讲授人: 高雷 (博士) 研究方向：翻译学
Part One Simple Sentence（简单句） Formation(构成): Subject+predicate+(object) 主语+谓语+(宾语)
For example: 1) Your name escaped from my mind. (subject) (predicate) (object) 2) The price is souring. (subject) (predicate)
Compound Sentence(复合句) Formation（构成）:
Compound Sentence Main clause（主句）
? subordinate clause（从句）
For example: 1) Even though you may escort a friend a thousand miles, the parting must come at last. 2) Come, and sit down. 3) The earth will move around the sun as long as the sun exists. 4) If it is sunny, we will go visiting.
Part Three Complex & compound sentence (复杂句) Formation(构成)如图：
葡 萄 藤 结 构
One of my friends is lucky enough to live in a building which was constructed in the age of Henry VIII, and every other day there will be groups of visitors congregating outside his window, peering in curiously, as if he were a part of the history.
Part Four 十四种句型处理 从属部分(subordinate structure)
1、现在分词处理从属部分 Seeing the moon (When/Once she saw the moon), she was drowned in her homesickness. 2、过去分词处理从属部分 Defeated (Because/Since/As they were defeated), the Japanese invaders surrendered.
3、形容词处理从属部分 Any country, large or small , must be equal (no matter how large or small they are). 4、名词处理从属部分 A famous singer (Because she is /As a famous singer), she is very popular in China.
5、动词处理从属部分 Sink or swim, I’ll have a try.
6、不定式处理从属部分 To make our country stronger, everyone should make their contribution. 代替： Everyone should make their contribution in order that we make our country stronger.
七种独立主格结构 1）、名词或代词+现在分词结构 Time permitting (If time permits), we’ll go visiting. 2）、名词或代词+过去分词结构 His work done (After he finished his work), he went home. 3）、名词或代词+副词结构 she reached out her hands, palms up. 4）、名词或代词+形容词结构 she entered the room, face red with cold.
5）、名词或代词+名词结构 His first novel a success (Because his first novel was a success), he wrote another. 6）、名词或代词+介词结构 The teacher came into the room, books in hand. 7）、名词或代词+不定式结构 We have many visitors, some to see us off, some to fetch things, and some to do both.
1、同位于领先句(appositive-first sentence) A：The forest ranger, an expert in forest fire control, talked to the camper about safety in the woods.( 主语领先） B: An expert in forest fire control, the forest ranger talked to the campers about safety in the woods.
A：Everything—iron, air and water—i
s made up of atoms. B: Iron, air and water, everything is made up of atoms. 2. 状语领先句(adverbial—first sentence) 有些评注性状语与连接性状语通常可置于句首。 1) Personally, I don’t think he’ll interview you. 2) Very frankly, I’m tired of it. 但是，英语中不少句子可将其非状语成分转换成状 语，并且前置，非常美。如：
A: The house was dark and empty and looked very different from the way I remembered it. B: Dark and empty, the house looked very different from the way I remembered it. A: They took a deep breath and dived into the water. B: Taking a deep breath, they dived into the water. A: We were left helpless and watched half a year’s food destroyed before our eyes. B: Helpless, we watched half a year’s food destroyed before our eyes.
3、表语领先句 (predicative—first sentence) 常见的“主——系——表”句型，一旦将 “表”提前，可以达到醒目强调之效。 A: The radio weather report is very important in the farmer’s life. B: Very important in the farmer’s life is the radio weather report. A: Your soup tastes delicious. B: Delicious your soup tastes. A: All I could do was to send him a telegram. B: To send him a telegram was all I could do.
4、宾语领先句 （object—first sentence) 多数是直接宾语的提前。 A: You find this sort of obscurity too often in modern philosophers. B: This sort of obscurity you find too often in modern philosophers. A: You can store coins in small jars on the closet shelf. B: Coins you can store in small jars on the closet shelf. 但是间接宾语也可以置于句首： A: We owe the party all this. B: To the party we owe all this.
A: I’d like to ask you a favor. B: From you I’d like to ask a favor. A: I promised him nothing definite. B: To him I promised nothing definite. 5、同源宾语 (cognate object)的前提 如： A: He smiled a contemptuous smile. B: A contemptuous smile he smiled.
6、谓语领先句 （predicate—first sentence) 此句型中常出现引导词there, be 按照 后面的主语名词用所需要的形式。本 句型主要表示“有”，“出现”和 “存在”等概念。所以这种句型也被 称为“存在句”(existential sentence)
A: Different opinions exist on this question. B: There exist different opinions on this question. A: Two bottles and an ash-tray are on the shelf. B: There are two bottles and an ash-tray on the shelf.
此外以下几种常见的谓语先行句值得注 意，但是真正谓语出现之前，常有不同 成分加以引导。如： A: The old lady comes at last. B: Here comes the old lady at last. A: The arrow went up into the air. B: Up went the arrow into the air.
此外，再补充两种重要的知识： 一、英汉对比语言学； 二、英汉对比修辞学