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发布时间:2014-02-12 17:11:33  

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Developmental Education: The P-16 Challenge
Research indicates that more than 40% of incoming college freshmen are required to enroll in remedial courses. This session will explore whether developmental education provides a bridge to college level work or becomes a barrier to college success. Additionally, the session will address how high schools, community colleges and universities can work together to improve outcomes in developmental education.

Frank B. Ashley III, Ed.D. Interim Provost Texas A&M University-Commerce

Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board “Closing the Gaps”
? Participation and Success
“To achieve Texas’ bright future, enrollments in our colleges and universities must increase in the next 10 years by 600,000 students over today’s 1.2 million. Since the “expected” increase based on past trends would be 300,000 students, we have our work cut out for us. But enrolling more people is not enough – they must graduate, too! Texas will not achieve the results it needs if students do not succeed in their higher education endeavors”.
THECB Website

THECB
“More than 200,000 undergraduates in Texas' public colleges and universities are Under prepared for college-level coursework”.
The report focuses on 4 areas: > Under prepared students > Program effectiveness > Best practices > Funding

Just the Facts
? Nationally, more than 40% of students arrive on college campuses needing remedial work ? Only about half of the high-school graduates who enter college have pursued a college-preparatory curriculum ? Colleges and Universities spends billions of dollars a years on remedial education

Developmental Education: Statewide Data Profile
Provided by: Cynthia Ferrell Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board

Underprepared Students
In Texas, over 40% of all new students were underprepared for college.
100% St at ewide 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 4-Year Inst it ut ions 2-Year Inst it ut ions

50% 41 %

22%
20% 10% 0%

Source: Fall 2002 FTIC, THECB TASP LBB Performance Measure FY2005

Hispanic and African American Students are overrepresented in underprepared populations.
100% St at ewide 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 4-Year Inst it ut ions 2-Year Inst it ut ions

60% 54% 43% 32% 36% 54% 39%

62%

30% 20%

1 2%
10% 0%

White

Hispanic

A frican A merican

Source: Fall 2002 FTIC, THECB TASP LBB Performance Measures FY2005

The Blame Game or Who’s Fault is It?

Statewide, students who completed a more rigorous high school curriculum were half as likely to be underprepared for college.
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% St at ewide 4- Year Inst it ut ions 2- Year Inst it ut ions

65% 59% 49% 32% 1 8% 33%

Recommended HSP

Minimum HSP

*RHSP=Recommended or Distinguished High School Program MHSP=Minimum High School Program

Source: Fall 2002 FTIC, THECB TASP LBB Performance Measures FY2005

Academic Requirements in a Typical Class
Never Write a 1-5 page paper Write a paper of m

ore than 5 pages Make Presentation in Class H.S. College H.S. College H.S. College 19% 16% 61% 28% 11% 21% Less than Once a Month 48% 44% 37% 67% 59% 62% A few times a month 24% 32% 2% 5% 24% 14% Weekly or more often 9% 8% 0% 0% 6% 3%

Participate in Class discussions
Work with other students on Projects Memorize facts, ideas or methods

H.S. College
H.S. College H.S. College

1% 7%
4% 20% 5% 12%

4% 6%
29% 36% 18% 23%

9% 17%
36% 26% 28% 23%

86% 71%
31% 18% 50% 42%

Source: Chronicle of Higher Education (3/10/06)

What Teachers and Professors Think
Subject Not well Prepared 8% Science 20% 9% 32% 46% 32% 49% 47% 56% 48% 5% 37% 4% 36% 6% 26% 10% 42% 7% 32% 4% 3% 3% 2% College High School College High School College High School College Somewhat well prepared 44% Very well prepared 38% Don’t Know 11% High School

Math
32% 10% Writing 44% Reading/ Understanding difficulty Materials 15% 41%

Source: Chronicle of Higher Education (3/10/06)

Program Effectiveness
Only 10% of all new underprepared students, who took developmental courses, gained college-readiness in their first year.
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% St at ewide 4-Year Inst it ut ions 2-Year Inst it ut ions

24% 1 0% 7%

Source: Fall 2002 FTIC, THECB TASP LBB Performance Measures FY2005

Almost 60% of all new under-prepared students persisted from Fall to Fall.
100% St at ewide 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 4-Year Inst it ut ions 2-Year Inst it ut ions

The Good News for Texas

75%

59%

56%

Source: Fall 2002 FTIC, THECB TASP LBB Performance Measures FY2005

The Bad News
One-fifth of all new underprepared students earn a certificate or degree within six years, compared to almost one-half of prepared students.
100% 90% 80% 70% St at ewide 4- Year Inst it ut ions 2- Year Inst it ut ions

63%
60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

48% 34% 20% 17% 35%

Underprepared
Source: THECB Analysis of CB001, CBM002, and CBM009

Prepared

“Best Practices”
Based on a literature review of state and national best practices include: Institutional Commitment
Centralization Academic Advising

Alternative Interventions
Program Evaluation

Educational Policy Institute
Dr.. Watson Scott Swail

Websites: Educatoinalpolicy.org Studentretention.org

The Student Experience

Financial Aid

Recruitment & Admissions

Academic Services Student Services Curriculum & Instruction
Source (Dr. Scott Swail: Educational Policy Institute)

Administrators Must ensure there is support for the following
? Social and Academic Integration
– Peer relations – Role Models and Mentors

? ?

Academic Preparedness Campus Climate
– Diversity in Faculty, staff and students – Nature and quality of interactions in and out of classroom – Tinto (1993)The stronger the goal and institutional commitment the more likely the student will graduate – Low income and minority students who receive grants generally are more likely to persist that those who receive loans – The shift in aid from, grants to loans

and from need based to merit based programs adversely affects both enrollment and persistence for minority students.
Source: Educational Policy Institute (3/06)

?

Commitment to Education Goals and the Institution

?

Financial Aid

Texas Education Agency P-16 Council Developmental Education Subcommittee
? Membership
– – – – – – – – Community Colleges – 6 Four Year Institutions – 7 Public Schools – 2 TEA – 5 Governmental Agencies – 2 Act/College Board - 1 each Governor’s Office – 2 Legislative Budget Board - 1

? Charge

– Development of recommendations to effectively address developmental education in Texas

Making Developmental education a Priority for the Campus
? Faculty
– – – – Acceptance of Necessity for Developmental Education Training Regular faculty vs. adjuncts vs. Teaching Assistants Reward System

? Curriculum Alignment

? Resources – courses more expensive
– – – – Smaller courses Tutoring Tools and software Minimal subvention

– K-12 with College Courses – Two-year with four-year – Developmental Courses with next level courses

? Miscellaneous

– Faculty more concerned with teaching instead of learning – Focus must be placed on learning outcomes

Major Recommendations
? Texas increase the preparedness of developmental educators
– Developmental education certification and advanced degree programs

? Developmental education content standards be developed and include appropriate learning strategies

? Charge the Education Research Centers (HB1) with developing a developmental education research agenda to collect and disseminate relevant data through appropriate and rigorous research methods.

– Content standards employed to align learning objects in developmental education courses with credit bearing courses – To facility transfer of developmental courses among institution of higher education

Recommendations on Consent Agreement
? Adoption of statewide developmental education missions statement ? Adoption of statewide definition of developmental education ? Appointment of the Subcommittee as the Texas Success Initiative Advisory Committee ? Completion of a study on the costs associated with developmental education

? The inclusion of a developmental education accountable measure of underpreparded student completion of baccalaureate degrees for all institutions of higher education

Keys to a Successful Developmental Education Program

25 Steps to Effective Developmental Education (McClenny)
? Make Student success in Development education and institution wide commitment ? Establish a goal to ensure that student who come underprepared are able to succeed at rates at least as high as those who came fully prepared. ? Carefully coordinate the various units involved in eh delivery of developmental courses

? Establish consistency between exit standards for developmental courses and entry standards for college-level courses.
? Car

eful selection of faculty and staff who work with developmental education is critical

25 Best Practices (cont.)
? Provide professional development for all faculty and staff who work with under-prepared students ? Face the issue of mandatory assessment and placement, late registration, and simultaneous enrollment in college-level courses ? Recognize the importance of orientation or a college success course at the beginning of the developmental sequence ? Incorporate learning communities and other cohort experience

? Recognize that at-risk students need structure in courses and support services

25 Best Practices (cont.)
? Integrate the work of tutors (peer and professional) with the carefully selected faculty members

? Recognize the potential of open or online labs (reading, writing, and math) to support instruction
? Use a variety of teaching methods (group projects, mediated learning, etc.) ? Recognize the potential for computer-based (assisted) instruction which can be matched with tutoring to deliver “high tech-high touch” services. ? Avoid confusion between language acquisition (ESL or ESOL) and the need for basis skills remediation among second language learners

25 Best Practices (Cont.)
? Provide prompt feedback on student performance including frequent testing ? Develop links with GED providers (on or off campus) and foster transitions for students

? Review the work of Roueche, Boylan, McCabe, Tinto, and Adelman
? Expand and enhance the pre-enrollment (and concurrent) activity with the public schools ? Consider certification from National Association for Developmental Education

Best Practices (cont.)
? Consider case management (advocate/coach for the most at-risk students ? Provide supplemental learning opportunities, particularly for skill practice

? Commit to program evaluation which includes cohort tracking
? Find the most appropriate computer-adaptive test for entry assessment and supplement with writing samples if resources permit ? Stress the development of critical think skills across the curriculum

So how are we doing?

Institutional Commitment
90% of institutions reported that developmental education is a part of their strategic plan.
St at ewi de 4-Y ear I ns t i t ut i ons

100%

90%

96% 90%

2-Y ear I ns t i t ut i ons

80%

70%

75%
60% 50% 40%

30%

20%

10%

0%

State Wide

4-Year

2-Year

Centralization
33% of institutions stated that their developmental courses are organized within a centralized unit. 100%
90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% St at ewide 4-Year Inst it ut ions 2-Year Inst it ut ions

33%
30% 20% 10% 0%

32%

33%

State Wide

4- Year

2-Year

Academic Advising
Almost 90% of institutions stated that academic advising is mandatory for all under-prepared students. (Down about 10% over 4 years)
100%
St at ewi de

90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

4-Y ear I ns t i t ut i ons 2-Y ear I ns t i t ut i ons

96% 89% 86%

State Wide

4-Year

2 - Year

Alternative

Interventions
Fewer than 30% of institutions reported offering Learning Communities for underprepared students.
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% St at ewi de 4-Y ear I nst i t ut i ons 2-Y ear I nst i t ut i ons

29% 20% 16%

27% 29%

26%

26% 29%

25%

M ath

Reading

Writing

Alternative Interventions
Few institutions reported offering Paired or Linked Courses for underprepared students.
100%
St at ewi de

90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

4-Y ear I nst i t ut i ons 2-Y ear I nst i t ut i ons

16% 8% 11% 7%

18% 11% 12% 7%

14%

M ath

Reading

Writing

Alternative Interventions
30% or fewer institutions reported offering Supplemental Instruction for underprepared students.
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% St at ewide 4-Year Inst it ut ions 2-Year Inst it ut ions

50%

30% 22% 19%

29% 15% 19%

29% 15%

Math

Reading

Writing

Evaluation
Almost 70% of institutions stated that they evaluate the effectiveness of their developmental efforts and make improvements
100% St at ewide 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 4- Year Inst it ut ions 2- Year Inst it ut ions

74% 68% 54%

Where do we go from here?

? “If you admit them, you should do everything necessary for them to be successful”
Dr. Raymund Paredes. TX Commissioner of Higher Education

Funding
Developmental Education Appropriations

Over a six year period:
? Developmental semester credit hours have increased by nearly 20% ? Developmental appropriations have decreased 5%

4- Year Universities
? Most have not had to address this in the past
– Requirements for Admissions – Class ranks or SAT/ACT Scores – Self-selection by Students

? Now part of THECB Accountability ? TEA Associate Commissioner for P-16 ? Two Key Issues
– Faculty – Resources not in place for intervention

– P-16 Subcommittee on Developmental Education

? Now looking to the Community Colleges for guidance

No Child left Behind?

Accountability: Coming to your theater soon


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