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pep五年级下册英语语法知识点

发布时间:2013-12-29 12:52:38  

五年级下册英语语法知识点语法知识

1.近义词

eat breakfast—have breakfast eat lunch—have lunch eat dinner—have dinner

play sports—do sports usually—often

复数形式:policeman—policemen policewoman—policewomen 现在分词:tell—telling 三单:say—says 同义句:What do you do ? ---What are you? 你是干什么的?

2、频度的副词:

always 总是,一直 usually 通常,常常 often 经常 sometimes 有时候

4、介词后跟表示时间的词语时,表示在某年、某月、某个季节,某个时候(在上午,在下午,在晚上)用in;表示在某一天,在星期几用on,在具体的几点几分用at.

5、too 和either的用法区别:too和either都是“也”的意思,但too用于肯定句,either用于否定句。

第二单元语法知识

1.同义词:autumn(英)—fall(美) 对应词:wake up—sleep go to bed—get up

2.三单:say—says ask—asks come—comes

3.同义句:What’s your favourite season?(你最喜爱的季节是什么?)

----Which season do you like best?(你最哪个季节?)

4.表示天气的介词。当表示某地某个季节的天气情况时,要把季节放在前面,地点放在后面。其结构为:What’s the weather like in 季节in 地点?

第三单元主要语法点:

1、关于月份:(1)五月May , 六月June, 七月July,没有简写形式。九月September 的简写形式是前四个字母加点Sept. 其他八个月的简写形式是前三个字母加点。(2)无论是完全形式还是简写形式,表示12个月的单词的第一个字母都要大写。

2、关于基数词变序数词。

(1)一般情况下,直接在基数词后面加th. (one , two , three 除外)。one—first , two—second , three—third .

(2) 以ve结尾的基数词,变ve为f, 再加th. 如:five—fifth , twelve—twelfth.

(3)以t结尾的基数词,直接加h。如eight—eighth.

(4) 以不发音的字母e结尾的,丢掉不发音的字母e,再加th. 如 nine—ninth.

(5) 以y结尾的整十数,在变为序数词时,将y变为ie, 再加th. 如twenty—twentieth

(6)20以上的两位数,变为序数词时,十位数不变,只将个位上的数变为序数词。如:twenty-one--—--twenty-first , twenty-two——twenty-second , thirty-four——thirty-fourth

(7)序数词的简写形式为表示该词的阿拉伯数字加上该单词的最后两个字母,最后两个字母要变成上标格式。如:first—1st , second—2nd , third—3rd , fourth—4th . twentieth—20th

3. 回答When is your birthday?这个问题,如果只说明生日在几月份,在月份前用in.如 My birthday is in July. 如果要具体说明生日是在几月几日,则要把in去掉,直接用is,或者在is后加on。如My birthday is June 9th. 或My birthday is on June 9th .

4.注意区分两个句子:What day is it today ?今天星期几?

What’s the date today? 今天是几月几日?

5. 根据要求写单词:

make (现在分词)---making. send( 现在分词)---sending.

6.句子:

How many birthdays are in October ?有几个人的生日在十月? There are 3.

7. My birthday is in February .(变为一般疑问句)---Is your birthday in February?

8. Does she have a computer? 她有计算机吗?当第三人称单数和句子中出现了does时,其他动词必须使用原型。

9、读序数词时,前面一定要加the. 如 October 1st .读作October the first.

10、同义句:

Who has a birthday in October?===Whose birthday is in October?

第四单元知识点:

1、在电话中介绍自己时,可以用“It’s ? ”或者‘This is ?.’。但是不能用“I am ?”或者“My name is ?”

2.在电话中表另一个人接电话时,应该说:“Can I speak to ??”

3、告诉别人接电话时,说:There is a call for you.

4、在接电话时请别人稍候说:Hold on please.或者Please hold on.

5、动词变为现在分词(加ing)的规则:

(1) 一般情况下,在动词的后面直接加ing. 如:play—playing

clean—cleaning draw—drawing cook—cooking

(2) 以单个不发音的字母e结尾的动词,去掉不发音的字母e,再加ing .如:

write—writing come—coming take—taking make—making leave—leaving have—having

(3) 以重读闭音世结尾的动词,如果词尾只有一个辅音字母,则要先双写这个辅音字母,再加ing. 如: run—running swim—swimming put—putting sit—sitting set—setting 五单元主要知识点:

1、在英语中,当表示妈妈时,无论是人类妈妈还是动植物的妈妈,都可以用she . 而表示婴儿时,也都可以用it.

2、系动词be 的用法:我是am你是are, is跟着他她它。如果人称是复数,扑面一律都用are. 如:I am reading a book. He is cooking dinner.

We are doing an experiment. Are you eating lunch?

3、With 除了表示和?一起外,还可以表示“使用”,如:

That elephant is drinking water with its trunk.大象正在用它的象鼻喝水。

I am writing with my pen.我正在用我的钢笔写字。

4、当句子中出现了can时,动词一定要用原形。

如:Can tigers really swim? I can wash the clothes.我会洗衣服。

I am washing clothes.我正在洗衣服。

5、can , usually , often , sometimes , always 这几个单词都是一般现在时的好朋友,当句子中出现了它们时,动词一般都要用原形。

now, am , is , are 这几个单词都是现在进行时的好朋友,当句子中出现了它们时,动词要用现在分词形式,也就是ing形式。

第六单元主要知识点:

1、现在进行时的句子变一般疑问句时,只要将系动词be(am is are )和主语交换位置,将句末的句号变为问号,但是要注意第一人称和第二人称时,人称和系动词的相应变化。 如:I am reading a book? ------Are you reading a book?

You’re walking . -----Am I waling? He is cooking dinner . -------Is he cooking dinner?

2、表示用什么做个实验时,要用on。如 Do an experiment on me , please.

3. It’s time to 后跟动词的原形,It’s time for 后跟名词。

如:It’s time to go to school. 该去上学了。(到了去上学的时间了。)

It’s time for English class.到英语课的时间了。It’s time to have English class. 该上英语课了。

英语下册知识点总结

二、重点短语讲解

1. play with 和…一起玩 play with sb.(某人) 和…一起玩 play with sth.(某物) 玩某物 e.g. Lucy and Lily are playing with their mother. Lucy and Lily are playing with their doll.

2. a lot of 很多 a lot of = lots of + 可数名词复数或不可数名词

e.g. 同义句转换 There are a lot of apples on the table.

=There are ______ ______ apples on the table. (答案:lots of)

3. how often 多久一次how often 是一个特殊疑问词,就频率提问。英语表示频率的词:一次:once两次:twice 特殊 其他次数:基数词+times 构成 例如:8次 eight times e.g. --How often do you go to the library? 注:如就划线部分提问,应用特殊疑问词how often)

4. how many 多少

how many/much 就数量提问 how many + 可数名词;how much + 不可数名词

e.g.-- How many boys are there in your class? -- There are 40 boys in my class.

-- How much water is there in the bottle? - There is a little water in the bottle.

5. be good at 擅长 e.g. I am good at English.

6. be interested in 对…感兴趣e.g. I am interested in English.

7. play the violin 拉小提琴 乐器前加定冠词 the

8. listen to music 听音乐 听…,用listen to

(1). 听音乐前,不加定冠词the (2). 听收音机前,要加定冠词the : listen to the radio

9. come from 来自,come from = be from, I come from China. = I am from China. 易错点:Where are you come from? (错误) Where do you come from? (正确)

10. play football 踢足球 {球类名词前不加冠词} 11.be famous for 因…闻名

12. have a look at 看一看 have a look at = look at

13. how much 多少(钱)how much 用来询问价格

14. a pair of 一双;一对 a pair of glasses; a pair of trousers; a pair of gloves

15. try on 试穿 试穿鞋子 try on the shoes = try the shoes on

试穿它 此处它是代词,只能放在 try on 之间 try it on

14. see a doctor 看医生

常用表示“看”的单词有:watch; see; look; read .

watch: 用于看电视,比赛等; watch TV watch football match

see: 看见 强调结果,看到什么;看医生、看电影时用see ; see a film; see a doctor

15. take good care of 好好照顾 take (good) care of = look after

16. have a fever 发烧

have a + 表示症状的单词 have a fever; have a toothache; have a headache

have + 病名 have measles (麻疹) have mumps (腮腺炎)

17. have to 不得不Her mother is ill, she has to look after her mother, so she can’t come to the party.

重点:含有have to 的句子变否定 用don’t 或 doesn’t

e.g. She has to finish her homework..

She doesn’t have to finish her homework. (正确) She has not to finish her homework.(错误)

18. be worried about 担心 She is worried about her exam.

19.help … with 帮助…做某事 help …with = help sb. (to) do sth.

Peter helps her mother with the housework. = Peter helps her mother (to) do the housework.

三、重点单词用法

1. call v. 称作 What do you call it in English? 2. like v. 喜欢

sth. I like English very much

to do sth. I like reading very much, but I don’t like to read now.

doing sth.

3. let’s + 动词原形 Let’s (=let us) make animals. let sb. do sth. 让某人做某事

4. want v. 想,想要

want sth. I want a piece of paper.

to do sth. I want to watch TV.

5. 情态动词

情态动词很简单,没有人称数之变,动词原形后边站,can表能力 may许可 should应该 would愿 must必须 ,否定needn’t换 have to不得不表客观

四、重点语法

A) 一般现在时

1. 概念:一般现在时表示经常的、习惯性的动作或存在的状态。

2. 构成:一般现在时的构成主要有两种形式:

(1)be型:句子的谓语动词只有be(am,is或are):

a.肯定句中,只出现be,如: I am a student.我是一名学生。

b.否定句中,要在be后面加not,如: She isn't a teacher.她不是教师。

c.一般疑问句,要将be放在句子开头(注意句首字母大写),句尾用问号,答语用Yes,主语+be.或No,主语 + be + not.如: —Are you ready?—你准备好了吗? —Yes,I am.—是的,我准备好了。 (—No,I'm not.—不,我没准备好。)

(2)实义动词型:句中的谓语动词为实义动词(也叫行为动词):

a.肯定句中,只出现实义动词,如: I get up in the morning.我早晨起床。

b.否定句中,要在实义动词前面加do(does)+not,do(does)作助动词,本身无意义,常与not缩写成don't(doesn't),如: I don't like vegetables.我不喜欢蔬菜。 c.一般疑问句,要在句子开头加助动词Do(does),句尾用问号,简略答语用Yes, 主语+do(does).或No,主语+do(does)+not.如: —Do you like oranges?—你喜欢桔子吗? —Yes,I do.—是的,我喜欢。 (—No,I don't.—不,我不喜欢。)

3. 一般现在时的用法

1) 经常性或习惯性的动作,常与表示频腮度的时间状语连用。

时间状语: every…, sometimes, at…, on Sunday

I leave home for school at 7 every morning.

2) 客观真理,客观存在,科学事实。

The earth moves around the sun. Shanghai lies in the east of China.

3) 表示格言或警句中。

Pride goes before a fall. 骄者必败。

注意:此用法如果出现在宾语从句中,即使主句是过去时,从句谓语也要用一般现在时。 例:Columbus proved that the earth is round..

4) 现在时刻的状态、能力、性格、个性。

I don't want so much. Ann Wang writes good English but does not speak well.

比较:Now I put the sugar in the cup. I am doing my homework now.

B) 一般将来时

一、概念:表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态及打算、计划或准备做某事。

句中一般有以下时间状语:

tomorrow, next day(week, month, year…),soon, the day after tomorrow(后天)等。

二、基本结构:① be going to + do; ②will+ do.

三、否定句:在be动词(am, is, are)后加not或will后加not成won’t。

例如:I’m going to have a picnic this afternoon.→ I’m not going to have a picnic this afternoon.

四、一般疑问句: be或will提到句首,some改为any, and改为or,第一二人称互换。 例如:

We are going to go on an outing this weekend. → Are you going to go on an outing this weekend?

五、对划线部分提问。一般情况,一般将来时的对划线部分有三种情况。

1. 问人。Who 例如:I’m going to New York soon. →Who’s going to New York soon.

2. 问干什么。What … do.

例如: My father is going to watch a race with me this afternoon. →What is your father going to do with you this afternoon.

3. 问什么时候。When. 例如:She’s going to go to bed at nine. →When is she going to bed?

六、同义句:be going to = will I am going to go swimming tomorrow(明天). = I will go swimming tomorrow.

七、be going to和will 的区别

be going to和will 的用法虽然都表示将来发生动作或情况,但它们的用法是有区别的。

1. be going to主要用于:

(1)、表示事先经过考虑、安排好打算要做的事情。

What are you going to do today? 今天你们打算做什么?

Dad and I are going to see a Beijing opera this afternoon. 今天下午我和爸爸打算去看京剧。 I’m going to play the violin. 我打算拉小提琴。 She’s going to play the piano. 她打算弹钢琴。

(2)、表示根据目前某种迹象判断,某事非常有可能发生。

e.g. Look! There come the dark clouds. It is going to rain. 瞧!乌云密集,天要下雨。 I am afraid I am going to have a cold. 恐怕我要患重感冒。

2. will主要用于在以下几个方面:

(1)、表示单纯的未来“将要”通用各个人称。

e.g. They will go to visit the factory tomorrow. 明天他们将去工厂参观。

I’ll come with Wang Bing, Liu Tao and Yang Ling. 我将和王兵、刘涛、杨玲一起来。

(2)、表示不以人的意志为转移的自然发展的未来的事。

e.g. Today is Saturday. Tomorrow will be Sunday.今天是星期六。明天是(将)是星期日。 He will be thirty years old this time next year. 明年这个时候他就(将)三十岁。

(3)、问对方是否愿意做某事或表示客气地邀请或命令.

e.g. Will you please turn on the radio? 请打开收音机好吗?

C) 现在进行时构成:主语+be+动词ing〔现在分词〕形式

第一人称+ am + v-ing 第二人称+ are + v-ing 第三人称+ is +v-ing

现在进行时的基本用法:

a.表示现在( 指说话人说话时) 正在发生的事情。 We are waiting for you.

b.习惯进行:表示长期的或重复性的动作,说话时动作未必正在进行。

Mr. Green is writing another novel.

(说话时并未在写,只处于写作的状态。) She is learning piano under Mr. Smith. c. 已经确定或安排好的将来活动

I'm leaving for a trek in Nepal next week.(已经安排了) we're flying to Paris tomorrow.(票已经拿到了)

d.有些动词(状态动词不用于进行时态)

(1)表示知道或了解的动词:believe, doubt, forget, imagine, know, remember, realize, suppose, understand

(2)表示“看起来”“看上去"appear, resemble, seem

(3)表示喜爱或不喜爱hate, like, lover, prefer

(4)表示构成或来源的动词 be, come, from, contain, include

(5)表示感官的动词 hear see smell sound taste

(6)表示拥有的动词belong to, need, own, possess, want, wish

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