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Enlightment

发布时间:2013-12-14 16:45:49  

The Literature of Reason
I. The background of American literature in the 18th century II. The literature of the Age of reason

III. Writers and Interpretation of their representative works

I.
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The background of American literature in the 18th century

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Political works Thomas Paines -- Common Sense (1776), advocating colonial America's independence from the Kindom of Great Britain The American Crisis (1776–1783), a prorevolutionary pamphlet series (16). Thomas Jefferson -Declaration of Independence The War of Independence 1776-1783 18th-century American is an age of Enlightenment, of reason and order

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American Enlightenment Movement
It’s a movement supported by all progressive forces of the country which opposed themselves to the old colonial order and religious obscurantism. The representatives of the Enlightenment set themselves the task of disseminating knowledge among the people and advocating revolutionary ideas. ? American Enlightenment dealt a decisive blow upon the puritan traditions and brought to life secular education and literature.
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The Development of Literature in the Age of Reson
An obvious transition from Puritanism to the Enlightment ? Utilitarian tendency – a principal feature in American literature ? Prose makes up a prominent part of 18thc American literature ? Neoclassical taste was found in poetry ? Other literary gneres: early dramas, novels (gothic, sentimental and satirical)
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Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790)

– one of the Founding Fathers of the US
―master of each and mastered by none— the type and genius of his land.‖ -- Herman Melville
(1)A leading author and printer, political theorist, politician, postmaster, scientist, inventor, satirist, civic activist, statesman, and diplomat (2)Honors: The symbol of America in the Age of Reason, the embodiment of the national man and the American Dream

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(3) His contributions: -- established America’s first circulating library; founded the college that later became the University of Pennsylvania -- invented the lightning rod, the Franklin stove, bifocal glasses, the armonica; applied the terms ―positive‖ and ―negative‖ to electrical charges -- helped to draft the Declaration of Independence

(3) His works: Poor Richard’s Almanac (1729) The Autobiography (1771-1790)

famous sayings, mottos or maxims from his Poor Richard’s Almanac -- Lost time is never found again;
-- A penny saved is a penny earned;

-- God help them that help themselves;
-- Fish and visitors stink in three days;

-- Early to bed, and early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise

Philip Freneau(1752-1832)
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1) Honors & significance ―Father of American Poetry‖; ―Poet of the American Revolution‖ A transitional figure between neoclassicism and romanticism Some of his themes and images anticipated the works of such 19th century American Romantic writers as Emerson, Poe and Longfellow.

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Major Works a) The British Prison Ship 1781 《英国囚船》 b) To the Memory of the Brave Americans 1781 《纪念美国勇士》 c) The Wild Honey Suckle 1786 《野金银花》 d) The Indian Burying Ground 1788 《印第安人埋葬之地》

野忍冬花 (黄杲炘译)
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美好的花呀,你长得:这么秀丽, 却藏身在这僻静沉闷的地方—— 甜美的花儿开了却没人亲昵, 招展的小小枝梢也没人观赏; 没游来荡去的脚来把你踩碎, 没东攀西摘的手来催你落泪。 大自然把你打扮得一身洁白, 她叫你避开庸俗粗鄙的目光, 她布置下树荫把你护卫起来, 又让潺潺的柔波淌过你身旁; 你的夏天就这样静静地消逝, 这时候你日见萎蔫终将安息。

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那些难免消逝的美使我销魂, 想起你未来的结局我就心疼, 别的那些花儿也不比你幸运—— 虽开放在伊甸园中也已凋零, 无情的寒霜再加秋风的威力, 会叫这花朵消失得一无踪迹。
朝阳和晚露当初曾把你养育, 让你这小小的生命来到世上, 原来若乌有,就没什么可失去, 因为你的死让你同先前一样; 这来去之间不过是一个钟点—— 这就是脆弱的花享有的天年。

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―The wild honey suckle" is Philip Freneau’s most widely read natural lyric with the theme of transience. The central image is a native wild flower, which makes a drastic difference from elite flower images typical of tradition on English poems. ? The poem showed strong feelings for the natural beauty,which was the characteristic of romantic poets. ? In this poem the poet expressed a keen awareness of the loveliness and transience of nature.He not only meditated on mortality but also celebrated nature. it implies that life and death are inevitable law of natur e.
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Appreciation of the Poem

The poem was written in regular 6-line tetrameter stanzas,rhyming:ababcc.The structure of the poem is regular,so it has the neoclassic quality of proportion and balance. ? The poem is full of sensuous images such as fair flower visual image,comely grow kinasthetic(动 觉的) image and honeyed blossoms olfactory(嗅 觉的) image.all the images make us feel pity for the beautiful flower which has only a short life.
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The tone of the poem is both sentimental and optimistic.


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