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小学英语语法

发布时间:2013-09-22 16:31:52  

小学英语语法讲解:一般现在时

1、一般现在时的功能

(1)表示事物或人物的特征、状态。

如:The sky is blue. 天空是蓝色的。

(2)表示经常性或习惯性的动作。

如:I get up at six every day. 我每天六点起床。

(3)表示客观现实。如:The earth goes around the sun. 地球绕着太阳转。

2、一般现在时的构成

(1) be动词:主语+be(am,is,are)+其它。

如:I am a boy.我是一个男孩。

(2)行为动词:主语+行为动词(+其它)。

如:We study English.我们学习英语。

当主语为第三人称单数(he, she,it)时,要在动词后加"-s"或"-es"。如:Mary likes Chinese.玛丽喜欢汉语。

3、一般现在时的变化

(1) be动词的变化。

否定句:主语+ be + not +其它。

如:He is not a worker.他不是工人。

一般疑问句:Be +主语+其它。

如:-Are you a student? -Yes. I am. / No, I'm not. 特殊疑问句:疑问词+一般疑问句。如:Where is my bike? 1

(2)行为动词的变化。

否定句:主语+ don't( doesn't ) +动词原形(+其它)。

如:I don't like bread.

当主语为第三人称单数时,要用doesn't构成否定句。

如:He doesn't often play.

一般疑问句:Do( Does ) +主语+动词原形+其它。

如:- Do you often play football?

- Yes, I do. / No, I don't.

当主语为第三人称单数时,要用does构成一般疑问句。

如: - Does she go to work by bike?

- Yes, she does. / No, she doesn't.

特殊疑问句:疑问词+一般疑问句。

如:How does your father go to work?

4、动词+s的变化规则

(1)一般情况下,直接加-s,如:cook-cooks, milk-milks

(2)以s. x. sh. ch. o结尾,加-es,如:guess-guesses, wash-washes, watch-watches, go-goes

(3)以"辅音字母+y"结尾,变y为i, 再加-es,如:study-studies

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小学英语语法讲解:现在进行时

一、概念:现在进行时表示说话时正在进行或发生的动作,也可表示当前一段时间内的活动或现阶段正在进行的动作.

结构:助动词 be ( am / is / are ) +现在分词.

二、 现在分词的构成

1.大多数动词后可在动词后直接加-ing.

如: carry-carrying,catch-catching,drink-drinking, enjoy-enjoying hurry-hurrying ,do-doing , read-reading , think-thinking

2. 如果动词以-e结尾,则去掉-e,再加-ing,

如:come-coming ,have-having ,make-making,ride-riding,

write-writing, take-taking,use-using

3. 如果动词只有一个元音字母,而其后跟有一个辅音字母时,将此辅音字母双写,再加-ing

如: hit-hitting,let-letting,

put-putting,run-running,sit-sitting.

三、句型结构

1.现在进行时的肯定形式、否定形式、疑问形式及其回答,所有变化都体现在助动词 be ( is / am / are ) 上.

1)现在进行时的肯定形式:主语+be(am/ is/are)+doing+其他成分

I am singing . They are writing .

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2)现在进行时的否定形式:主语+be(am/ is/are)+not +doing+其他成分

I am not singing . They aren’t writing .

3)一般疑问句及回答:be(am/ is/are)+ 主语+doing+其他成分 Am I singing ? Yes ,you are . / No ,you aren’t .

Are they writing ? Yes ,they are . / No ,they aren’t .

4)特殊疑问句及回答:特殊疑问词+be(am/ is/are)+主语+doing+其他成分

What are you doing ? We are playing

(要求就提问内容具体回答).

2. 缩写形式如下:

I am---I’m You are---You’re He is---He’s

She is---She’s

It is---It’s We are---We’re They are---They’re

3.说明: 不是所有动词都能用现在进行时态的,

如:see、like、want、know 等动词往往都不用进行时态.

四.用法

1.表示现在( 指说话人说话时) 正在发生的事情.往往与 now,at the moment,just 等副词连用,以示强调.

We are waiting for you. What are you doing?

Some one’s knocking at the door.

2.正在进行着的动作可视为未完成的动作:

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He’s talking to his friends in the classroom. 可用 still 一词强调动作的持续性

He’s still talking to his friends in the classroom.

3. 表示长期的或重复性的动作,说话时动作未必正在进行. Mr. Black is writing another article.

Don’t take that book away. Your father’s using it. She is learning piano under Mr. Black.

4.现在进行时可用来表示不会长期发生的动作或情况,或被认为在短期内正在进行的动作或存在的情况:

What’s your brother doing these days?

He’s studying English at Oxford University.

5.现在进行时也可以用来表示当前的动向:

People are becoming more and more beautiful these days.

6. 表示渐变的动词有:become,turn,get,grow,run,go,begin等. The leaves are turning brown.

It’s getting colder and colder.

7.与always,constantly,forever 等词连用,表示反复发生的动作或持续存在的状态,往往带有说话人的主观色彩.

You are always changing your mind.

8. 现在进行时(以及 be going to)可以表示为将来安排好的活动和事件 We’re spending next winter in China.

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用arrive,come,go,leave 等动词的现在进行时描写行 程安排,也通常有“将到达”和“将离去”的意思: He’s arriving tomorrow morning.

9.当现在进行时表示某事发生的次数过多时,则有时含有抱怨,讨厌,赞扬等的意思:

He is always singing at night,and we can’t fall asleep late at night.

小学英语语法讲解:一般将来时

一、概念:表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态及打算、计划或准备做某事。句中一般有以下时间状语:tomorrow, next day (week, month, year?),soon, the day after tomorrow(后天)等。

二、基本结构

①be going to + do;

②will+ do.

三、否定句

在be动词(am, is, are)l后加not或情态动词will后加not成won't。

例如:I'm going to have a picnic this afternoon.

→ I'm not going to have a picnic this afternoon.

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四、一般疑问句

be或will提到句首,some改为any, and改为or,

第一二人称互换。

例如:We are going to go on an outing this weekend.

→ Are you going to go on an outing this weekend?

五、对划线部分提问

一般情况,一般将来时的对划线部分有三种情况。

1. 问人。Who 例如:I'm going to New York soon.

→Who's going to New York soon.

2. 问干什么。What ? do.

例如: My father is going to watch a race with me this afternoon.

→What is your father going to do with you this afternoon.

3. 问什么时候。When.

例如:She's going to go to bed at nine.

→When is she going to bed?

六、同义句

be going to = will

I am going to go swimming tomorrow(明天).

= I will go swimming tomorrow.

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小学英语语法讲解:一般过去时

一般过去时表示过去某个时间发生的动作或存在的状态。常和表示过去的时间状语连用。如:last year, yesterday等;也可表示过去经常反复发生的动作,常和often, always等频率副词连用。

例如:①I saw him in the street yesterday. 昨天我在街上看见他了。 ②Li Mei always went to school on foot last year.

去年李梅总是步行上学。

2、一般过去时的构成(谓语动词为实义动词的一般过去时的构成。)

2、动词过去式的构成

(1)规则动词过去式的构成有四条规则:

①一般在动词原形末尾直接加上-ed。如:look-looked。

②以不发音的字母e结尾的动词,去e再加-ed。如:live-lived。 ③末尾只有一个辅音字母的重读闭音节,先双写这个辅音字母,再加-ed。如:stop-stopped。

④末尾是辅音字母+y结尾的动词,先变y为i,然后再加-ed。如:study-studied。

(2)不规则动词的过去式需特殊记忆。如:am(is)-was, are-were, go-went, come-came, take-took, have (has)-had等。

3、一般过去时的几种句型

肯定句结构为:主语+动词的过去式+其它。

如:He went to the toy store yesterday. 他昨天去玩具店了。 否定句结构为:主语+did not (didn't)+动词原形+其它。 8

如:He didn't go to the toy store yesterday. 他昨天没去玩具店。 一般过去时的一般疑问句的构成:Did+主语+动词原形+其它?如:

1) -Did you go to Beijing last week?

-Yes, we did. (No, we didn't.)

2) -Did you meet the businessman before?

-No, I didn't. (Yes, I did.)

4、一般过去时的特殊疑问句的构成

疑问词+did+主语+动词原形+其它?如:

1) -What did you do last night?

-I did my homework.

2) -Where did you go last week?

-I went to Shanghai with my parents.

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感叹句。分两类:

1:What + n.+主谓部分

2:How + adj. / adv. / v.+主谓部分。

本题属第一种,但省略了bad,相对于 What a bad time I had! 这是个习惯用语。

How +形容词+ a +名词+陈述语序

How+形容词或副词+陈述语序

What +名词+陈述语序

What+a+形容词+名词+陈述语序

What+ 形容词+复数名词+ 陈述语序

What+ 形容词+不可数名词+ 陈述语序

How clever a boy he is!

How lovely the baby is!

What noise they are making!

What a clever boy he is!

What wonderful ideas (we have)!

What cold weather it is!

感叹句的省略形式为:

What a clever boy (he is)!

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