短元音：/?/ /e/ /i/ / ? / /∧/ /u/ /?/
1．一般情况，直接加-s，如：book-books, bag-bags, cat-cats, bed-beds
2．以s. x. sh. ch结尾，加-es，如：bus-buses, box-boxes, brush-brushes, watch-watches
3．以“辅音字母+y”结尾，变y为i, 再加-es，如：family-families, strawberry-strawberries
man-men, woman-women, policeman-policemen, policewoman-policewomen, mouse-mice
child-children, foot-feet, tooth-teeth, fish-fish, people-people, Chinese-Chinese, Japanese-Japanese
不可数名词的复数就是原型：paper, juice, water, milk, rice, tea
a) 单数后加’s 如: Lucy’s ruler my father’s shirt
b) 以s 结尾的复数名词后加’如: his friends’ bags
c) 不以s 结尾的复数后加’s children’s shoes
? 并列名词中，如果把’s加在最后一个名词后，表示共有, 如:
Tom and Mike’s car 汤姆和迈克共有的小汽车
Tom’s and Mike’s cars 汤姆和麦克各自的小汽车
(2)表示无生命东西的名词通常用“ of ＋名词”来表示所有关系：如:
a picture of the classroom a map of China
（1）不定冠词：a / an a unit / an uncle
an egg / an apple / an orange / an eraser / an answer / an ID card / an alarm clock / an actor / an actress /
an e-mail / an address / an event / an example / an opera / an houran old man / an interesting book / an
exciting sport / an action movie / an art lesson /
（2）定冠词：thethe egg the plane
（1）特指某（些）人或某（些）物： The ruler is on the desk.
（2）复述上文提到的人或物：He has a sweater. The sweater is new.
（3）谈话双方都知道的人或物：The boys aren’t at school.
（4）在序数词前： John’s birthday is February the second.
（5）用于固定词组中：in the morning / afternoon / evening
（1）专有名词前：China is a big country.
（2）名词前有定语：this , that , my , your , some, any , no 等：
This is my baseball.
（3）复数名词表示一类人和事：Monkeys can’t swim. They are teachers.
（4）在节日，日期，月份，季节前：Today is Christmas Day. It’s Sunday.
（5）一日三餐前：We have breakfast at 6:30.
（6）球类棋类运动前：They often play football after class. He plays chess at home. * 但乐器前要用定冠词：I play the guitar very well.
（7）学科名称前：My favorite subject is music.
（8）在称呼或头衔的名词前：This is Mr Li.
（9）固定词组中：at noon at night by bus
人称单数 I（我） me my（我的）
复数 we（我们） us our（我们的）
人称单数 you（你） you your（你的）
复数 you（你们） you your（你们的）
人称单数 he（他） him his（他的）
she（她） her her（她的）
it（它） it its（它的）
复数 they（他们/她们/它们） them their（他们的/她们的/它们的）
⑵以字母e 结尾，加r ；
good-better, beautiful-more beautiful
2．副词比较级的变化规则基本与形容词比较级相同 (不规则变化：well-better, far-farther)
586→five hundred and eighty-six，803→eight hundred and three
1，001→one thousand and one
18，423→eighteen thousand，four hundred and twenty-three
6，260，309→six million two hundred and sixty thousand three hundred and nine
750，000，000，000→seven hundred and fifty billion
twenty→twentieth， forty→fortieth， ninety→ninetieth
twenty-first，two hundred and forty-fifth
六、介词：常用介词：in, on, at, behind等
over the weekend在整个周末
during the weekend在周末期间
（2）在圣诞节，应说at Christmas而不说on Christmas
On reaching the city he called up his parents．
the 20th century）在一九八八年（十二月、二十世纪）
1. be动词：主语+be(am, is, are)+其它。如： I am a boy. 我是一个男孩。
2. 行为动词：主语+行为动词(+其它)。如： We study English. 我们学习英语。
当主语为第三人称单数(he, she, it)时，要在动词后加"-s"或"-es"。如：Mary likes Chinese.玛丽喜欢汉语。
2．以s. x. sh. ch. o结尾，加-es，如：guess-guesses, wash-washes, watch-watches, go-goes
①一般直接在动词的后面加ed：如 worked , learned , cleaned , visited
② 以e结尾的动词直接加d：如 lived , danced , used
③以辅音字母加y结尾的动词要改y为i再加ed（此类动词较少）如 study – studied carry – carried worry –
Ｂ、不规则动词（此类词并无规则，须熟记）小学阶段要记住以下动词的原形和过去式：sing – sang , eat – ate ,
see – saw , have – had , do – did , go – went , take – took , buy – bought , get – got , read – read
,fly – flew , am/is – was ,
are – were , say – said , leave – left , swim – swam , tell – told , draw – drew , come – came , lose
– lost , find – found , drink – drank , hurt – hurt , feel – felt
基本结构：①be going to + do；
②will+ do. be going to = will
I am going to go swimming tomorrow（明天）. = I will go swimming tomorrow.
①一般的直接在后面加上ing , 如doing , going , working , singing , eating
②以e 结尾的动词，要先去e再加ing ，如having , writing
③双写最后一个字母的（此类动词极少）有：running , swimming , sitting , getting
（1）肯定句：是指用肯定的语气来陈述的句子，如：I’m a student. She is a doctor. He works in a hospital.
There are four fans in our classroom. He will eat lunch at 12:00. I watched TV yesterday evening.
（2）、否定句：含有否定词或表示否定意义词的句子，如：I’m not a student. She is not (isn’t) a doctor.
He does not (doesn’t) work in a hospital. There are not (aren’t) four fans in our classroom. He will not (won’t) eat lunch at 12:00. I did not (didn’t) watch TV yesterday evening.
特殊疑问句：以特殊疑问词（what , where , who , which , when , whose , why , how等）开头引导的句子。此类句子应该
There be 句型与have, has的区别
1、There be 句型表示：在某地有某物（或人）x kb 1.com
2、在there be 句型中，主语是单数，be 动词用is ; 主语是复数，be 动词用are ; 如有几件物品，be 动词根据最*近be 动
3、there be 句型的否定句在be 动词后加not , 一般疑问句把be 动词调到句首。
4、there be句型与have(has) 的区别：there be 表示在某地有某物（或人）；have(has) 表示某人拥有某物。
5、some 和any 在there be 句型中的运用：some 用于肯定句， any 用于否定句或疑问句。
6、and 和or 在there be句型中的运用：and 用于肯定句， or 用于否定句或疑问句。
How many + 名词复数 + are there + 介词短语？
How much + 不可数名词 + is there + 介词短语？
What’s + 介词短语？
I study at Yu Hong Primary School in Guangzhou. I have forty—seven classmates (同学). Twenty—three are
boys and twenty—four are girls. Our classroom is a nice one. It’s very big. There are four windows and two
doors in it. We have a big blackboard and a small one. The big one is for our teachers and the small one is for
us. Mr. Li is our Chinese teacher. He is an old man. We don’t like him at all. But Miss Chen, our English
teacher, is a young woman. She is very nice. We all like her very much. So we like English the best. We often
play basketball with Miss Li.
(1). ( ) I am a . A. student B. pupil C. teacher
(2). ( ) There are . A. Forty—eight B. forty—seven C. forty—six
(3). ( ) Our classroom is . A. small B. old C. nice
(4). ( ) There is only one in our classroom.
A. blackboard B. small blackboard C. big window
(5). ( ) Our favorite subject is .
A. Chinese B. English C. basketball
2. Kim is a girl. She is twelve. Her parents are doctors. Kim can do many things. After school, she often
helps her mother. She studies very hard. She is good at math, and she can speak English and
supper, she watches TV.
( ) 1. Kim’s father is a doctor.
( ) 2. Kim’s mother is a nurse.
( ) 3. Kim can’t do any thing.
( ) 4. Kim can’t speak Chinese.
( ) 5. She doesn’t watch TV.
( ) 6. She is good at math.
There are three children under the tree. They are all my good friends. The boy in black is Tom. The girl
in pink and the girl in red is Emma.
Tom is in the same class with me. We often play football together. Tom’s mother is a nurse and his
father is a teacher. Tom wants to be a doctor in the future.
Jane’s mother and my mother work at the same factory. They are also good friends. Jane’s father is a
teacher. He teaches math very well. He is very kind and we all like him.
Emma’s family just moved into the town from countryside. Her farther used to be a farmer. He is now
working in a small company. Emma’s mother is a housewife.
( ) (1) There are one boy and two girls under the tree.
( ) (2) There are only two people in Tom’s family. ( ) (3) Tom’s mother is a doctor. ( ) (4) My mother is a worker. ( ) (5) Jane’s father teaches math. ( ) (6) Emma used to live in the town.
( ) (7) Emma’s father was a farmer.
1. I am a boy. My name is Li Ming. I am ten. I am a pupil. I have two friends. One is Danny. The other one
is Jenny. Jenny is pupil, too. We are in the same row. We like Danny.
( ) (1) How old is Li Ming?
A. He’s ten. B: He’s eleven.
( ) (2) Is Li Ming a teacher?
A: Yes, he is. B: No, he isn’t.
( ) (3) Is Jenny a pupil?
A. Yes, she is. B: No, she isn’t.
( ) (4) How old is Danny?
A. Sorry, I don’t know. B: She is eleven.
( ) (5) Are Li Ming and Jenny in the same class?
A: Yes, they are. B: No, they aren’t.
2. I am Mike. I am a American boy. Now I’m in China. I live in Shanghai. It’s a very beautiful city. I
study in a school here. I usually go to school by bus. I like playing football very much. I play it with my
friends on the weekends. My mother is a TV reporter. She goes to work by subway. She likes singing very much.
She often listens to music on TV. My father is a teacher. He teaches P.E. in a school. He goes to work on foot.
He likes art. He often draws pictures on Saturday.
( ) (1) Mike lives in __________ now.
A. Shanghai B: Beijing C: America
( ) (2) Mike is a __________ now.
A. teacher B. a reporter C. student
( ) (3) Mike’s hobby is _________________
A. playing football B. listening to music C. painting
( ) (4) His father goes to work __________
A. by subway B.on foot C. by bus
3. One day, after school the teacher says to his students: “Tomorrow morning if anyone of you can answer
my first questions, he or she can go home early.”
The next day, when the teacher comes into the classroom, he finds the blackboard very dirty. He is very
angry and asks: ”Who did it? Please stand up!” “It’s me.” Says Tom.“ Now , I can go home. Goodbye. Sir!
( ) (1) Tom is the teacher’s ___________ A. friend B. student C. brother D. son ( ) (2) Tom makes ____________ dirty. A. the desk B. the chair C. the window D. the blackboard ( ) (3) the teacher is very angry because__________ A. Tom can answer his first question B. Tom doesn’t stand up C: the blackboard is very dirty D. the classroom is very clean ( ) (4) The teacher asks the students to _____________ A. stand up B. sit down C. go homes D. clean the blackboard ( ) (5) Which is true? A. It is good for Tom to do it. B. Tom is late for school. C. Tom goes home early every day. D. Tom is a naughty student.
Mike likes to collect stamps. He started this hobby of collecting stamp the year before last. He has
stamps from China, France and Japan. But most of his stamps are from China, because he has lots of friends in
Mike’s stamps are of various shapes –triangle, square, rectangle and circle. His favorite shape is
circle. Mike puts all his shapes in several albums. To increase his collection, Mike sometimes exchanges stamps
with his friends.
John is one of his friends, who also like to collect stamps. His stamps are pretty and colorful. John and
Mike meet once a week. Each time they meet they will show each other their new collection.
(1) Mike’s hobby is to A. collect stamps B. make friends C. travelling
D. keep albums
(2) Most of Mike’s stamps are from
A. Japan B. France C. China D. Not mentioned
(3) Mike has stamps of different shapes.
A. five B. four C. three D. two
(4) John is Mike’s A. father B. neighbor C. classmate D. friend
(5) How often do John and Mike meet?
A. four times a week B. three times a week C. twice a week D. once a week
1. This is RDZ, the working robot. RDZ lives with the Spacy family in Spaceville(太空村). He helps the
family with the housework every day. He cleans the house, washes the clothes and dishes. He knows how to cook
well. RDZ doesn’t eat normal(普通的) food. He eats tins and watches and he drinks oil. Do Mr. and Mrs. Spacy
eat these things? Never.
RDZ often helps Mr and Mrs Spacy’s children with their homework. This year he is teaching them Space
language. The children are very clever.
The Spacy family are holiday on Mars(火星). They will come back home in two days. So RDZ has a wonderful
time. He won’t clean. He can sit in front of the TV and eat a lot of food.
(1) Where does RDZ live with the Spacy family? ________________________________
(2) What does RDZ eat and drink every day? ____________________________________
(3) Is RDZ teaching Mr. and Mrs. Spacy’s children English? _________________________
(4) Does RDZ have a wonderful time? __________________________________________
(5) When will Mr. and Mrs. Spacy be back? _______________________________________
2. My name is Wang Lin. There are four people in my family. They are my father, my mother, my little
brother and I. my father is a teacher. He likes drawing pictures. He works in a school. He goes to work by bus.
My mother is a nurse. She likes listening to music. She works in a hospital. She goes to work by bus. My
brother is a student. Hw likes watching TV. He goes to work on foot. I like playing football. I go to school by
(1) Who works in a school? _________________________________________________
(2) What does Wang Lin’s mother do? ________________________________________
(3) What does Wang Lin like doing? _________________________________________
(4) Is Wang Lin’s brother a student? ___________________________________________
(5) Does Wang Lin’s father go to work by bus? _________________________________
3. It’s Monday today. It’s twelve o’clock now. Jenny and her classmates are having lunch in the
classroom. What’s on Jenny’s desk? There are some apples, bread and some eggs. Oh, they are very delicious.
(1) What day is it today? _______________________________________________
(2) What’s the time? ___________________________________________________
(3) Who is having lunch? ________________________________________________
(4) What’s on Jenny’s desk? _____________________________________________
(5) Are there any bananas on Jenny’s desk? __________________________________
The Green (1) (喜欢) going out for a trip on Sunday. This (2) （周日）they want to go
to the park. Jack and Mike, their (3) （儿子）get up very early. They put on the same
仔裤）, the same (5) （鞋）. After that they (6) their mother do the housework. They put
some bread, meat , (7) （蛋）and some fruit in a basket and (8) (搬) it to the car. Mrs. Green
takes four (9) (罐)of coke with her. The little dog is (10) （跑） after her.
1. One day, Mr. Ampere went out (1) a walk in the street. There (2) a lot of people there. But
all this was (3) to him. He was thinking (4) a maths problem. He had no paper with him. How could
he (5) it out?
Just then hw saw a blackboard in front of him. He began to write the (6) with a
piece of chalk on
it. Then the blackboard moved (7) . he moved with it. But it moved so (8) that he could not
catch up with it. He looked (9) and saw the “blackboard” (10) him.
Why? It was the back of a carriage(马车)！
( ) (1) A. to B. by C. for D. with
( ) (2) A. were B. are C. is D. was
( ) (3) A. nothing B. anything C. something D. everything
( ) (4) A. on B. off C. about D. hard
( ) (5) A. work B. start C, take D. bring
( ) (6) A. word B. start C, take D. bring
( ) (7) A. few B. little C. a few D. a little
( ) (8) A. early B. fast C. slowly D. quietly
( ) (9) A. down B. up C. in D. out
( ) (10) A. behind B. beside C. above D. before
2. Bob thought that he was very clever. He thought that no one could fool（欺骗）him because he (1)
too clever. One day he (2) to Dick, the man on watching at the gate:“You (3) fool me. Dick.
You (4) too foolish!”
“ (5) here by this gate.” Answered Dick, “I (6) a way to fool you.” then he went home.
Two hours later another young man (7) along.
“Why are you standing here?” he (8) bob. “ I (9) for Dick, ” answered Bob, “ he is going to try fool me.” “Dick (10) home. ” said the young man, “ He has already fooled you!” ( ) (1) A. is B. was C. will be D. is going to ( ) (2) A. said B. says C. was saying D. is saying ( ) (3) A. don’t B. didn’t C. can never D. never ( ) (4) A. were B. are C. will be D. was ( ) (5) A. Wait B. Waits C. Waited D. Wait for ( ) (6) A. will find B. found C. find D. founded ( ) (7) A. comes B. came C. had come D. coming ( ) (8) A. asked B. asks C. is asking D. told ( ) (9) A. was waiting B. waited C. am waiting D. were waiting ( ) (10) A. goes B. has gone C. had gone D. went