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Lesson 3(2)

发布时间:2014-01-13 09:51:44  

Unit 20
Lesson 3

Scientific Breakthroughs

Teaching process
1.Learn the new words of lesson 3 2.Reading 3.Language points 4.Vocabulary:Phrasal verbs 5.Vocabulary:Compound words 6.Exercises 7.Homework

Learn the new words


Discuss the major discoveries of the scientists in the pictures:

听爱因斯坦讲解质能方程 "It followed from the special theory of relativity that mass and energy are both but different manifestations of the same thing -- a somewhat unfamiliar conception for the average mind. Furthermore, the equation E is equal to m c-squared, in which energy is put equal to mass, multiplied by the square of the velocity of light, showed that very small amounts of mass may be converted into a very large amount of energy and vice versa. The mass and energy were in fact equivalent, according to the formula mentioned above. This was demonstrated by Cockcroft and Walton in 1932, experimentally."


哈勃望远镜长13.3米,直径4.3米,重11.6吨,造价近30亿美元,于 1990年4月25日由美国航天飞机送上高590千米的太空轨道。哈勃望 远镜以时速2.8万千米沿寂静的太空轨道运行,默默地窥探着太空的 秘密。 哈勃望远镜是有史以来最大、最精确的天文望远镜。它上面的广角 行星相机可拍摄到几十到上百个恒星照片,其清晰度是地面天文望 远镜的10倍以上,其观测能力等于从华盛顿看到1.6万千米外悉尼的 一只萤火虫




太 空 中 的 宝 石

猫 眼 星 云



星 系 之 心


公元1881~公元1955 青霉素的发明者亚历山大· 弗莱明于1881年出生在苏格兰的洛 克菲尔德。弗莱明从伦敦圣马利亚医院医科学校毕业后,从 事免疫学研究;后来在第一次世界大战中作为一名军医,研 究伤口感染。他注意到许多防腐剂对人体细胞的伤害甚于对 细菌的伤害,他认识到需要某种有害于细菌而无害于人体细 胞的物质。 1928年弗莱明做出了他的伟大发现。在他的实验室里,有一 个葡萄球菌培养基暴露在空气之中,受到了一种霉的污染。 弗莱明注意到恰好在培养基中霉周围区域里的细菌消失了, 他正确地断定这种霉在生产某种对葡萄球菌有害的物质。不 久他就证明了这种物质能抑制许多其它有害细菌的生长。这 种物质──他根据其生产者霉的名称(青霉菌)将其命名为 青霉素──对人或动物都无毒作用

弗莱明的结果发表于1929年,但是起初并未引起高度的重视。 弗莱明指出青霉素将会有重要的用途,但是他自己无法发明 一种提纯青霉素的技术,致使这种灵丹妙药十几年一直未得 以使用。 终于在二十世纪三十年代末期,两位英国医学研究人员霍德 华· 瓦尔

特· 弗洛里和厄恩斯特· 鲍里斯· 钱恩偶然读到了弗莱明 的文章。他俩重复了他的工作,证实了他的结果。然后他俩 提纯青霉素,给实验室动物加以试用;1941年给病人试用。 他俩的试验清楚地表明了这种新药具有惊人的效力。

1946年,在美国宾夕法尼亚大学研制成功世界上第一台 程序控制的电子计算机ENIAC。它被用于新式武器弹道 问题中许多复杂的计算。ENIAC是一个庞然大物,由 18000个电子管、1500多个继电器和其它配件构成,上 地170平方米,重达30吨;耗电150千瓦,每秒钟能运 行5000次加法。这台计算机的使用条件也很苛刻,要求 恒温、恒湿,为此还配备了一台30吨重的冷却设备。尽 管如此,过去需要100多名工程师花费一年才能解决的 问题,ENIAC只需两小时便能求出答案。

人类飞上天空的梦想在1903年由莱特兄弟首次实 现,人类终于冲出了大地母亲的怀抱

Language points

1.think over v.仔细考虑, 重新考虑 2.be aware of v.知道, 意识到

eg: Everybody is aware of the importance of study.

I was not aware of the fire.
我没有意识到火。 3.such as adv.例如...,象这种的, 诸如..., 譬如说; 象...那样的; 如 此...以致 4.a piece of mass

5.an amount of adj.许多, 相当数量 的; 一些 6.theory of relativity 7.for example 8.at the speed of以...的速度

at a speed of eighty miles an hour 以每小时80英里的速度
at full[top] speed 用全速, 开足马 力尽力地; 尽快地 9.be about to v.将要, 正打算

eg: The chorus is about to sing. 合唱团就要开始唱了

10.in fact 11.away from远离 12.the further away galaxies are, the faster they move. The more…the more…. 13.go on holiday正在休假[去休假] 14.come back v.回来, 在记忆中重现, 复原, 恢复, 反驳 15.throw… away v.扔掉, 丢弃 16.out of the ordinary不平常的, 非凡 的,例外的

17.a few years later 18.look for 19.so…that… 20.turn on v.开启, 变得兴奋, 突然装 出, 开始 21.go out v.出去, 熄灭, 过时, 罢工, 向往, 辞职, 倒塌 22.be interested in对...感兴趣 23.at the time当时, 在那个时候 24.make the first flight 25.make great contributions to…贡 献

Phrasal verbs

Exercise 7
Read and then match these verbs with those in bold in the text.

take over get across get on fine makes up for figure out

walked out give away is to do with came out got a lot out of

The woman(1)enjoyed the film, even thought it(2)was shown a long time ago. She explains that when it was first shown, some people couldn’t(3)understand what it was about and (4)left. In her opinion, the director (5)compensates for the lack of plot by using visual effects and uses music to(6)communicate the mood of the film. The woman talks about the plot of the film but she does not(7) tell us the ending. Among ot

her things, the film(8)is about intelligent machines. In the story, some astronauts and a computer(9)have a good relationship, but then the computer tries to (10)take control.

take over walked out get across give away get on fine

is to do with
makes up for

came out
figure out

take control left communicate tell us have a good relationship is about compensates for was shown understand enjoyed

got a lot out of

Exercise 8 complete the sentences with the phrasal verbs in exercise 7:
1.We must the simple fact that drugs are dangerous. 2.I couldn’t what I had done to annoy my boss. 3.I don’t really believe that their conversation yesterday work. 4.It is reported that the millionaire has decided to all his money to charities. 5.The team will be anxious to a disappointing start to the season.

Exercise 8 complete the sentences with the phrasal verbs in exercise 7: 6.It that some government officials received payments from the company. 7.His only reason for investing in the company was to it . 8.Children can being involved in community projects. 9.Furious by now,I , leaving him sitting there shocked and white-faced. 10.How I wish I could with my colleagues in the company!

Compound words

Exercise 5
a)compound noun(noun+noun): CD player;jet engine b)compound noun(verb+prep.): breakthrough;outcome c)compound noun(adj.+noun): flying machine; nuclear bomb d)compound verb: mass-produce;double-check e)compound adjective: one-year-old;world-famous; far-reaching


Exercise 5 in page 69 Complete the sentences with these words:

Answers: 1.off 2.up, over 3.up 4.out, out of 5.out, out 6.over

Exercise 6 in page 69 Complete the compound words in these sentences:

Answers: 1.system,years 2.check 3.like 4.produced 5.breaking 6.consuming,through,intelligence 7.born,year-old 8.-hand, processing

Exercise 2 in page 70

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