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牛津小学英语6A主要语法知识

发布时间:2013-12-25 10:51:38  

牛津小学英语6A主要语法知识

一般过去时:

定义:表示过去某个时间发生的动作或存在的状态,常与表示过去的时间状语连用。如:

yesterday,last night ,three months ago,just now, a moment ago,that night等。 它的肯定形式:I was born in 1995. I watched cartoons last night.

它的否定形式:Were you born in 1995? Yes , I was./No, I wasn’t

一般疑问形式及肯(否)定回答:Did you watched cartoons last night? Yes, I did./ No ,I didn’t.

特殊疑问形式:When were you born? What did you do last night?

动词的过去式形式:

a:规则动词的过去式词尾变化:

1.一般情况下加ed,如watered,planted

2.以不发音字母e结尾的加d,如:tasted。liked,lived

3. 以辅音字母+y结尾的变y为i,再加ed,study——studied

4.单音节,以一个元音字母和一个结尾的,双写这个辅音,再加ed,如:stop-stopped b:规则动词的词尾读音:

a)在浊辅音和元音后读/d/,如:pulled ,watered

b)在清辅音后读/t/,如cooked , milked ,asked , picked, walked

c)在/t/和/d/音后读/id/,如:collected , tasted , pointed , studied

c:不规则动词的变化没有什么规律,需要大家背熟记牢:

is/am –was are-were do-did have/has-had go-went

make-made sit-sat get-got see-saw come-came

swim-swam put-put eat-ate drink-drank fly-flew

buy-bought run-ran drive-drove know-knew meet-met

catch-caught ride-rode sing-sang speak-spoke say-said

teach-taught take-took think-thought write-wrote give-gave

begin-began tell-told hear-heard keep-kept draw-drew

代词分为两种:人称代词和物主代词。

A:人称代词用来指代人或事物,它分为主格和宾格。

主格在句子中做主语,通常放在动词前。如:I like her very much.(动词)

1

宾格在句子中做宾语,往往跟在动词或介词的后面。

They will help us.. (动词) She is behind me.(介词)

B:物主代词主要表示所有关系,可分为形容词性物主代词和名词性物主代词。 形容词性物主代词具有形容词的性质,不能单独使用,后面必须接名词才完整。 名词性物主代词具有名词的性质,可以单独使用,相当于形容词性物主代词+名词。 如;This is my schoolbag. It’s mine. Our bikes are new. Theirs are old.它们的关系见下表:

三、一般现在时:

定义:常用来表示现阶段经常、反复发生的动作或存在的状态。常常和表示频率、程度的时间状语连用。例如:everyday, always, often, usually, sometimes, on Saturday等。一般现在时通常用动词原形,但在主语是第三人称单数(he、she、it或某个具体的人)时,谓语动词要用专门的第三人称单数形式。如:has、does。它的第三人称动词的构成规则有点与名词复数相似,有些需牢记:

teach-teaches wash-washes catch-catches touch-touches carry-carries go-goes

Xiao Hong does her homework at eight every evening. My mother often watches TV.

四、现在进行时:

现在进行时:表示现在(指说话人说话时)或现阶段正在进行的动作,通常由be(am、is、are)+动词的现在分词(动词+ing)构成。

如:Look!They are dancing. Listen,he is singing.

2

有两种情况要注意:

(1),以不发音的字母e结尾,去e加ing。如:have-having, come-coming make-making taste-tasting smoke-smoking give-giving

(2 ),以一个辅音字母结尾,前面只有一个重读的闭音节元音的,双写着个辅音字母再加ing。如:swim-swimming run-running sit-sitting get-getting put-putting

注意点:

在选词填空中,有些词后只能加原形

1.情态动词后(can/can't/may/must/should/shouldn't/shall)+动词原形

2.助动词后(do/don't/does/doesn't/did/didn't)+动词原形

3.祈使句中的动词用原形。如;Please go home . Sit down..

4.I will/I'm going to+动词原形 I'm going to go shopping.

5.Let's+动词原形 Let's play basketball.

6.would like to +动词原形 Would you like some tea?

7.want to/need to+动词原形 想要做或需要做

8.like to+动词原形I like to swim。

l like+动词ing 喜欢做 I like swimming。

l some用于陈述句或肯定回答中。any用于疑问句或否定回答中。

l 有例外:would you like some……?

l many 用于修饰可数名词,后面通常及复数,much通常修饰不可数名词

l a lot of 既可以修饰可数名词,也可以修饰不可数名词

序数词的集中构成法:

1. 特殊的;one-first two-second three-third

2. four以后由基数词变为序数词,通常+th

3. 以ve、v结尾把它改成f+th twelve-twelfth

4. twenty后的几十,把y改成ie+th twenty-twentieth

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