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NCP2语法

发布时间:2013-09-22 17:53:38  

第一章 时态

一、一般现在时

1、描述的对象:

(1) 现今时间段经常发生的动作,即习惯性动作。

(2) 现在的情况,She likes music.

(3) 真理的ex The Sun rises in the east

2、时态结构:

(1) 第三人称单数做主语(he she it等),谓语动词的变化是(V)+S,

(2) 动词以sh, ch, s,o结尾之后+es;以辅音+y结尾,变为ies;变化规律同名词复数变

化。 teach-teaches, catch-catches, wish-wishes, miss-misses, go-goes, study-studies, try-tries,

(3) 除去第三人称单数,其他做主语,谓语动词使用原形。

(4) 否定句:主+谓+宾 借用助动词(do, does)

ex 1、I do not love you. 2、She does not like music.

(5) 疑问句:将助动词前移动主语前 特殊疑问句 What do you?

一般疑问句:Do you that play?

一般现在时特征:这个时态中常会有时间频度副词出现;如: Sometime; often; usually, always(总是); frequently never; ever(曾经;有过); regularly(定期地),rarely, hardly, seldomoccasionally(偶尔地)

二、现在进行时

1. 描述对象:现在时刻正在进行的动作,或现阶段正在进行的动作。

2. 结构:主语 + am/is/are +现在分词现在分词的变化规律:

a)一般由动词+ing 构成

b)以不发音的e结尾,去e再加ing

c)闭音节的单音节词或重读闭音节结尾的多音节词,双写结尾辅音+ing

d)以ie结尾变为y+ing come—coming, write—writing, take—taking, agree—agreeing, sit—sitting, begin—beginning, run—running, die—dying, lie—lying.

3. 以下动词常常以进行时态表―即将发生‖ go, come, leave, arrive, land, meet, die, start, return, get married..

1) I am leaving tomorrow.

2) She is arriving.

3) I am meeting Mr. Smith this afternoon.

4. 下面表示状态,感觉,情绪,精神活动的动词不用于进行时。 believe, doubt, see, hear, know, understand, belong, think, consider, feel, look, seem, show, mind, have, sound, taste, require, possess, care, like, hate, love, detest, desire

三、一般过去时:

1、描述对象: 过去确切时间发生的行为动作,事件;或过去某时间的状态。

2、结构:

(1)主+谓+宾谓语结构+ed—动词过去式以e结尾,加d 辅音+y—变―y‖为ied 重读闭音节结尾双写加―ed‖ ,begged, planned. (参考附录―词尾双写表‖)

(2)否定句、疑问句中出现助动词did. I didn‘t know it Did you come last night? 1

3、特征:一般都有确切的时间提示:Yesterday; just then; at that moment last + 时间名词一般时间 + ago in + 过去年份

四、现在完成时

1、描述:

(1)过去不确定时间发生的动作(2)动作是过去开始可能延续至今,还可能持续到将来

2、结构:

(1)主 + have / has + 过去分词 (过去分词参考动词不规则变化表)

(2)疑问句和否定句否定: have / has + not 疑问句: have / has 移至主句前,除非疑

问句问的是主语 ex who has left? 谁离开了?

3、特征:时间通常为不确定时间。如: already, yet, never, ever, just, so far, (so far so good 目前为止还好) up to now, up will now, 还有做副词的before, 在……之前 for+ 一段时间,since + 过去时间。 I have lived here for(一般时间) 20 years. I have lived here since (过去确定时间,也可加一般过去时从句)1984. 区别:have been to 已去过 have gone to 已运身离开去某处,是否到达不确定 I have never been to Paris. He has gone to Alice Spring.

区别:一般过去时与现在完成时

1. 描述过去瞬间动作,一般过去时与确切时间搭配。现在完成时与模糊时间搭配,He has just left. He left an hour aog.

2. 描述过去延续性动作,现在完成时动作时间延续至今,而一般过去时的时间仍然在过去时间。 He has lived here for 20 years. He lived here for 20 years..

五、过去进行时

1、描述:(1)过去某一时刻正在发生的事件、动作,这个动作通常需要持续一段时间。

(2)过去某时间重复进行的。

2、结构:(1)主语+ was / were + doing(现在分词)

(2)疑问句:是be动词放在主语前

(3)否定句:wasn‘t weren‘t

3、用法:常常与 when, while, as 搭配,

1)when, while, as都可以引导一个过去进行时构成丛句,主句使用一般过去时。

2) 只有when可以引导两个时态中的任何一个。

When I woke up this morning, it was raining heavily.

3) 只有while可以连接两个过去进行时态,构成平行结构。

While I ws reading last night, my neighbours were having a party.

六、一般将来时 will do

1、描述对象:将来某一时刻的行为动作或将来习惯性动作即可描述时间点或时间段,描述事件多代表个人意愿

2、结构:(1)主+will(助动词)+动词原形注:shall 一般用于第一称 I/we

(2)疑问句: will移到主语前。

(3)否定句:will=will not (wont) 表主观上不愿做

3、疑问句可以表建议或邀请,但注意 shall I……?(不能用will I ……代替)

ex (1) Shall I make some coffe Jane? 用不用我沏点咖啡(表建议)

(2) Will you do sth? 表邀请 Will you marry me? 你愿意嫁给我吗?

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注: 1)常用来与一般将来时搭配, soon, in + 一段时间‘s time

2)若将来时没有确切时间表示,译为会…… I will miss you . 我会想念你的。

七、过去将来时

1、描述对象:描述过去某个时间为起点,之后将发生的事件

2、结构: 主语+would(助动词)+动词 原形

He said he would be here m 2 day‘s time 他当时说他两天后到。

八, 将来进行时

1、描述对象:没有愿意的将来,只描述事情是否发生,不顾当事人是否愿意做。

I will do it ! 我去做!

I will be doing it! 我会去做!(但没有个人意愿)

注:常用在商务英语中,不含个人意愿

2、结构: 主+ will be doing sth.

疑问句:will+主+be+doing sth

否定句:主+will be not doing sth(表示客观影响无法达成)

3、对比:一般将来时 will do

(1)陈述句中,不表个人意原 He will come 他愿意来 He will be coming 他会来

(2)否定句: won‘t do sth 多出于个人主观原因而 won‘t be doing 多因客观影响 例如:

He won‘t come because he thinks the pay is too low. 他不来因为他认为报酬太低 He won‘t be coming because the flight was cancelled 他来不了因为航班被取消

(3) 疑问句中

a、Will you ?表示邀请 Will you be doing ? 只表简单询问

b、表单纯询问时,Will you be doing……?也比Will you do……?更加委

婉,单用于下级询问上级。

a、例如: Will you come to the party tonight? 邀请你,你来不来?

Will you be coming to the party tonight? 询问,你来不来?

b、例如: Will you meet Mr. Smith, today? 上级问下级。

Will you be meeting Mr. Smith today? 下级问上级是否会

八、过去完成时

1、描述对象:过去某一确切时间前已经完成,发生的动作、事件。

2、结构:主 + had(助动词)+ 过去分词

3、特征:过去完成时常有一个确切过去时间为界,或与一般过去时对比,两个过去动作对比,前面发生的动作使用过去完成时,后发生的动作使用一般过去时,两个时态之间用连词before, after, when, as soon as, hardly…when, no sooner…than 等连接。

ex 1、 He wake up. The snow stopped.变成过去完成时 When he woke up, the snow had

stopped.

2、 He got divorced. He went abroad. After he had got divorced, he went abroad. Before she went out, she had cleaned the house. 一般过去时,after过去完成时。过去完成时,before一般过去时。

对比:be going to

1、 be going to:强调计划打算将来,不表意愿

2、 be going to

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描述(1)某人计划打算去做的事

(2)有迹象表明即将发生的事情。

Will be doing: 表没有意愿的将来,只描述事情是否发生,不顾当事人是否愿意。 Will do:描述事件多代表个人意愿。表将来某时刻的行为动作或将来习惯性动作。

3、(1)肯定句中:Will do暗含意愿,be going to 强调计划

(2)Won‘t d表主观不愿做

Won‘t be doing:表客观不能做

be going t否定表不打算做

(3)疑问句:Will do:多表邀请 be going to: 多做询问计划

注:(1) be going to更强调计划

(2) if 条件句中的主句不允许使用 be going to

(3)在口语中,be about to=be going to 正式用语中 be to = be going to

九. 将来完成时

1. 描述:将来完成时常用于商业文书中,表示在将来某一时刻前会完成的行为动作事件。

常常和确切的将来时间搭配

2. 结构 will have done

3. 搭配时间结构

(1)in+一般时间‘s time in a year‘s time 一年后

(2)by +将来时间(到那时)

十,现在完成进行时

1.描述:现在完成进行时表示一个由过去时间起一直延续的动作,这个动作可能刚刚停止,可能还在进行。

2.结构,主 + have\has +been + V-ing

3. 特征,常常有一个表示现在之前这一段时间的状语。

I‘ve been learning English for 3 years.

He‘s been watching TV all day.

He‘s been smoking too much recently.

第二章 形容词的比较级和最高级

1、构成

(1)the adj + er 构成比较级 adj + est 构成最高级

(2)辅音+y 变形 变y为i + er 比较级 变y为i + est 最高级

pretty—prettier tidy—tidier

(3)重读闭音节,结尾辅音双写 ex hot—hottest big—biggest

(4)以e 结尾,直接加―r‖或―st‖ ex nicer nieest

(5) 不规则变化

good/well – better – best, bad/ill – worse – worst

many/much – more – most, little/few – less –least

far – farther/further – farthest/furthest

old – older/elder – oldest/eldest

2、用法: 比较级 + than 最高级 + 比较范围(in +不同类比较 of + 同类比较

(1) He is taller than me.

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(2) He is the tallest in our class.

(3) He is the richest of us.

3、 低级比较级=less + adj 原形 译为:不如……;比……更差

(1) He is richer than me. 变形 I‘m less rich than rim./ I‘m pooler than him. (2) She is less intelligent than him. 变形 She is not so intelligent as him.

4、 同级比较级 as + adj/adv + as+ 对比对象 象……一样

否定: no as / so + adj/adv + as + 比较对象 不如……=less + adj/adv + than She is as beautiful as an angle.

People are not so honest as they once were.

I was not surprised to see that he was as fat as ever.

第三章 双宾语结构

1、英语中含义之中有给予类动词 + 双宾语 例如:give lend teach

2、双宾语:

直接宾语:是物;通常是动作的直接承受者

间接宾语:是人;通常是动作的指问 3、结构: V+ 直接宾语 + for/ to + 间接宾语 V+ 间接宾语 + 直接宾语 如:give sth to sb give sb sth.

注:(1)若人是代词则:Give me a card! 若物是代词则:Give it to John!

(2)若两个宾语都是代词,则物放前,人放后。 Give it to me. 常见的双宾语结构动词: bring (to) buy (for), do (do sb a favor)帮某人一个忙, fetch (for)去取某物, find (for)帮某人找来,get (for), give,hand 交给 递给, keep (for) 保存, leave (for) 留下, lend 借, make, offer, owe (欠…), pass 递给, pay, play (for), promise, read (令某人读), save, sell, send, show, sing, talk ,teach , tell , throw 扔, wish 祝愿 (Wish me luck!), write, order 点…… 订……

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第四章 被动语态 1、使用目的:忽略动作的发出者,强调承受者。(在中文中主语为人们、某人,有人在英语中通常使用被动语态)。 I cleaned the house. 变被动 The house was cleaned. 注:(1)被动语态的谓语动词必须是及物动词。因为不及物动词没有宾语,而被动语态主语是主动语态的宾语。

(2)被动语态由be+过去分词 完成,句子的时态完全由be动词体现。

时态 主动 被动

一般现在 主+V+宾语 主+am is are +过去分词

一般过去 主+V+过去式+宾语 主+was/were+过去分词

现在完成时 主+have/has+过去分词+宾语 主+have/has+been+过去分词

现在进行时 主+is/am/are+(V+ing)+宾语 主+am/is/are+being+过去分词

过去进行时 主+was/were + V. ing+宾语 主+was/were+being+过去分词

一般将来时 主+will+(do)V原形+宾语 主+will be+过去分词 English is taught in most schools How is this word pronounced? Their wedding was held in a church. They were given a warm welcome. The conference will be held in Hague. Do you think the book will be reprinted? The room is being cleaned at the moment. Can I help you? No, thank you. I‘m being served. I think we are being followed. All the tickets have been sold out. Has the mail been delivered yet? The vegetables didn‘t tasted good. They had been cooked for too long. (将来进行时没有被动语态。) 注:情态动词、动助词和被动语态 can; could; may; might; must; will; shall; would后 +be+过去分词 This can‘t be done in short time. Some day, life on this planet maybe destroyed. These goods must be handled with care. 第五章 从句

名词性从句名词性从句包括主语从句,表语从句,宾语从句,同位语从句。可能出现的连接词有that, if, whether, who, what, which, when, where, how, why等等。 1. 主语从句:主语从句在从句中做主语,它可以放在谓语动词前,但多数情况由it做形式主语,而把主语从句放在主句之后。 Who did that is known to all. It is obvious that he was very embarrassed. (Lesson 52) It is fortunate that we didn‘t have to carry him. (Lesson 75) It is not known yet whether they will come today. 2. 表语从句:表语从句在句子中做标语,位于主语的系动词后。 The question is who can complete the difficult task. The trouble is that I have lost her address. 表语从句还可以用as 引导 He looks just as he looked ten years ago. 3. 同位语从句:同位语从句跟在名词后面,进一步说明该名词的具体内容。同位语从句的先行词多为 fact, news, idea, thought, question, reply, report, remark等词,关联词多用that,不能使用which, No one could account for the fact that one of the boxes was extremely heavy. (Lesson 46) The news that our team has won the match is true. I received the message that she would be late. There is little hope that they would survive. 4. 宾语从句: (1) 宾语从句在句子中做及物动词或介词的宾语 He told me that he was getting married. that在非正式文体中可省略。 We can learn what we don‘t know.

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They always tell you what a picture is ―about‖. The machine showed that there was gold under the ground. He will talk to us about what he saw in the U.S. Your success will largely depend on what you do and how you do it. (2) 在某些做表语的形容词后,如sure, glad, certain, afraid I am afraid this is not possible. They were also quite sure that a cigarette end did not start the fire. (3) 直接引语与间接引语的变化 1、当引述动词 say ,tell等为一般现在时,间接引语不发生时态变化,只需考虑人称变化 ex He says I‘m a teacher!(直接引语) 变为间接引语 He says that he is a teacher.(间接引语) 2、引述动词一般过时态,间接引语倒移一格 引述动词时态 间接引语引述动词为一般过去时态

一般现在——一般过去

一般过去 (过去式)——过去完成时

现在完成have/has+过去分词——had+过去分词

现在进行is/are+(v)mg——过去形式was/were+V-ing

一般将来时will do (v)原形——过去将来would+v原形 3、引语部分是一般疑问句一般疑问句以 be 动词 开头的疑问句,变为间接引语时,用whether或if引导,语序还原为陈述句 助动词 情态动词 注:句中

包含一个选择,即出现―or‖则只能用whether (1) ―Are you tired or ill?‖ she asked me —(变形)she asked me whether I was tired or ill. (2) ―Can you come tonight?‖ he asked me —(变形) He asked me if /whether I could come that night. (3) ―Did you come last night?‖ she asked me —(变形)she asked me if /whether I had come the night before. 变形知识点 (1)、this week 变为that week this+时间(n)变为that+时间(n) (2)、last+时(n)变为the+时间(n)+before ex last year 变为the year before (3)、一般时间+ago变为一段时间+before (4)、today变形that day, tonight 变形 that night, yesterday 变形the day before tomorrow —the next day (following) 4、引语部分特殊疑问句,保留疑问句用于间接引语句首,其余部分变为陈述语序(注:did does 助动词与引语中谓语动词要重新组成) (1) she asked me, ―what does he knew?‖ 变形 she asked me what he knew. (2) she asks him, ―where have you been?‖ 变形 she asks him where he has been. (3) He asked her, ―were you there?‖ 变形 He asked her whether she had been there. 定语从句 1、概念:以从句形式对主句成份进行修饰限定,相当于一个被后臵的形容词。定

语从句是主句不可缺省部分,如果去除,主句意思模糊不清。 2、结构:主语中往往有其修饰对象,修饰对象往往是名词。 则: 定语从句 n + 关系代词+不完整句子先行词 (1)表关系连接 主从句 (2)做动词,代替先行词,在从句充分成份

注:(1)(n)先行词+关系代词常为 人 who…那个 事物=which…事物 That通用 注:(2)宾语从句中that有时可省,但定语从句中不可省略。 The man is her boyfriend 变定语从句 The man is standing there. The man who is standing there is her boy friend. ex The man served me. He is standing behind the counter. 变形后,定语从句的修饰成份是主句的主语。 The man who is standing behind the counter served me. 那个正站在柜台后面的人招待了我。 These are the Things. I bought them yesterday. 变形后 These are the things which I bought yesterday. 3、关系代词的省略 1)The man (who is standing there) in here boyfriend. There are the things (which I bought yesterday).

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条件句 1.真实条件句 (1) 条件句中以一般现在时表将来,主句使用一般将来时或将来进行时 (2) 条件句中主句为祈使句,使用动词原形真实条件句 主句 If + 一般现在 一般现在 If + 一般过去 过去将来 would +v 原形 You will enjoy your stay here if you pay attention to our street signs. Where shall we go if it rains tomorrow? 2. 虚拟语气 1、概念: 对已知事实的推翻假设,是与现实情况不符合的,其谓语动词必定与句子中(表示)的时间出现错误 2.各个时间的虚拟语气表达时间 计条件句 主句现在 一般过去时be动词只允许用were 主语+would+动词原形将来 一般过去式(be—were) were to +动词原形 主语+would+动词原形过去 过去完成时 主+would+have+过去分词 1)对现在推翻假设: (1) If I were you/ were in your position 如果我是你,我已经在你的位臵上。 If I were you, I would accept the job 如果我是你,我会接受这个工作。(2)If we left now, we would arrive on time 如果我们现在离开,能准时 2)对将来假设: If he come here, what would you say to him? 如果他来这儿,你和他说什么?或者If he were to come, what would you say to him? 3)对过去假设:(1)If we had had time ,we would have called on him (2)The sight was beautiful, If I had had a camera I would have taken some photographs. 虚拟语气的四级考点 1、计条件句中,如果去除 if , had , were倒装于句首 ex Had I taken a camera, I should / would have taken some photographs (对过去)。 2. insist ,suggest ,demand (要求) ,propose ,后常 that sb (should)do ex (1) He insist ed that he stay in the hotel. 他坚持留在旅馆 (2)I suggest that we (should) have a meeting.我建议我们开个会 3、It is /was important/ vital / essential / necessary (基础的、必要的)后接that+主+(should)do ex It is important that children‘s hands D before dinner. A、Wash B、to wash C、Washes D、be washed 4、It‘s time sb did sth 该是做……时 ex It‘s time wei left 我们该走了。 It‘s time children went to bed 孩子们该睡觉 5、wish+宾语从句,表要是……就好了,定语从句使用。一般过去(现在) ex I wish he were have 他要在这儿就好了过去完成时(过去)ex I wish he had been by my side 他那时要在我身边就好了注:wish的时间和动词时态也是错位 6、would rather sd did(一般过去) sth 宁可某人做某事 ex I would rather he stayed at home 我宁可他在家注:易混淆的: sb would rather do sth 某人宁可做某事 ex I would rather stay at home 第六章 倒装简述 英语句子中的自然语序是主语在前,谓语动词在后,把谓语动词放在主语前,就叫倒装结构。 1. 在主系表结构中将表语部分与主语部分的位臵互换,表宾出强调。注:Among them will be Debbie‘s mother. 还原:Debbie‘s mother will be among them. 注: 8 注:定语从句中关系代词后+动词,任何形式V,关系代词所代成份做主语,不能省略,而关系代词后+(n)或代词及动名词,关系代词所代成份做宾语,可省略。 如果从句的名词和主句名词是所有格关系,关系代词使用whose. The girl plays the piano well. Her father is a musician. 变形为: Her 为所有格,所以用whose. The girl whose father is a musician plays the piano well. The house is being repaired. The roof of the house was damaged is the storm. 变形为:介词时不允许使用that The house whose roof was damaged in the storm is being repaired now. 注:只允许使用that 关系代词的情况。 (1)先行词有人,有物 I always appreciate the people and the things that come to my life. (2)先行词有最高级、序数词修饰 He is the first Chinese won this prize.他是第一个获得这个奖项的中国人。 She is the richest one that works for this company. 她是给这个公司打工的最有钱的人。 (3)先行词有the only, the very, the same, the last修饰 ex He is the very person that con do this job. 他恰巧就是能做这个工作的人。 (4)先行词为:some, any, all, none 等不定代词。 ex All that can be don has been done.所有能做的都做了。 注:只能使用which和who 而不能使用that的情况。当不及物动词+介词,介词可移到定语从句前。而定语从句的关系代词不能用that. ex We are living in a house This is the house. 变形后: This is the house in which we are living. He is the writer about who I told you. 变形为: I told you about the writer.

there be 句型 即是全倒装,因为主语位于be动词之后。 ex Under the tree is well 树下是一口井(全倒装) Standing there is her father. Her father is standing there. 注:尤其是状态和地点,易放在句首倒装。 2. 否定副词位于句首,要倒装。 Never have I read such stories. Nowhere can he find the book he wants Hardly did I think it possible. 常用的否定副词:never, seldom, rarely, little, hardly, scarcely, nowhere, no sooner 3. 含有only的状语位于句首,句子要倒装 Only then did he realize that he had made a mistake. Only when a great deal more information has been obtained will it be possible to plan a trip. Only on one occasion have I ever felt frightened. (Lesson 79) 4. 还有not的副词短语位于句首,要倒装。 not for a moment, not in the least , not for an instant, not until Not in the least is he interested in English literature. Not for an instant did i believe he had lied. 5. 含有no的短语位于句首,也要倒装。 at no time, in no way, in no scene, by no means, in no case, on no account, on no condition , under no circumstances. Under no circumstances can we accept the check. On no account must you leave the baby in the house. 6. so, such位于句首,句子也要倒装。 第七章 情态动词情态动词只有情态意义,即它所表示的是说话人对动作的观点,如需要、可能、意愿或是怀疑等。 must 的用法 1、表主观的必须 现在 反义 needn‘t 或 don‘t need to 将来 反义 can‘t 2、表一定;推测 现在 将来 must have done 一定做过(对过去的推测) ex He must have left ahead of time(提前). 他当时一定提前走了。 对比:Have to 的用法 反义——don‘t have to 不得不(表客观的影响),因为have to 不是情态动词,所以有时态和语态的变化。 Has to 第三人称现在 Will have to 将来 had to 过去注:对过去事情表―必须‖只能用had to ex (1) I B be in his office tomorrow morning. A、have to B、Will have to C、must have D、 has to (2) Do I have to leave now? No, you B . A、don‘t have B、don‘t need to C、mustn‘t D、needn‘t to Need的用法: 1、实义动词:表客观实际需要某物 ex (1) I don‘t need you pity. 我不需要同情。 (2) Do you need anything else(其它的)? 您还需要其它的吗? Need to do sth. 需要做某事 语气比must强 ex Do you need to water the garden now? 你非得给花园浇水吗?否定:I won‘t need to do. 反以 don‘t\ doesn‘t need to 2、情态动词:表主观需要做某事,只可能出现在疑问句和否定句,肯定句中用must ex Need you get up early tomorrow? Yes, I must. No, I needn‘t. 3、needn‘t have done sth. 本不必做某事(但已经做了)。 ex You needn‘t have waken me up, It‘s Sunday today. 你本不必定这么早叫我起床,今天是周日。 Can & Could 1. can是现在,多用于表现在和将来。如 He can speak English. Can you come to the meeting. Could是过去式,多用于指过去,如 He could speak English when he was a child. 2. can/could的用法有 (1) 表能够 I can lift that stone. Could表示过去, I said I could go. Could have done表示过去本可以做到,但没有做到的事情。 I was rather nervous then. Otherwise, I could have done much better. (2) 表允许 You can use my bike tomorrow. (表这个意义时,can 用于疑问句时表要求,用于否定时表不允许。) Can you give me a hand? This sort of thing can‘t go on. (3) 表推测:can用于疑问句中,can‘t表不可能。 Can he really be ill? No, he can‘t be. 不可能 He must be. 一定是 He may be. 可能是. 对过去事情的否定推测 can‘t have done. May & might 1. can, could, may, might都可以用来请求他人同意,can常用于熟人之间,而could和may是比较礼貌的语气,might是最礼貌的表达,常常用在恳求上级同意或允许时。 2. may的用法包括(1) 在陈述句中表可能 He may be here. (2) 在陈述句中表允许 You may leave now. (3) 表祝愿 May god bless you. (4) May have done是对过去事情的可能性推测。 He may have left already. 第八章 非谓语动词语法重点 动词不定式 1、构成:to+动词原形 否定:not to+ 动词原形 2、动词不定式可以带自己的宾语或状语,可做句子中的主语、宾语、表语、宾语、状语,不能做谓语。(1)做主语 To be, or not to be is a question.生存还死亡这是问题。 To see is to believe! 眼见为实常会使用it形式主语结构,将不定式后臵。 ex It‘s hard(再翻译形式主语)to say(先翻译不定式) 很难说(2)做宾语:I want to leave. (3)做表语:My job is to take care of you. (4)做定语:Something to eat. something to drink. Someone to trust 可信赖的人 ex It‘s a hard decision to make. 这是个很难做的决定。(5)做状语,表目的 ex I‘m coming to see you(表目的)(6)做宾补 ex He asked me to(宾补) do him a favor. 在感官动词:see, look at, hear, listen to……等后+宾+宾补结构在省略 ex I saw him(to) go out. (lesson 35) 另外have/make/let+sb do sth ex Let us(to) go! (7)独立成份:To tell you the truth……说实话 动名词 1、动名词:v + ing 与现在分词相同 2、动名词目的:把动作名词当作一件事情处理,即不可数名词,动名词做主语,谓语动词用单数。 3、动名词的特性:(1)动词:可以带其宾语或状语,动名词的否定在之前加not (not 是adv ,no是adj)

(2)名词:(1)动名词可以充当主语、宾、表、定语 (2)其非常作发出者在之前加上所有格 His being late made me angry. (3)放在be动词后做表语 ex My favorite sport is fishing 9

(表语) 4、后面常跟动名词的动词,词组等 1) Verb: admit, appreciate, avoid, consider, contemplate, delay, deny , detest, dislike, endure, enjoy, escape, excuse, feel, keep, like, finish, forgive, imagine, involve, mention, mind, miss, postpone, practice, resent, resist, risk, suggest, understand, fancy, regret, face, propose, go/come… 2) 词组:look forward to , be accustomed to, be used to, give up, can‘t stand, take, object to, keep on, put off, burst out, be opposed to, consent to, dedicate to, devote to, admit to , confess to , fall to , in addition to, revert to, stick to, be reduced to, lead to, contribute to, attribute to, expose to, conform to, confine to, get to, give rise to, when it comes to, 3) 形容词或名词后: busy, worth, no good/use, have trouble/difficulty/problem, spend/waste time/money, have a difficult time… 现在分词与过去分词 1、分词结构: 现在分词:与主语构成主动关系过去分词:与主语构成被动关系 2、功能:分两类做定语:相当于定语从句的简化 做状语:当伴随状语通常是并列句的简化 定语从句—过去分词的变形规则结构通常是: a. 定语从句的先行词(n)与从句动词是被动关系,关系代词+be动词+过去分词 b. 从句谓语和主句谓语时间一致,可以直接使用过去分词做定语修饰,单个分词放在名词前,短语放在名词后。 但是在这样的句子中, The boy who had broken the window was punished(惩罚). 主从句谓语有时间差,故不能省略。 定语从句中现在分词的变形规则。 a、 先行词与从句动词构成主动关系 b、 从句动词与主句动词一致,可将定语从句关系代词去除,从句动词无论其时态一律变为现在分词。单个分词放在名词前,短语放在名词后。 ex 1、The car which was battered in the crash was easy to recognize. 变形 The car battered in the crash was easy to recognize. 2、He is one of those rare people who believe in ancient myths. 变形 He is one of those rare people believing in ancient myths. 3、状语结构: He ran across the street and he was hit by a car. 变形 Running across the street, he was hit by a car. He was injured in the fight, and he came back home. 变形 Injured in the fight, he came back home. 并列句向分词转变规则(1) 同一主语发生2个或2个以上动作,保留主要动作的原有时态,将次要动作转变为分词结构,达到文章结构上的简化。(2) 与主句主语构成主动关系的动词变化现在分词,被动关系变为过去分词。(3) 当并列句的动词为be动词时,变为分词形式的being常常会省略。 1. Tired of sleeping on the floor, a young man in Tehran saved up for years to buy a real bed. 2. Looking around, I realized with a shock that I was the only passenger left on the bus. 3. Armed with the new machine, a search party went into the cave hoping to find the lost treasure. 4. Very excited, the search party dug a hole two feet deep. 5. Built in 1885, it was the oldest car taking part. 6. Glancing at her scornfully, he told her that the dress was sold. 7. Dressed up as Father and accompanied by a ?guard of honor‘ of six pretty girls, he set off down the main street riding a baby elephant called Jumbo.

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