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英语单词记忆法

发布时间:2013-12-14 11:42:15  

英语单词记忆法

英语单词是构成语言的最小单位,没有单词难以成句,因此对学英语的人而言,掌握大量的单词是非常之必要的。现在的新课改教材更加大了对学生词汇量的要求,学生在学习过程中往往靠死记硬背,今天背熟了,明天又忘了,然后又去背,学习很累,难以扩大词汇量,久而久之对学习英语失去信心。因此,教师在教学过程中应教给学生一些记忆单词的方法,以激发学生的思维,培养他们理解、运用单词的能力。 一、读音记忆法

1. 根据元音字母在重读与非重读音节,开音节与闭音节,一般读音与特别读音等不同情况进行列表记忆。如含有字母a的单词:一般特别重读 /ei/ name, gate, save, take, late … have/ /

/ / and, bag, thank, had, bad …

/ / what, watch, wash, want …

/a:/ class, father, last, ask …

/ e / any, many … Water/ /

非重读 / / ago, again, arrive, above…

/ i / village, passage, comrade …

2. 根据字母组合 ea, oo, ee, ear, air, ph, ch, ck, ai, ay, ei, ey, igh, kn, ow, ou, or, ing, ar, al, oi, oy, th … 等的读音规则进行记忆。如:字母组合读音例词

ea /i:/ beach, each, tea, meat, read …

/e / head, ready, bread, weather …

/ei/ break, great …

oo /u:/ soon, moon, cool, noon, too …

/u / book, cook, foot, wood, good …

3. 对于一些长串字母组成的单词,可采用按读音分节的方法进行记忆。如:computer可分为com/k m/、pu/pju:/、ter/t /三部分,important可分为im/im/、por/p /、tant/t nt/三个部分,application可分为app/ p/、li/li/、ca/kei/、tion/ n/四个部分。二、分类记忆法 英语词汇极其丰富,如果能把单词分门别类地进行记忆,是大有好处的。分类的方法因人而异,因爱好而异,灵活多样。如按词性分类,冠词、介词、连词和感叹词的数量不多,只要分类编成卡片,便于记忆。按衣、食、住、行、天气、时间、娱乐、运动、动物、人物、科目、职业、学习用品等归类,也是很好的记忆方法。大类下面还可以分为小类,如时间的分类如下:1. Time: century, year, season, month, week, day, night, hour, quarter, minute, second.

2. Seasons: spring, summer, autumn, winter.

3. Months: January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, December.

4. Week: Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday.

5. Days: the day before yesterday, yesterday, today, tomorrow, the day after tomorrow.

6. day and night: dawn, morning, noon, afternoon, evening, mid-night.

三、比较记忆法

1. 同音词比较:I/eye, be/bee, for/four, their/there, meet/meat, son/sun, see/sea, no/know, father/farther, hear/here, right/write, buy/by, knew/new, our/hour, too/two, way/weigh, weather/whether …

2. 同义词比较:also/too/either, ago/before/past, each/every/all, because/as/for, large/big/huge, road/way /street/path …

3. 反义词比较:yes/no, come/go, old/new, right/wrong, up/down, young/old, left/right, above/below, after/before, good/bad, ugly/beautiful, buy/sell, begin/end, love/hate, long/short, heavy/light, large/small …

4. 相同字母结构比较:way/may/day/lay/pay/say … light/night/right/fight/sight/might … station/vocation/operation/population/information … bear/dear/ear/fear/hear/near/pear/tear/wear/year …

5. 相同词缀比较:unable/unborn/unbroken/unclean/

uncomfortable/uncountable/uncover/unfair/unhappy/unknown /unmoved/unsuccessful …

四、联想记忆法记一个单词可以联想到许多单词,不要单独记忆,和其它词联系起来就比较容易记忆。如:

1. 与动作相关的人物联想。teach/teacher, work/worker, sing/singer, write/writer, play/player, clean/cleaner, read/reader, dance/dancer, build/builder …

2. 可数名词相应复数的联想。pen/pens, day/days, factory/factories, box/boxes, bus/buses, watch/watches, knife/knives, man/men, radio/radios, tomato/tomatoes, sheep/sheep, child/children …

3. 基数词对应的序数词联想。one/first, two/second, three/third, four/fourth, five/fifth, eight/eighth, nine/ninth, twelve/twelfth, twenty/twentieth, thirty-six/thirty-sixth …

4. 动词几种形式的联想。do/does/doing/did/done, have/has/having/had/had, get/gets/getting/got/got …

5. 形容词、副词比较级最高级的联想。long/longer/longest, late/later/latest, big/bigger/biggest, happy/happier/happiest, interesting/more interesting/most interesting, good(well)/better/best, many(much)/more/most …

6. 合成词的联想。homework/home/work, afternoon/after/noon, Sunday/sun/day, classroom/class/room, football/foot/ball, something/some/thing, playground/play/ground, newspaper/news/paper …

五、图表记忆法 在市场上购买或自制一些有实物图片和英语单词的卡片来帮助记忆也是一种很好的办法;一些表示空间概念的介词,如果单从汉语翻译的内容来理解,往往会弄错或混淆,但如果用图表示则很容易理解和记忆,如:under/beneath, on/over/above, across/through, in/on/to the south, in/into等等;英语中有些内容比较适合制成表格,这样便于理解,给学生留下的印象更深刻,如人称代词主格、宾格、形容词性的物主代词、名词性的物主代词和反身代词表:分类第一人称第二人称第三人称单数复数单数复数单数复数人称代词主格 I we you you he she it They

宾格 me us you you him her it Them

物主代词 (形) my our your your his her its Their

(名) mine ours yours yours his hers its Theirs

反身代词 myself ourselves yourself yourselves himself herself itself Themselves

特殊变化的形容词、副词的比较级和最高级表:原级比较级最高级

good/well better /best

bad/ill worse/ worst

many/much more/ most

Little /less /least

Old /older/elder oldest/eldest

far farther/further farthest/furthest

六、游戏记忆法

1. 单词接龙游戏:多人合作,首先由任一个学生说出一个单词,下一个学生说出的单词的第一个字母必须是上一个学生所说单词的尾字母,如此循环下去,不能重复同一个词,如有人在规定的时间内未说出单词,则被淘汰,剩下的学生继续游戏,谁坚持到最后谁就是获胜者。如:car—read—do—one—eat—ten—name-- evening—game—English—he …

2. 拆词游戏:如多变的天气,用weather这七个字母能拼出多少个学过的词?we/eat/at/tea/the/he/her/here/there/tree

/are/where/hear/heart/what/water … ;不打乱以下结构的顺序,你能拆出多少个单词?another/a/an/no/not/other/the/he

/her/er;catchaireaddressporthisit/cat/catch/a/at/chair

/air/read/address/dress/sport/port/or/this/his/sit/I/it…;earthisortooth;anewriseatenowelcome;bedroomeathere;

abouthrowearthat;tomorrowatchaireader;Sundayouraweather;

fatheredoor;goodbyeteachers …

3. 填词游戏:在空格内填上适当的字母,使横行成为所学过的单词。

4. 改头换面游戏:即在一个单词中增加、减少或改变一个字母使之成为一个新词。如:ofoff/or/if, us—as/bus, know-- now/known/knew, hair—chair/air, look—book/took/cook …

总之,单词是构成语言的主要因素之一,要学好英语,必须掌握大量的单词,掌握记忆单词的方法,提高记忆效率。

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