? 神经外科 Neurosurgery
? Mencius, also known by his birth name Meng Ke，was born in the State of Zou, now forming the city of zhoucheng ，shandong province，only thirty kilometres south of Qufu ,Confucius? birthplace.
? Mencius?s father died when he was very young. His mother Zhǎng (仉) raised him alone. Mencius? mother is often held up as an exemplary （典范的） female figure in Chinese culture. One of the most famous traditional Chinese idioms is "Mencius' mother, three moves“.
? Mencius? disciples（门徒） included a large number of feudal lords（封建君主）, and he was actually more influential than Confucius had been. The Mencius， a book of his conversations with kings of the time, is one of the Four Books that Zhu Xi grouped as the core of orthodox（正统的） Neo-Confucian（儒家） thought.
一、View on politics
? Mencius emphasized the significance of the common citizens in the state. While Confucianism generally regards rulers highly, he argued that the people are the most highly valued, next come the gods of the land and grain, the sovereign is light. ? (民为贵,社稷次之,君为轻)
? According to Mencius, education must awaken the innate abilities of the human mind. He advocated active interrogation（质疑） of the text, saying, “One who believes all of a book would be better off without books” .(尽信书，则 不如无书 ）
三、On Human Nature
? For Mencius，Human nature has an innate tendency towards goodness，he thought the four ethical attributes（属性） ren, yi, li, and zhi , that everyone shared were very important. These include commiseration（怜悯), the sense of shame, a reverential（虔诚的）attitude toward others, and the sense of right and wrong.
1.Life springs from sorrow and calamity, and death from ease and pleasure. 生于忧患，死于安乐
2. You can’t have your cake and eat it too. 鱼我所欲也，熊掌亦我所欲也，二者不可兼 得，舍鱼而求熊掌者也
3.The benevolent have no enemy.
4. Nothing can be accomplished without norms or standards 不规矩无以成方圆