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八大时态讲解与练习

发布时间:2014-01-06 14:38:20  

英 语 动 词 时 态

一、英语中不同时间和方式发生的动作或状态要用谓语动词的不同形式来表示,这种动词形式称作动词时态。动作或状态发生的时间可以有现在、过去、将来和过去将来四种,而发生的方式也有一般、进行、完成和完成进行四种(即初中英语的八种时态)。

二、八种时态具体分析:

1、 一般现在时态:

a. 表示经常性或习惯性的动作

b. 现在的特征或状态

c. 普遍真理

d. 有些表示状态和感觉的动词。

如:be, love, like, hate, want, hope, need, prefer, wish, know, understand, remember, believe, guess,

belong, seem, look, have, sound, sound, taste,smell, touch, feel等常可用于一般现在时态。 e. 表示未来的时间状语从句或条件状语从句用一般现在时态。

f. 一般现在时态还用在布告、天气预报、报纸、电台。(says)掌握一般现在时态,还请记住下列单词或

词语:always, usually, often, sometimes, every day (morning, week), every other day每隔一天every three days, once (twice) a week (month, year), in the morning

g. 表示按计划或时刻要发生的事情

2、 一般将来时态:

a. 表示将要发生的动作或情况。

b. 表示打算、准备做的事或即将发生或肯定要发生的事情。掌握一般将来时态的用法,请记住下列单词

和短语。

In three days (an hour, half a year), next week (Monday, month), tomorrow, this afternoon (evening, coming Saturday-),soon, some day, tonight, 等等。

3、 一般过去时:

a. 一般过去时主要表示过去某时发生的动作或情况(惯性的动作)

b. 在谈到已死人的情况时多用过去时态。

c. 有些情况,发生的时间不很清楚,但实际上是过去发生过的,应当用过去时态。

(1) 接到你的信很高兴。I was glad to get your letter.

(2) 最后的比分怎么样?What was the final score?

(3) 你觉得他们的表演怎么样?How did you like their performance?

(4) 我没想到你这样忙。I didn’t know you were so busy

(5) 我以为你出去了。I thought you were out.

(6) 我没想到在这里碰到你。I didn’t expect to meet you here.

(7) 你说什么?What did you say??

掌握一般过去时态的用法,请记住下列单词或短语:

last + 时间点;时间段 + ago; yesterday, just now,

the other day (前几天)

4、 过去将来时:

表示从过去某时看将要发生的事情。

5、 现在进行时:

a. 表示现在或现在这一阶段正在进行的动作。

b. 在不少情况下,表示正在进行的动作的汉语句子,并没有“正在”这样的字,在翻译英语时必须用进

行时态。例:

(1) 工作进行的怎么样?How are you getting on with your work?

(2) 风挺大(下雨了)It’s blowing hard. (raining)

(3) 你等谁?Who(m) are you waiting for?

c. 在一般现在时态中所列的表示状态和感觉的动词,一般不能用于进行时态,因为它们不能表示正在进

行的动作,但是如果词义转变,表示一个正在进行的动作,就能够用于进行时态。

试比较:

d. 去向性动词的现在进行时可以表示将要发生的动作。但这仅限少量动词,如:go, come, leave, start,

arrive, return等

e. 在there和here引起的句子中,常可用一般现在时态代替现在进行时态:

Here comes the bus. = The bus is coming.汽车来了。

There goes the bell. = The bell is ringing.铃声响了。

f. 在某些情况下, 两种时态都可以。

(1) Dose your leg hurt? (Is your leg hurting) 腿疼吗?

(2) My back aches. (My back is aching) 我背疼。

6、 过去进行时:

a. 表示过去某个时刻正在进行的动作:

b. 过去进行时和一般过去时的差别是前者表示正在进行的动作,而后者表示一个完成的动作。例:

(1)I was reading a novel last night. 昨晚我在看小说(可能没有看完)

(2)I read a novel last night. 昨晚我看了一本小说。(可能看完了)

7、 现在完成时:表示现刻以前发生的动作或情况,可以是:

a. 到现在为止的这一时期中发生的情况(可能是多次动作的总和,也可以表示状态和习惯性动作) b. 对现状有影响的某一发生的动作。

c. 但有一个表示过去某时的状语(包括when)时,不能用现在完成时,而多用一般过去时。 d. 当有一个表示到现在为止这段时间的状语时,多用现在完成时。

e. 在有already, yet, just, ever, never, since--, for + 一段时间,by now,

in the past (last) few years, so far, 强调“多少”,“多久”等词的情况下用现在完成时

f. 在单纯谈一个过去的动作,不涉及其他对象的影响时,通常用一般现在时;如果谈论一件已经发生的

事情,不考虑它是何时发生的,而主要考虑对现在的影响,则多用现在完成时。例:

Did you get up very early?你起来的早吗?

Has he got up? 他起来了吗?

注意:have been to 去过某个地方,已返回

have gone to 去某个地方了

have been in 去了某地多久(在某地多久)

8、 过去完成时:

a. 表示过去某时前已经发生的动作或情况(也可以说是“过去的过去”)

b. 在很多情况下没有明显的时间状语,时间由上下文表示出来,这是过去完成时表示的动作较另一动作

先发生。

c. 应当记住,过去完成时是一个相对的时态,表示的是过去的过去。只有在和过去某时或动作相比较时

才用到它。

在包含when, as soon as, before, until, now, that等连词的复合句中,如果主要谓语和从句谓语表示的过去动作是在不同时间发生的,那么先发生的动作通常用过去完成时。但如果两个动作紧接着发生,则通常不用过去完成时。特别是在包含before和after的复合句中。

三、时态综合练习:

1. ________ the actor ________ (speak) German well? 2. The old lady ____________ (go) home from the supermarket when I saw her the other day. 3. He ____________ (lend) you this calculator as soon as he _________(finish) his maths exercises. 4. The train ____________ (come), can you _________(see) it? 5. He _________ (tell) me that he__________ (go) to see his twins in Beijing the next Saturday. 6. Sorry. I __________ (keep) you ________ (wait) so long. 7. Don't let the little girl_________ (go) alone. It's too late. 8. He_____________ (walk) with a camera in the street when I________ (see) him yesterday. 9. She _______________ (not write) a report at 2:00 yesterday afternoon. She ___________(write) a letter to her parents. 10. My aunt ______________(travel) a lot last year. 11. When the people in Athens ___________ (learn) the good news, they_______ (be) proud of themselves. 12. Dick _______(jump) into a large hole as soon as he _______(see) the bear. 13.The ship _________just_________ (return) from the South Pole. The scientists _______________ (collect) much information. 14. I ___________ (receive) his letter since last year. 15. How many times _________ he _______ (read) the book.?

16. He ____________ (live) in the north for three years. Now he_________(be) used to cold weather. 17. Mother ________ already __________(buy) a bottle of Shampoo, but she ____________ (not got) any

drinks yet. 18. They__________ (go) camping if they _________ (be) free tomorrow. 19. Close your books. I ____________ (ask) you some questions. 20. We ____________ (leave) secondary school in a month. 21. I________ (not see) you for a long time. Where ______ you ________(be)? 22. We _____________(make) friends since we began to study at middle school.

23. Look! The students of Class Three _____________ (have) a test in computer science. 24. The summer holiday_________ (come) soon. The students_________(think) of traveling. 25. Where ___________ (be) your monitor? He ___________ (read) in the classroom. 26. Listen! Who____________ (sing)? 27. Where ___________ (be) Liping? He____________ (go) home. 28. We _________ (plant) trees in spring every year. 29. Mary ____________already _______ _ (finish) her work. Now she is playing the violin.

30. My sister teaches in a mountain village. She ________ (work) very hard. 31. Many people in the world ________ (speak) English fluently. 32. Everyone________ (enjoy) the Spring Festival especially the children. 33. I ________ (see) Mr and Mrs Green off at the airport tomorrow. 34.The students ________ (borrow)books from the library once a week. 35. He ________ (write) a report for the newspaper last night. 36. We ________ (build) a new big theatre next month.

37. It was eight in the evening. Xiaoling ________ (do) his homework.

38. Light __________ (travel) more quickly than sound does.

39. If he ____________ (forget) to bring his key, he won't be able to get into the room. 40. I _________ (throw) the broken glass away already. 41. It's quarter to eight. The students _________ (hurry) to school. 42. We _______ __(visit) Shanghai Car Show this coming Sunday. _____you ______ (join) us?

( 1 )

1. The doctor__________ out my bed tooth just now. 2. Rose __________here now. Perhaps she ___________ to the school library. 3. When they __________the station yesterday, the train ________ already __________. 4. We often ____________ a recorder in our English class.

( 2 )

1. They promised (答应) they________ more careful the next time. 2. Computers _________the life of everyone in the coming future. 3. The meeting_________ until the headmaster ________. 4. He ___________ me he would come back soon.

5. Listen! The bell____________.

( 3 )

1. Keep silent! The students _____________ an English lesson. 2. This time last year Tom and Jack ___________ in Europe. 3. It's a sunny day again! It ___________ for quite a long time. 4. There __________ no one in the reading room a few minutes ago. 5. The foreign friends watched the children ___________ pictures with great interest.

(4)

1. Mary ___________ doing her homework already. 2. Mr White __________ Pudong New Area soon. 3. The workers____________ the factory at that time. 4. The machines ___________ on show for a month. 5. Sound ___________340metres a second in the air. 6. He often _________ up early when he was a boy.

(5)

1. Mike ___________ me with my physics tonight. But I don't know why he hasn't come yet.

2. It _________ hard when he __________ me up. 3. Mike and John's room ____________ over there. 4. ----What ________ you ________ a moment ago? ----I___________ a picture a moment ago. 5. Liping and Zhonghua usually __________water for Grandma Wang in the afternoon. 6. The youngest girl _________ here. I don't know where she _________.

(6)

1. Mother _____________ back in a few minutes. 2. What ________you _________ this time yesterday? 3. We______________ ourselves last Sunday. 4. My father ___________ in this factory since 1976. 5. Listen! Who ______________ in the next room? 6. I will tell her as soon as her___________ back. 7. Don't make any noise, please. My father ___________ now. 8. He ___________ quit a few friends since he came here.

(7)

1. How long does it ________the earth to make a trip around the sun? 2. We __________ some foreigners around the Science Museum tomorrow. 3. Liping isn't here. He ___________ TV in the next room. 4. The football game began when we ___________ supper. 5. They __________ each other before. 6. There__________ a short break after this class.

(8)

1. Mr Smith______________ at school since 1990.

2. Mr White ___________ to some parents when I _________him.

3. A group of foreigners __________ their school next year.

4. I was surprised _________her on the train.

5. --What __________last night?

--Some thieves ___________ into the house and the TV set ________.

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