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9.life -span

发布时间:2013-12-27 11:41:12  

Life-span development
liudexiang

Developmental psychology
? The study of the changes that occur in people from birth through old age.

Enduring issues and methods
? Individual characteristics versus shared human traits ? Stability versus change ? Heredity versus environment

Enduring issues and methods
? Cross-sectional study : A method of studying development changes by comparing people of different ages at about the same time. ? Cohort : A group of people born during the same period in historical time.

Enduring issues and methods
? Longitudinal study : A method of studying developmental changes by evaluating the same people at different points in their lives. ? Biographical ( or retrospective ) study : A method of studying developmental changes by reconstructing people’s past through interviews and inferring the effects of past events on current behaviors.

Prenatal development
? Prenatal development : Development from conception to birth. ? Embryo : A developing human between 2 weeks and 3 months after conception. ? Fetus : A developing human between 3 months after conception and birth.

Prenatal development
? Critical period : A time when certain internal and external influences have a major effect on development; at other periods, the same influences will have little or no effect. ? Fetal alcohol syndrome : A disorder that occurs in children of women who drink alcohol during pregnancy; this disorder is characterized by facial deformities, heart defects, stunted growth, and cognitive impairments.

Critical period
? 孩子4~6个月是吞咽咀嚼关键期;8~9个月是分 辨大小、多少的关键期;7~10个月是爬的关键 期;10~12个月是站走的关键期;2~3岁是口头 语言发育的关键期;也是计数发展的关键期;2.5 岁-3岁是立规矩的关键期;3岁是培养性格的关键 期。4岁以前是形象视觉发展的关键期;4~5岁 是开始学习书面语言的关键期;5岁是掌握数学概 念的关键期;也是儿童口头语言发展的第二个关 键期;5~6岁是掌握语言词汇能力的关键期。

The newborn---reflexes
? Rooting reflex : the baby’s tendency to turn his or her head toward anything that touches the cheek. ? Sucking reflex : The tendency to suck on anything that enters the mouth. ? Grasping reflex : the tendency to cling vigorously to an adult’s finger or to any other object placed in the baby’s hands.

Temperament
? Temperament : Characteristic patterns of emotional reactions and emotional selfregulation.

Infancy and childhood
? Physical development

Motor development
? Motor development : It refers to the acquisition of skills involving movement, such as grasping, crawling, and walking. ? Motor development proceeds in a proximodistal fashion---from nearest the center of the body to farthest from the center.

Motor development milestones

The normal sequence of motor development
? At birth,

babies have grasping and stepping reflexes. At about 2 months, they can lift their head and shoulders. They can sit up by themselves at about 6.5 months and can stand ( while holding on to something ) at about 9 months. Crawling begins, on average, at 10 months, and walking at 1 year.

Maturation
? Maturation refers to biological processes that unfold as a person grows older and that contribute to orderly sequences of developmental changes, such as the progression from crawling to toddling to walking.

Cognitive development

Sensory-motor stages
? In Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development between birth and 2 years of age in which the individual develops object performance and acquires the ability to form mental representation.

Preoperational stage
? In Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development between 2 and 7 years of age in which the individual becomes able to use mental representations and language to describe, remember, and reason about the world, though only in an egocentric fashion.

Concrete-operational stage
? In Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development between 7 and 11 years of age in which the individual can attend to more than one thing at a time and understand someone else’s point of view, though thinking is limited to concrete matters.

Formal-operational stage
? In Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development between 11 and 15 years of age in which the individual becomes capable of abstract thought.

Social development
? Learning to interact with others is an important aspect of development in childhood.

Imprinting
? The tendency in certain species to follow the first moving thing (usually its mother) it sees after it is born or hatched.

attachment
? Emotional bond that develops in the first year of life that makes human babies cling to their caregivers for safety and comfort.

Autonomy
? Sense of independence; a desire not to be controlled by others.

Socialization
? Process by which children learn the behaviors and attitudes appropriate to their family and culture.

The end


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