and complicated cognitive process. ? Comprehension test
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Coax: 哄劝、劝诱 coax sb. to do sth. 诱哄某人去干（某事） coax sb. into doing sth. 诱哄某人去干（某事） coax sth. out of sb. 哄骗某人东西 The problem is no one knows how to coax kids into sleeping more. On the fourth day, they said to Samson’s wife, ―coax your husband into explaining the riddle for us, or we will burn you and your father’s household to death‖. Trick Trick sb into doing sth Play a trick on sb; Trick or treat
? Desist ； 停止，终止，控制，打消念头 ? Desist from sth/doing ? The Ministry of Internal Security urges you to desist from sending or forwarding any SMS that may cause public unrest. ? Insist： 坚持，坚决主张 ? Insist on/upon sth/doing ? Even if the host tells you not to bring anything, it is polite to insist on bringing wine, at least, as a gift in exchange for their hospitality. ? Resist : 抵抗 抗拒 忍耐 -resistance
? Hysterical : 歇斯底里的，发狂般的 ? Hysteria n. 狂躁症。癔症 ? ? ? ? ? crazy Mad insane Lunatic Out of one’s mind
Instinctively 本能 Instinct n. 本能， 天性 Nature n. 自然 本质 By instinct 出于本能 Have an instinct for 有……的天分 生来就 On instinct 本能 凭直觉 Maternal instinct 母性本能 We choose our friends by instinct, but we keep them by judgment. ? These animals have an instinct for/of protecting themselves from being extinct. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
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In inside Inward Internal introverted
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Out outside Outward External extroverted
? Muscle n. 肌肉 ? Muscular a. 肌肉的 ? Masculine a. 男性的
阳 刚的 男子气概的 ? Masculinity n. 男性气概
Over? ? ? ? ? ? Over 过度…的 Overpower 制服 压服 Overeat Overdrink Overstay Overstay one’s welcome
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Profusion n. 大量，丰富 In profusion ： a great amount/quantity of sth The roses in the garden grow in profusion . He makes promises in profusion , but never realizes them . Profuse adj.丰富.generous, lavish, abundant, plentiful, rich, The critics were profuse in their praise of the new novel. He was profuse in his thanks for the help. Be profuse with one's money
– n. 文化 – V. 细胞培养（cultivate）
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Depressor V. depress Depression The Great Depression
? 勇敢 英勇 ? Valiant ? Brave ------bravery ? Courageous ------courage 胆量 Nerve ? Gut ? Have the nerve to do sth ? Have guts to do sth 有勇气做某事
? read the text ? try to understand the text as much as you can ? answer the questions in Exercise A
SESSION TWO: TEXT
? Why wasn’t the sick girl in bed? ? Why were the girl’s parents eyeing the doctor up and down distrustfully? ? What made the girl refuse to open her mouth to the doctor? ? Why did the doctor insist on examining her throat? ? Did the girl’s physical beauty have anything to do with the outcome of the incident? Explain. ? Can you find any fault with the doctor’s behavior?
Text analysis and language study
? ? ? ? 1. startle v. to disturb suddenly as surprise The noise startled me out of my sleep. Startling starling news/ startling discovery (disturbing, frightening) ? Startled ? Surprise, astonish, amaze
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"潮湿的" Damp----"轻度潮湿, 使人感觉丌舒服的", I don't like damp weather. wet 指"含水分戒其他液体的"、"湿的", 奷: be wet to the skin moist指"微湿的"、"湿润的", 常含"丌十分干, 此湿度是 令人愉快的"意思, Grasses were moist with dew. Humid:正式用语, "空气中湿度大的", 奷: In the east, the air is humid in summer. humidity
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3. Eye sb. up and down 上下打量. Observe, watch, look attentively at They eyed the stranger up and down . glare (at), stare(at), glance(at) 4. Be up to sb. to do sth.: be one's responsibility to do sth. 由......负责做....... It’s my duty to do It's up to you to break the news to him. It's up to them to make the change. It’s up to sb. 由…决定
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Take a shot at sth/doing 尝试做某事 Let me have a shot at it. He's having a shot at cooking the dinner. The wonderful shots of goals are usually shown again in slow motion. shot n. 射击 开枪；射手，（球）射门；投篮 发射宇宙飞船/火 箭 机会；努力； Shot sth/sb Shot at sth/sb big shot 大人物，要员
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7. in my best profe
ssional manner: 以我最奶的职业斱式 manner: a way of doing things 做事情的斱式 manner: courtesy 礼貌 good manner 有礼貌 It's bad manner to speak with your mouth full. In a friendly manner In a timely manner In a money-efficient manner In a time-consuming manner
If only VS only if
? If only: 要是……就奶了 ? 强烈感情，几乎丌可能实现 ? If only he arrives in time.
? Only if: 惟有……才 ? Only if a serious crisis should arise, the public would have to be informed of its full implication.
? 略有进展 ? He's finally told us the price—now we're getting somewhere! ? We can’t get anywhere if we keep on quarrelling like this. Get there 成功
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9. on the chance: counting on the slight possibility 怀着希望,也许可能 on the off chance: 抱着微弱的希望。 She applied on the off chance. He offered the information on the chance that it might prove useful.
? 10. admonish : to warn or caution gently , to report mildly ? 训诫. ? Admonish sb. against sth. ? 劝诫...... 提防...... : ? The teacher admonished us against being late. (= us not to be late.) ? Admonish sb of sth ? He admonished him of the need for sincerity.
? ? ? ? ? ? Insane fury of effort bred of her terror of me . bred : P.P of " breed " , be the cause of 造成 eg: 1. War breeds misery and ruin . 戓争造成苦难不灾害. 2.Waste gas of cars breeds air pollution . 汽车的尾气造成空气污染.
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13. a. agony: extreme and prolonged suffering 极大的痛苦 in agony 处于痛苦之中 pile up the agony 苦上加苦 in an agony of joy 悲喜交加
Let go :放手 放弃
? Rose: I promise ? Jack: Never let go. ? Rose: I promise. I will never let go, Jack. I'll never let go.
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15. clench: close tightly He clenched the cigar in his teeth. 他用牙齿紧紧夹住香烟。 He clenched his fists in frustrations. 他沮丧地紧握拳头。 with clenched teeth 咬紧牙关
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I tried to hold my self down . hold down : control , keep down or under 控制 1. We must hold prices down . 我们必须控制物价. 2. Slave owners held slaves down before the emancipation . ? 奴隶获得解放之前受奴隶主的压迫 .
? b. " should + 丌定式完成体" 在这里所表示的是一 种非真实情况, 表达了作者一种遗憾的感情色彩. ? I should have come earlier. ? 我本该早点来。 ? He should have taken my advice. ? 他本应接受我的建议。
? 17. neglect=negligence 疏忽 ? neglect : pay no attention or too little attention to 丌(够)重视,注意. ? You shouldn't neglect your health. ? Benign neglect 善意的疏忽 ? total neglect 完全疏忽
? case : the actual state of things ? If that's the case, you'd better give it up. ? 奷果情况确实奷此, 你最奶放弃。
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18. go a
t： assault ; begin or proceed vigorously 攻击,开始,进发 The two roosters are going at each other. The students tend to go at their studies before the examination .
? 20. overpower : ? 1) overcome (someone or something ) by superior force ? 压倒,制服 ? 2) affect or impress deeply or powerfully ? 使......无法忍受. ? be overpowered by heat (grief) ? 炎热(悲痛)难忍 ? Overwhelm : 压倒，淹没，受打击，击溃
? be /act on the defensive ? 采取守势 ? In this way, while the enemy is on exterior lines and on the offensive in strategic operations, he will be forced to fight on interior lines and on the defensive in campaigns and battles. ? 于是敌之戓略作戓上的外线呾进攻，在戓役呾戓 斗的作戓上，就丌得丌变成内线呾防御。
? . 这个孩子脸上没有任何表情，用冷漠的目光歨歨地盯着我，象 要把我吃掉似的。 ? The child was fairly eating me up and down with her cold, steady eyes, and no expression on her face whatever. ? 2. 这个女孩由于对我的恐惧,奵对我的抗拒达到了惊人的程度。 ? She surely rose to magnificent heights of insane fury of effort bred of her terror of me. ? 3. 在这个时候,谁都会叮嘱自己,无论这个可恶的小鬼做出任何愚 蠢的丼动,也要违背奵的意愿来保护奵。 ? The damned little brat must be protected against her own idiocy, one says to one’s self at such times. ? 4. 那种想释放体能的渴望产生出一种非理智的、无法控制的愤 怒不成人受辱的感觉。 A blind fury, a feeling of adult shame, bred of a longing for muscular release are the operatives.
? 27. But I have seen at least two children lying dead in bed of ______ in such cases, and feeling that I must get a diagnosis now or never I went at it again.(200701)
? 76．奵的脸色通红、呼吸急促，我意识到奵发高 烧了。 ? 42. Summoned by the teacher, he approached his office full of ______. （200710） ? A. apprehension
? B. distrust
? 36. The child strikes his head in the bath and falls unconscious. The man sits down and watches him ______. ? 37. Her tongue was cut and she was screaming in wild ______ shrieks.
SESSION THREE: EXERCISE
1. When I arrived I was met by the mother， a big startled looking woman， very clean and apologetic who merely said， Is this the doctor ？ And let me in.
当我到达时，孩子的母亲迎接了我，这是 一位看上去惊恐不安的妇人，衣着整洁却 一脸忧伤的神色她只是说，这位就是医生 吗？然后带我进了屋。
? 2. He tried to get up， but I motioned for him not to bother， took off my overcoat and started to look things over.
3. As often， in such cases， they weren't telling me more than th
ey had to， it was up to me to tell them ； that's why they were spending three dollars on me.
在这种情形下，他们通常不会提供太多 的情况，而是等着我告诉他们病情，这就 是为什么他们会在我身上花3美元。
4. I smiled in my best professional manner and asking for the child's first name I said， come on ， Mathilda， open your mouth and let's take a look at your throat.
我以医生特有的职业方式微笑着，叫 着孩子的名字。我说，来吧，玛蒂尔达， 张开嘴，让我看一下你的嗓子。
5. As that I ground my teeth in disgust. If only they wouldn't use the word ―hurt‖ I might be able to get somewhere.
听到这里我狠狠地咬了咬牙，要是他 们没用“伤害”这个词，我也许能做 点什么，
6. In the ensuing struggle they grew more and more abject， crushed， exhausted while she surely rose to magnificent heights of insane fury of effort bred of her terror of me.
在接下来的“战斗”中他们越来越难堪， 被摧垮了，直至精疲力竭。而这个女孩由 于恐惧，她对我的抗拒达到了惊人的地步。
7. she opened up for an instant but before I could see anything she came down again and gripped the wooden blade between her molars. She reduces it to splinters before I could get it out again.
她张开了嘴，然而只是一瞬间，我还来不及 看她又把嘴闭上了，没等我把它取出来，她 的臼齿已经紧紧咬住了压舌板，并把压舌板 咬成了碎片。
? 8The damned little brat must be protected against her own idiocy， one says to one's self at such times. ? ? ? 在这种时候，谁都会叮咛自己，无论这个可恶 的小鬼做出任何愚蠢的丼动，也要违背奵的意愿 来保护奵。 ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 1 apprehension 2 terrifying 3 overpowering 4 contemptible 5 motioned 6 profusion 7 ensuing 8 coax
? 1. The girl looked at the doctor (terrifyingly, terrified). ? PS:形容人ED,形容事/物ING. ? Terrifyingly: extremely frightening; scary(表主动) ? Terrified: very frightened; scared(表被动)
? 2. ―If you finish all the homework tonight, we’ll go for a picnic tomorrow,‖ he (admonished, coaxed). ? Admonish: (formal) to tell someone severely that they have done something wrong ? Coax: to persuade someone to do something that they do not want to do by talking to them in a kind, gentle, and patient way
? 3. He thought their behavior was (contemptuous, contemptible), but he didn’t say anything in front of the host. ? Contemptuous: feeling or showing that you think someone 鄙视的，蔑视的，表示轻蔑的。 ? She gave him a ~ look 鄙夷地看了一眼. ? You’re ~ of everything I do. ? 你对我做的一切都丌屑一顾 ? Contemptible: not deserving any respect at all ? 可轻蔑的，可鄙的
，卑劣的 ? ~ behavior 卑劣的行径
? 4. Summoned by the boss, he approached his office full of (apprehension, distrust). ? Apprehension: anxiety about the future, especially about dealing with something unpleasant or difficult; anxiety ? Distrust: a feeling that you cannot trust someone
? He was sincerely sorry for what happened at the party, so people accepted his (excuse, apology). ? Excuse: a reason that you give to explain careless or offensive behavior; a reason that you invent to explain an action and to hide your real intentions ? Apology: something that you say or write to show that you are sorry for doing something wrong
? 6. They were walking in the forest when they
heard a (terrifying, terrific) roar, which made their blood freeze. ? Terrifying: extremely frightening ? Terrific: (informal) very good, especially in a way that makes you feel happy and excited;
? very large in size or degree(在尺寸呾程度上很大)
? 7. Obviously they were getting nowhere with the meeting, so he decided to (desist, resist) from making a final decision that afternoon. ? Desist: (formal) to stop doing something (跟from 搭配) ? Resist: to stop yourself from having something that you like very much or doing something that you want to do ? (后面直接加动名词)
? 8. ―How can you say that you don’t want to see your grandmother‖ the father (admonished, coaxed). ? Admonish, coax: see number 18
? ? ? ?
1. making an apology, expressing regret 2. … it was my duty, it required me… 3. and lots of people here have been ill 4. my best smile and my words were of no help. The girl was still. 5. in the view of the possibility, in the hope… 6. We're going to complete the examination. 7. I too had lost my sense. ( I became unreasonable) 8. the violent and unreasoning feeling
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? Mathilda had been ill for three days. Her mother had given her some medicine(s), but it(they) didn"t do any good. So she had to ask the doctor to come. ? Mathilda had been ill for three days. Her mother had send for a doctor, because the kid didn’t feel better after her mother had given her some medicines ? Mathilda had been sick for three days. Her mother had given her some medicine(s), but it(they) didn’t work. Therefore, they had to call a doctor.
? As there had been a number of cases of diphtheria in the school to which the girl went and two children had already died of it, the doctor, arriving at the Olson’s, needed to examine Machida's throat first.
? Since some students had got diphtheria in the school where Mathilda went and two of them had already died, the doctor needed to look over her throat first as soon as he arrived at the Olson’s.
? As soon as he arrived, the doctor asked to check the girl's throat first, because it happened there had been some pupils suffering from diphtheria in Math
ilda’s school and two of them had died of it.
? But no matter how they coaxed , she wouldn’t open her mouth. So the doctor had to get a tongue depressor into her mouth.
? But however he coaxed, she refused to open her mouth. Thus the doctor had to try to put a tongue depressor into her mouth. ? But no matter how hard they tried to coax, she just refused to open her mouth. So the doctor tried to insert a tongue depressor into her mouth.
? Mathilda, however, reduced it to splinters. In order to protect Mathilda herself and other children, the doctor had to find out whether she had diphtheria or not , so that he could cure it in time. ? However, Mathilda reduced it into splinters. For her own protection and others’, the doctor had to make clear whether Mathilda had diphtheria or not, so that he was able to treat her in time. ? However, Mathilda should have reduced it into splinters. In order to protect Mathilda herself and other kids, the doctor needed to find out whether she got diphtheria or not, so as to offer treatment in time.
? Therefore, he asked Mathilda"s father to hold both her wrists ,and he himself forced the child to open her mouth. And there it was - she really had diphtheria.
? So he asked her father to hold both her wrists, and he himself forced her mouth open. It was found that she did had diphtheria. ? So he told her father to seize her by her wrists and he himself got her mouth open. And there it was- she did had diphtheria.
? The story makes us know that in our life, you can not count on others’ willingness for everything and that the use of force seems a necessity in certain cases. ? The story sets us thinking about this: Not everything in life can depend on others’ willingness and it seems necessary to use some force under certain circumstances. ? The story reminds us that even in real life, not everything is done to you will, and that it seems very necessary to use force in certain situations.
? It is they alone who combine invention and exaggeration, reason and motion, word and sound, music and politics.
? 是他们自己将创造不夸张、理性不丼动、言辞不声音、 音乐不政治结吅了起来。
? Then came The Band mixing the more traditional ideas of country and western music into the more radical ―city‖ ideas of the hard rock. ? . 以后又出现了 “乐队”乐队,他们把乡村音乐
呾西部音乐所表现的较为传统 的观念注入强硬派 摇滚乐较为激进的 ―都市‖观念。
? This strategy is always popular among those who have no patience with the tedious workings of the democratic process or who believe that basic institutions can only be changed by force. ? ．这一策略在这样一些人中总是很流行：他们 无法容忍民主决策过程的单调沉闷的运作斱式 ，戒者相信只有武力才能改变基本制度。
? American young people in the 1960’s were a generation of rebellion
. They found America, an affluent society, full of poverty, injustice and hypocrisy.
? 60年代的美国青年是反叛的一代。他们看到 美国这个富裕社会充满了贫困、丌平等呾虚伪。
? 很多青年人积极投入到反对贫困、反对种 族歧视呾反对越南戓争的斗争中去，有些 青年人甚至试图以武装革命的斱式推翻这 个社会。 ? Many young people threw themselves into the battles against poverty, racial discrimination and the Vietnam war. Some of them even attempted to overthrow the society through armed revolution.
Exercise F of U1
? 摇滚乐于20世纪50年代末期兴起于美国，它丌仅 是一种新型的音乐形式，更是美国的青年人表达 他们对世界呾人生看法的论坛。
? Rock music began in America in the late 1950s. It was not only a new musical form, but also a forum for the American youth to express their ideas of the world of life.
? 在这个论坛上，歌星们唱出了青年人对民权、戓 争不呾平的态度，唱出了他们对社会的丌满，也 唱出了爱不恨之间的各种情感。
? On this state, the stars sang out the attitudes of the youth towards civil rights, war and peach, the disaffection of their society, and a range of emotions between love and hate.
? 总之，在这个论坛上，青年人把他们对美国社 会的信仰及情感以全新的解释。早期的摇滚乐 的主要代表人物有埃尔维斯.普雷斯利、歌星加 诗人鲍勃.迪伦、甲壳虫乐队以及滚石乐队等等 。他们都是青年人崇拜的文化英雄。
? All in all, on this forum, the American youth redefined their belief in and feelings for American society. The typical representatives of the early rock music were Elvis Presley, singer and poet Bob Dylan, the Beatles, the Rolling Stones and so on. They were the culture heroes worshipped by young people.