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雅思A类小作文

发布时间:2013-09-19 10:31:05  

雅思A类小作文:图表写作最全攻略 所属:沪江网 难度:困难 作者:颜炜 划词:关闭划词 收藏

雅思A类的小作文主要包括六种主要题型:表格题、曲线图、柱状图、饼图、流程图、地图。这也正是雅思A类小作文的几种主要构成元素。但是在实际考试中,出题人会根据考生的状况伺机而动。但是无论如何,我们只要掌握了这几种基本题型所有的小作文题目均可迎刃而解。想要突破雅思图表写作,首先我们需要了解小作文的出题本质及具体的题目要求。

一、出题本质

雅思的A类小作文Task One主要包括与“数字”有关的图形题 就像Microsoft的Office中有一款Excel电子表格。利用填入数字产生不同类型的表格,方便人们找到主要的信息。换句话讲,表格就能够演变成“柱状图、曲线图、饼图”。只要我们知道如何写表格题,其他的图也是一样的写法,而且更为直观。所以必须先学会分析和描述表格题。

二、题目的要求

题目要求:Summarize the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant.

题目中的动词就是指令。我们只要照着做,分数就可以得全。

“Summarize” 意味着:你需要有“概括”性的句子,概括的是“main features” 通常来讲,与数字有关的特性就有两项。第一项:随时间变化的数字就是趋势;第二项:有不同对象的数字就是比较。换句话讲,只要把题目中的这些特性概括出来,文章的最主要内容就完成了。接下来,就是用具体的数字作为例子来强调这种特性是存在的。

“Make comparisons”意味着具体写作的时候,应该有一个基准对象即切入点,其他的对象都要和它进行比较(或者相同,或者不同)。

在明确这些任务后,关于这种文章的语言问题应该注意的是“写简单而正确的句子,此外注意时态”;“用简单而词性正确的单词,此外注意避免重复”。

三、图表写作常用语言

1、描述数字比较的常用句型及词汇

谈论数字比较的技巧:

a、两者的比较

寻求一个切入点(比较大的值),随后与另一个值进行比较。通过数值强调比较的差值。比较有三种表示方法:

第一种:直接展示法

e.g. 王浩 6:7马琳 (The score of Mr. Wang is 6, compared with 7, that of Mr. Ma. )

第二种:减法subtraction (more, less, fewer)

The score of Mr. Ma is 7, 1 more than that of Mr. Wang. 7 = 1+(6)

第三种:寻找倍数 times

e.g. Mr. Chow?s IQ 80: 160 Mr. foot?s IQ

Mr. Foot?s IQ reaches 160, 2 times (double) Mr. Chow?s IQ.

Mr. Wang Yi?s popularity 20%: 10% Mr. Tao?s popularity

Water consumption in Brazil and Congo in 2000 Populati

on Irrigated land Water consumption per person Country

Brazil 176

million 26,500 km2 359 m3

Democratic Republic of Congo 5.2

million 100 km2 8 m3

In 2000, the water consumption per person of Brazil with 176 million people reached 359 m3, compared with 8 m3, that of Democratic Republic of Congo at the population of 5.2 million. The area of irrigated land in the former was found 26,500 km2, 265 times that of the latter.

NB:在描述的过程中,始终要记得名词需要配合量词使用(因为服务对象是数字)。此外,因为比较同样的对象,因此比较的前后在词性必须保持一致。如:The percentage of Brazil is more than Congo.这样的句子就是一种错误。

b、三者或三者以上的比较

You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.

The table below shows the proportion of different categories of families living in poverty in Australia in 1999.

Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant.

Write at least 150 words. Proportion of people from each

Family type

household type living in poverty

single aged person

aged couple

single, no children

couple, no children

sole parent

couple with children

all households 6%(54,000) 4%(48,000) 19%(359,000) 7%(211,000) 21%(232,000) 12%(933,000) 11%(1,837,000)

题目特点:比较数值众多(3者以上,应用最高级),基线明显(黑体字,起作用是其他的数值的比较对象,并帮助我们进行数字分类)。

所有的数值代表的是在某一种特定的家庭中贫困人数的比例 (The percentage of people from … in poverty)

来自所有家庭中贫困的比例达到11%,其对应equivalent to 大概1.8 million。在单身和单亲家庭中贫困人数的比例,最高的两个,相当于上面平均值the above average的2倍,但是在两者中有孩子的家庭贫困比率达到21%,比没有孩子的家庭高了2%。相似的,那些有孩子的双亲家庭的比例是12%,略高于平均值,要比没有孩子的双亲家庭的比例高出了5%,明显低于平均值。在所有的家庭种类中,那些有老年人的家庭贫困的比例最低分别是6%和4%,并且有两个老年人的贫困家庭比例更低些。

The percentage of people from all household in poverty reaches 11%, equivalent to nearly 1.8 million. That of poor single family without children and sole-parent family, the top two, is about double 11%, but that of the latter, 21%, higher 2% than that of the former. Similarly, the percentage of people from couple-with-children family in poverty is 12%, slightly higher than the average, more 5% than that of couple-without-children family, lower than the average. Of all family types, those with aged people have the lowest percentage in poverty, 4% and 6%, and the proportion with aged couple is lower.

2、描述数字变化的常用句型及词汇

趋势写作 identify trend

12个单词 + 3个句式 + 4个连接词

a、12个单词 趋势 描述单词 注意事项

上升 grow, climb, soar 1.其中“soar”和“sink”为极限词汇,不能添加任何修饰;

2.在句子和文章中,事实上很少用到上述动词的原型,

相反使用最多的是它们的“过去式”,以及对应的名词;

3.上升和下降需要和数字建立连接,可供选择的介词to,

下降 drop, fall, sink by, of

To 配合动词和名词,表示“达到”

By/of 表示“变化了”;by跟在动词后面,而of跟在

名词后面

平稳 stay unchanged at+

不变的值

varybetween…and…

波动 (两个极值;名词

fluctuation

between…and…

dramatically

(significantly)剧烈的;

程度 progressively

(gradually)逐渐的;

slightly (slowly)缓慢

b、3个重要的句式:

例句:在2005年到2006年间,当澳洲当地的水费usage charge增加了每千升per kiloliter 0.25元。(看看下面的三种不同表达形式)

(1)主谓句(强调量词的变化)

The usage charge in Australia grew by $0.25 per kiloliter during 2005-2006.

(2) 主谓宾句(强调量词的变化,词性变化)

The usage charge in Australia had a growth of $0.25 per kiloliter between 2005 and 2006.

(3) 被动句(强调变化本身)

A growth of $0.25 per kiloliter was found in the usage charge in Australia over 1 year to Year 2006.

NB: 表示时间的变化,常用的手法

From…to…; between…and…; during…-…; for/over时间差to终止时间

c、4个连接词

第一种:一个对象在不同时期的变化(时间变化),before /, after which

第二种:不同对象的比较 similarly (= The similar pattern is found in…) / however (In contrast,)

例题:在过去的2年中,中国的GDP(Gross Domestic Production)增长了10%,预计在明年GDP仍可能增长8%左右。但是,日本的GDP在过去的2年中,基本呈现下降趋势,而且预计明年下降得更猛烈。 表中所提供的单词均为“副词”,需搭配动词使用;如果需要搭配、修饰“名词”,则上述的词汇应变为“形容词”,即:dramatic, progressive, slight

In the recent 2 years, GDP of China has grown by 10%, after which it is estimated to climb by 8% next year. In contrast, a dropping trend, in the last 2 years, has been found in that of Japan, before it is predicted to be more dramatic.

当不是特别能够确定图表的具体数值时,我们可以在数字前加上about, around, nearly, approximately, or so等一些比较模糊的副词修饰。

看一道例题:

During 1979- 1999, visits overseas by UK residents, about 12 million in 1979, had a growth to nearly 52 million. The similar pattern was found in visits to the UK by international residents from around 10 million to 30 million. 6.5分

UK residents, about 12 million in 1979, had a growth to nearly 52 million. The similar pattern was found in visits to the UK by international residents from around 10 million to 30 million, but climbing slower than the former. 7分

In 1979, visits abroad by UK residents, 2 million more than those to the UK by overseas residents, was 12 million, after which a dramatic rise to nearly 52 million was found in 1999, when the similar pattern was seen in the visits to the UK by international residents to nearly 30 million. 8分

NB:高分的内容应该是信息量较大的,而且处处充斥着比较和对比的感觉。在一个句子中,充分利用“插入语-解释和补充”,以及非限制性定语从句来补充其他的内容,最后利用similarly或however进行比较。

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