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高英第四单元课件

发布时间:2013-12-29 15:56:52  

Unit Four
TEXT I The Invisible Poor

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III. Library Work

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1. Broadly speaking, the middle class is the social group between the upper or the wealthy and working classes, including professional and business workers and their families. The middle class is sometimes divided into lower middle

III. Library Work
and upper middle classes --- a division based on occupational and educational differences. Since World War II, the middle class has been the largest class in the United States, where the middle class participate more in political and voluntary organizations than do the

III. Library Work
subordinate classes, that is, the lowest paid wage earners and the jobless poor. The middle class in the U.S. also has a higher rate of religious participation than any other class. 2. Dictionary definitions of slum and ghetto: Slum --- a thickly populated, squalid part of a city inhabited by the poorest people

III. Library Work
Ghetto --- In former times, in most European countries, a section of a city inhabited by Jews. In the U.S. today, a thickly populated slum area in a city inhabited predominantly by a minority group. In many cities in the U.S., particularly in the East and the Middle West, slums developed where unemployment led to great suffering and over-crowdedness; moreover, pauperism and crime are widespread.

III. Library Work
In the U.S., ghetto is a term used to describe segregated residential areas in the northern U.S. They are typically overcrowded, and have poor housing and high unemployment. They are largely a result of segregation. 3. The general purpose of unions has been to protect and advance the well-being of workers. Some participants in and observers of the U.S. labor movement have viewed unions as institutions with the potential to establish industrial democracy and socialism. Until the

III. Library Work
1930s, U.S. labor unions suffered severe legal disadvantages. Before 1842 strikes were often prohibited by the courts. In 1932 antistrike injunctions were outlawed. U.S. unions finally gained full legal recognition in 1935. The workers were then given the right to form and join unions and to engage in collective bargaining.

IV. Organization of the Text
I. Thesis statement: invisibility of American poor (Paragraphs 1 – 2) II. The normal and obvious causes of the invisibility of the poor (Paragraphs 3 – 7) 1. Poverty is often off the beaten track. (Paragraph 4) 2. Beauty and myths are masks of poverty. (Paragraph 5) 3. Summary and comment (Paragraphs 6 – 7)

IV. Organization of the Text
III. A new kind of blindness about poverty (Paragraphs 8 – 14) 1. Transformation of the American city isolates the poor from sight of others. (Paragraphs 8 – 9) 2. Well-meaning ignorance keeps concerned and sympathetic Americans from knowing the truth about the poor. (Paragraph 10) 3. Mass production enables the best-dressed poverty to exist. (Paragraphs 11 – 12)

IV. Organization of the Text
4. Many of the poor are the wro

ng age to be seen. (Paragraphs 13 – 14) IV. Political invisibility --- the dispossessed at the bottom of society cannot speak for themselves. (Paragraphs 15 – 17) V. Conclusion (Paragraph 18)

V. Key Points of the Text
Paragraph 3 perennial: lasting through the whole year; lasting forever or for a long time 持久的, 长久的 E.g.: the perennial snow fields

终年积雪的原野
the perennial blue jeans

四季都穿的牛仔裤

a perennial invalid

长期病人
the perennial problems of isolation in old age

始终未能解决的老年人孤独问题

Paragraph 4
off the beaten track / path: not well-known; not often visited 去的人不多的,鲜有人涉足的;不出名的; 离开常 规;不落俗套 beaten: (of a path, track, etc.) that is given shape by the feet of those who pass along it (路) 被踏平的, 走出来的, 人们常走的 E.g.: We followed a well-beaten path through the forest.

我们沿着人们常走的小路穿过了森林。

Paragraph 4
E.g.: a vacation spot that is off the beaten track

僻静的度假处
go off the beaten track

打破常规

turnpike (AmE): also pike, turnpike road, a special road for the use of fasttraveling vehicles, especially such a road which one has to pay to use 高速公路

Paragraph 4
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rut: deep narrow marks or tracks left in soft ground by the wheel of a vehicle 车辙 rutted roads: roads with deep, narrow marks made by the wheels of vehicles 有车辙的路;凹凸不平的路

Paragraph 4
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E.g.: be in a rut

墨守成规,也成不变
get / fall into a rut

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陷入老一套,开始墨守成规
fall into a conversational rut

开始了老调重弹的谈话
get out of one’s rut

摆脱陈规旧习

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a runaway sweatshop: a out-andout/complete sweatshop 彻头彻尾的血 汗工厂

Paragraph 4
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runaway: out of control 摆脱控制的;控制不住的 E.g.: a runaway oil well

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喷流不止的油井
runaway inflation

(脱缰野马似的)恶性通货膨胀
the runaway cost of grain

飞涨的谷物价格

Paragraph 5
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run-down: old and broken; in bad condition 失修的,破败的;衰败的 E.g.: a run-down old house

破败的旧屋
This neighborhood is getting rundown.

附近这一带正在日渐衰落。

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be exempt from: be freed from a duty, service, payment, etc. 被豁免;被免除 E.g.: Charitable organizations are exempt from taxation. John is exempt from physical education because of poor health

Paragraph 5
strain: a state in which one is greatly troubled by anxiety and difficulty ? 极度紧张;重负;过劳 ? E.g.: Young people are under great strain during the examination period. ? Examinations of all kinds put a great strain on young people.

Paragraph 5
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tension: (a feeling of) nervousness, anxiety, worry, or pressure (精神上的)紧张 E.g.: Before the interview, Jane

t suffered from a lot of nervous tension. He felt helpless under the tension of waiting for the news.

Paragraph 5
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underprivileged: (of people) not having the advantages of ordinary person’s life; lacking in good chances for education, social life, etc. 贫困的;社会经济地位低下的;生活水平低下的

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E.g.: children from underprivileged homes

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贫困家庭的孩子
an underprivileged nation

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生活水平低下的国家
underprivileged areas of a city

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城市的贫民区

Paragraph 6
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they will be functioning a generation hence: the normal and obvious causes of the invisibility of American poor will still hold true in a generation from now function: operate, work E.g.: Is the machine / computer / telephone functioning?

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hence: from now E.g.: three days / a week / two months hence

Paragraph 6
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slip: move secretly or unnoticed E.g.: The wet soap slipped out of my hand. Her secret slipped out without her knowing. Days slipped by and he accomplished very little. Don’t let good opportunities slip through your fingers.

Paragraph 7
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foray: literally means “a sudden attack into an enemy area by a small number of soldiers to damage or seize arms, foot, etc.” 突袭;闪电式侵扰 E.g.: The soldiers went on a foray at the command of the officer. make a foray on a town

对一城镇进行突袭

Paragraph 7
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Foray’s extended meaning is “a short attempt to become active in an activity that is quite different from one’s usual activity.” What the author means here is that visits to the slums made by the middle class at usual times are rare, but at Christmas time, there would be some visits.冒险;涉足 a short unexpected visit 短暂的访问

Paragraph 7
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E.g.: the president’s three-day foray into the South 总统对南方3天短暂的访问 From time to time he made forays to the pavement booksellers.

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常常涉足街头书摊

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ghetto: a section of a city or town where live minority people who are not accepted as social equals by the majority of its citizens 少数民族聚居区

Paragraph 7
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Compare synonyms of ghetto: slum: a district in a city or town where living conditions are dirty and unhealthy, and where poor people live 贫民窟 shantytown: a part of a city or town made up of poorly-built huts, cabins, or houses 棚户区

Paragraph 8
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the failures: people who fail in doing what they expect to do; unsuccessful people

Paragraph 9
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assume: take something as a fact or as true without proof; suppose E.g.: He was absent at the picnic. I assume that he’d forgotten all about it. Assuming that it rains tomorrow, shall we change our plan?

Paragraph 10
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compound: make worse by adding (something) to … (often used in the passive) 增加;加重 E.g.: compound a problem

使问题复杂化
compound

difficulties (losses)

加重困难(损失)
His difficulty was compounded by a sense of insecurity / uncertainty.

Paragraph 10
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hovel: a small dirty place to live in 简陋小屋;茅舍;肮脏杂乱的住所

Paragraph 11
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The irony in this …: the reverse (state of affairs) / the incongruity of this … Irony refers to “the sort of event or result which is just the opposite of what one would hope for or meant to happen” 具有讽刺意义的事

Paragraph 12
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discern: to see, notice, or understand, especially with difficulty; perceive 看出,识别,觉察

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This process has been magnified with the poor throughout the country: This process of having the poor disappear from sight has been developing rapidly all over the country.

Paragraph 14
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lurid: sensational, shocking 可怕的;惊人的; 骇人听闻的;过分渲染得 E.g.: lurid accounts of the carnage

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骇人听闻的大屠杀报道
He painted a lurid picture of prison life.

他把监狱生活描写得十分可怕。
lurid crimes (stories)

耸人听闻的罪行(故事)

Paragraph 15
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the dispossessed: people who have lost all their possessions. Here, the dispossessed are people who do not possess anything.

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fraternal: of, belonging to, or like brothers 兄弟(般)的,友爱的 E.g.: fraternal affection

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兄弟情谊
a fraternal atmosphere

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友好气氛

Paragraph 16
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there is not even a cynical political motive for caring abut the poor, as in the old days: In the old days, there might be some concern for the poor shown by some people to achieve their own purposes. Their motive of doing so would be cynical, or doubtful. But today, there is not even that kind of concern.

Paragraph 17
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reservoir: a large supply, especially one that has not yet been used 贮藏,蓄积,大量供应 E.g.: an oil reservoir 油槽 History is a reservoir of human experience. 历史是人类经历的总汇。 have a great reservoir of knowledge 有广博的知识

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menace: something which suggests a threat or brings danger 威胁

Paragraph 17
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articulate the needs of the poor: express clearly and effectively the needs of the poor articulate: express thoughts and feelings clearly E.g.: He was so despondent(沮丧的,泄气的) that he could hardly articulate his distress.

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Articulate is often used in language learning, meaning “pronounce distinctly, clearly, and carefully.” E.g.: Josephine articulates every word carefully. She has good articulation.

Paragraph 18
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in the old rhetoric of reform: reform in the old days that was stated in a language that was fine to hear or read but that really did not mean much 以往粉饰太平的改革

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Rhetoric in its general sense means “the art of speaking or writing in a way that is likely to persuade or influence people.” But in this

context, rhetoric is used in its derogatory sense, meaning “speech or writing that sounds fine and important, but is really insincere or without meaning.”

VI. SA to Organization and Development, P. 50, Student’s Book
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Para. 5: The word “too” indicates furtherance. In this case, it tells the reader what the paragraph deals with is similar to what has been dealt with. The fact is, in this paragraph, we find another perennial reason why poverty is invisible in America. Para. 6: The pronoun “these” can point both backward and forward. In this case it points backward, i.e. “these” refer to the perennial reasons that have been explained in the previous two paragraphs.

VI. SA to Organization and Development, P. 50, Student’s Book
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Para. 8: “Now” indicates a change of direction. The writer is going to turn from the “perennial” to the “present”. Para. 9: “In short” is used to summarize. What follows is a brief summary of what has just been said, i.e. the effect urban development has on the invisibility of the poor.

VI. SA to Organization and Development, P. 50, Student’s Book
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Para. 10: “This new segregation” refers to the segregation of the poor from the affluent mentioned in the previous two paragraphs. The segregation is “new” because there has been the “old” notorious segregation of the colored people from the white

VI. SA to Organization and Development, P. 50, Student’s Book
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Para. 11: The word “this” in “The irony in this” refers to the last sentence of the last paragraph. i.e. “There is a warm feeling of satisfaction, of pride in the way things are working out: the poor, it is obvious, are being taken care of”. Can they be taken care of when they are even invisible?

VI. SA to Organization and Development, P. 50, Student’s Book
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Para. 12: “This” in “This is an extremely important factor …” refers to the last sentence of the last paragraph, i.e. “Even people with terribly depressed incomes can look prosperous.” Para. 13: The word “then” here has nothing to do with its basic meaning, i.e. a specific point of time either in the past or in the future. Here it is used in the sense of “besides”, showing that there is another reason why the poor are invisible.

VI. SA to Organization and Development, P. 50, Student’s Book
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Para. 15: “And finally” here is, as usual, used to show that we have come to the last point in our exposition. Here the writer is going to tell us that the poor are not only materially and emotionally invisible, but they are also politically invisible, i.e. their voice is not heard.

VII. SA to Ex. I, P. 36, Workbook
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1. To enforce his assertion that the other America did exist though most Americans might not believe it just because they had never been there personally. What Harrington is trying to say is “I myself was once ignorant of its existence, but now I can prove to you that it doe

s exist.”

VII. SA to Ex. I, P. 36, Workbook
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2. Refer to Paragraphs 4 and 5. Rural poverty is hidden away from tourists who normally travel on highways without penetrating into the country, and sometimes is masked by its natural beauty. 3. Refer to Paragraphs 8 – 10. Urban transformation leads to the distributional segregation of poverty, and urban renewal creates the false impression about the existence of the poor.

VII. SA to Ex. I, P. 36, Workbook
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4. Refer to Paragraphs 11 – 14. Mass production of garments enables even the poor to be decently dressed. Most poor people are aged; they are less mobile and thus less visible. 5. Politically, the poor are not adequately represented; and their voice is not heard and attended to in the political life of the nation. 6. (Omitted)

VIII. SA to Ex. II, P. 37, Workbook
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1. Beauty refers to the beautiful environment. Specifically it refers to the hills, the streams, the foliage in the lovely season in the area of the Appalachians Mountains. Myths refer to Rousseau’s concept of the “primitive man,” a person who was admired for his supposedly simple and pure life, and who was exempt from the strains and tension of the middle class. Specially they refer to the run-down mountain houses, supposedly the abode(住所) of the fortunate people.

VIII. SA to Ex. II, P. 37, Workbook
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When the traveler comes to the Appalachians, he will see the beauty of nature, and the run-down houses remind him of the “primitive man.” He does not know that the people living in the area are actually undereducated, underprivileged; in other words, they are poor. So outward beauty of nature and false beliefs in the “primitive man” are misleading --- they simply cover up the truth --- the existence of poverty.

VIII. SA to Ex. II, P. 37, Workbook
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2. The segregation of the poor from the affluent is new because the poor still live in the miserable housing in the central area of a city while the affluent middle class have moved out to the suburbs, so there is little chance for the affluent to see the poor. Well-meaning ignorance refers to the lack of awareness of the existence of poverty on the part of the middle class who actually have good intentions.

VIII. SA to Ex. II, P. 37, Workbook
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The middle class hear much about urban renewal, and when they see a slum torn down and modern buildings stand in its place, they feel gratified, thinking that the poor are being taken care of, not knowing that more and more poor people are being squeezed into existing slums.

IX. SA to Ex. III, P. 37, Workbook
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1. Can I be exempt from the regular physical examination this year? I just had one three months ago before I went to the summer camp. 2. Could you tell me again what I should do next? What you said yesterday has slipped out of my mind. 3. We all assumed that Dave was a trustworthy person, but it turned out that we were wrong.

IX. SA to Ex. II

I, P. 37, Workbook
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4. His misfortune was compounded by his wife’s illness and his loss of job. 5. Whether or not there are living beings in outer space is of perennial interest to man. 6. When you are under great strain, you will not be able to think clearly. 7. Jim tends to lose his temper when his advice is not heeded. 8. In spite of his great leaning, the teacher finds it difficult to articulate his students’ needs.

Unit Four
TEXT II … Meanwhile, Human Eat Pet Food

I. Organization of the Text 1. Author’s experiences of pet food consumption (Paragraphs 1 – 7) a. The first time during my youth (Para. 1) b. The second time in the summer of 1953 (Paragraphs 2 - 4) c. The next time in 1956 (Paragraph 5) d. Later in the late 1950’s (Paragraph 6)

I. Organization of the Text
e. My later experience (Paragraph 7) (When he first observed people eating pet food, it was among his neighbors and acquaintances in the South. Then he had the personal experiences of eating it. But later he found it common among a larger number of people. And what’s more, some ate things worse than pet food. His experiences and observations, apart from following the time order, also follow the order of increasing severity.)

I. Organization of the Text
2. Conclusion (Paragraphs 8 – 9)

(With regard to numbers, he avoids being too exact and specific, knowing fully well that he can hardly afford to be so. Note his use of words like “conservative, estimate, at least, some,” and also the sentence “Who knows how many more millions supplement their diet with pet-food products?” Such

I. Organization of the Text
qualifications do not weaken his argument. He seems to think the data available at present are already sufficient to draw the conclusion. As he says near the end, it would be sufficient to know that there is one child or a single elderly person in the U.S. who is reduced to eating pet food.)

II. Key Points of the Text
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Paragraph 1 patty: food cut into very small pieces, formed into small flat shapes, and cooked 馅饼,肉饼 sizzle: to make a sound like water falling on hot metal or food cooking in hot fat 咝咝地响 space heater: an electric or fuel-burning machine for heating an enclosed area or room 小型供热器

Paragraph 1
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dilapidated: (of things) in bad condition because of age or lack of care; falling to pieces 荒废的,坍坏的,破旧的 unrelenting: continuous, without decreasing in power or effort 持续的, 不间断的 stench: a very strong bad smell 恶臭, 臭气

Paragraph 2 at the end of the rainbow: 可望而不 可即的地方 ? chase (after) the rainbow(s): 做白日 梦,幻想,想入非非 ? turn sb. away: refuse to give one’s sympathy, help, or support to sb. 拒绝帮助某人;把…某人打发走
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Paragraph 2 nest egg: an amount of money saved for special future use 储备金 ? pilfer: to steal (small amount of things of little valu

e) 小偷小摸,偷 窃 ? surreptitiously: secretly, especially for dishonest reasons 秘密地
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Paragraph 3
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self-sufficiency: the state or quality of being self-sufficient (able to provide for one’s needs without outside help, especially (of a country) without buying goods and services from abroad 自给自足;过 于自信

Paragraph 3 seek out: (usu. formal., old use, or literary) = search out, to find something or someone by looking hard ? E.g.: It took me several weeks to seek out the boots that I wanted.
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Paragraph 4 mealy: like or containing meal 粗粉 状的;粉状的 ? E.g.: a butterfly with mealy wings
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有粉翅的蝴蝶
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the miller’s mealy hands 磨坊工

人沾粉的双手

Paragraph 7
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turn up: find something by chance, as by digging or searching E.g.: Just how do you intend to turn up the necessary proof? You never know when you may turn up an ancient coin in this part of the country, which is so rich in history.

Paragraph 9
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incontrovertible: impossible to disprove; indisputable 不容置疑的,无 可辩驳的 E.g.: absolute and incontrovertible truth 颠扑不破的绝对真理 The evidence of brain injury is incontrovertible. 脑子受伤的证据是确凿

无疑的。

Paragraph 9
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bountiful: freely given, generous; plentiful 慷慨的,大方的;充足的,丰富 的 reduce somebody or something to: to bring or force to (especially a weaker or less favorable state) 使处于,迫使 forage: food supplies for horses and cattle 草料,饲料

III. SA to Questions for Discussion, P. 55, Student’s Book
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1. Probably he was born and brought up in a poor family in the South. Most of his neighbours and acquaintances were por and underfed; therefore eating pet food was not unusual at all. 2. The word “surreptitiously” means “secretly, stealthily”. The fact that he bought and ate pet food surreptitiously shows that he thought it indecent, undignified, or humiliating for humans to eat pet food.

III. SA to Questions for Discussion, P. 55, Student’s Book
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3. He took so much pride in finding by himself the means for sustenance that he would not think of living on charity and asking for help. Consequently he would have to starve or be reduced to eating pet food. 4. They had to eat something even worse than pet food, such as baking soda, baking powder, laundry starch, tobacco, clay, sand, etc.

III. SA to Questions for Discussion, P. 55, Student’s Book
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5. Occurring not systematically or regularly, but found occasionally here and there. 6. His estimate lacks sufficient solid epidemiological evidence that shows a specific percentage of people eat pet food. For fear of overestimating the figure he chooses to give a conservative estimate.

III. SA to Questions for Discussion, P. 55, Student’s Book
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7. From his personal experiences and from what he observed, those who eat pet food are compelled

to do so by poverty. 8. It could be “The U.S. always claims to be the wealthiest and most affluent country in the world; meanwhile, humans eat pet food.”

III. SA to Questions for Discussion, P. 55, Student’s Book
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9. No. But he has presented it in the form of a rhetorical question in the last paragraph: Must we wait for incontrovertible data before we seriously seek to solve the problems of hunger and malnutrition in America?

IV. SA to Ex. I, P. 41, Workbook
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1. Increased production led to “private affluence” for the few and to “public squalor” for the many. More resources should be spent on facilities enjoyed by many, and not on things wished for by few. 2. Large corporations were managed by men more concerned with the security of their jobs than with maximum profits. The consumer has no say in the corporation’s management. The

IV. SA to Ex. I, P. 41, Workbook
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corporation has a great influence on modern society and the government is regulating the economy in favor of the corporation. 3. There is an inevitable conflict of interests between the great corporation and the great trade unions, and between the interests of smaller firms and of the public in general. The danger is that what is good for large corporations and unions is regarded as good for the public.

V. SA to Ex. II, P. 41, Workbook
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Traditional economists oppose Galbraith’s preoccupation with power. They say he overstates the power of the owners of corporations over the consumer. The political right wing attacked Galbraith for his overstressing the power of the corporation, and for recommending checks upon it. The political left wing rejects Galbraith’s view that the managers in large companies are more benevolent and objective in their attitudes towards the workers.

VI. SA to Language Work Ex. I, P. 43, Workbook
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1. It is no use producing work in illegible / indecipherable handwriting. 2. At the meeting Peter Smith, the postmaster, spoke at considerable length but his remarks were barely audible. 3. Can you do without exotic but nonessential foods. 4. It is wrong for some parents to think that they are infallible.

VI. SA to Language Work Ex. I, P. 43, Workbook
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5. When we take up a job, we have no idea of the indirect consequences of our actions. 6. How are we going to dispose of those inefficient machines? 7. An employee who has an imperfect knowledge of English will not make a good interpreter. 8. Taking advantage of other people’s misfortune is immoral / improper.

VI. SA to Language Work Ex. I, P. 43, Workbook
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9. It is illegal to park cars in the main street. 10. When Elvis Presley died on 16th August, 1977, President Carter was asked to declare a day of national mourning because he was unique and irreplaceable.


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