born: in Poland in 1473 died : May 24, 1543
He was one of the first scientists to use mathematical observations to collect information. He believed the sun is the center of the universe and the earth and other planets went around it.
Read the passage quickly, and tell whether the following statements are true or false.
1. At Copernicus’ time, Christian Church was in charge of many western T countries.
2. Copernicus noticed that observed from the earth, some planets appears in front of or behind the earth. F 3. Copernicus didn’t show his new theory to his friends until he completed it. T 4. His friends were not interested in his
5. Since he was not afraid of being attacked by the Church, Copernicus published his book as soon as he
finished working on it.
6. Newton, Einstein, and Hawking are
all scientists who made contribution
to the study of the universe.
Read the text carefully, then answer these questions
(1) What was his conclusion? (Para 1)
All his mathematical calculations led to
the same conclusion: that the earth was not the centre of the solar system. Only if you put the sun there did the movements of the other planets in the sky make sense.
(2)Why could he not tell about his theory? (Para 1) Because the powerful Chistian Church would have punished him for even suggesting such an idea
(3) What had the astronomers noticed in the sky? (Para 2)
They had noticed that some planets in the sky seemed to stop,move backward and then go forward in a loop. Others appeared brighter at times and less bright at others.
(4) When did Copernicus complete his theory? (Para 3)
Between 1510 and 1514 he worked on it, gradually improving his theory until he felt it was complete.
Copernicus was______ because he found the confused system earth was not the centre of the solar _____, only if you put the sun there did the_______ movements of the other planets in the sky_________ . He make sense kept improving his new theory until he felt it wascomplete in 1514. He suggested that the _____ spinning earth was_____ as it went round the sun.His enthusiastic encouraged him to Friends were______ and publish his ideas, but Copernicus was_______ cautious attacked he didn’t want to be______ by Christian Church.In fact,he was right.The Church______ rejecte his theory,saying it was against God’s idea.
Fill in the blanks with some proper words
◆ As a scientist, one should be brave. But Copernicus was afraid of being attacked by the Christian Church. So he had hidden his theory for so many years. What do you think of this? Agree: 1.He was cautious. if he had published his ideas, he would have been killed just as Bruno who was burned to death because his theory was against the Christian Church. 2.Every time a new idea appears, there are always rejections. It’s normal. Scientists should have patience to spread their truth. 3.It made no sense for him to publish his theory in a hurry.He was just cautious
not coward. He should protect himself first.
Disagree: 1.Copernicus was very coward. He should speak out his discovery and let the world know the truth earlier. 2.Science can never advance unless people have the courage of their beliefs. 3.As a scientist, he must have the courage to publish his findings. No matter how people oppose them, time will show if your ideas are right or wrong.
◆ lead to 导致，通向 1.All roads lead to Rome. 条条大道通罗马
2.The discovery of new evidence led to _______. C A. the thief having caught B. catch the thief C. the thief being caught D. the thief to be caught
◆ Only if you put the sun there did the movements
of the other planets in the sky make sense . =The movements of the other planets in the sky make sense only if you put the sun there. eg. 1）Only if your identity has been checked, _____. D A. you are allowed in B. you will be allowed in C. will you allow in D. will you be allowed in 2）Only then did I realize the importance of knowledge. 3）Only in this way can we work out the maths problem.
“Only + 副词 /介词短语/状语从句” 位于句首, 句子要倒装。
Only + 状语在句首，主句要部分倒装
1. Only when ____ the truth, ______ to realize that she was wrong. A. did Mary hear; did she begin B. Mary hear; she began C. did Mary hear;she began D. Mary heard; did she begin
only if 表示“只有……(才)；只有在……的时候，唯一 的条件是……”的意思。 I told him he would succeed only if he tried hard. 我告诉他，只有努力才能成功。
当only if 引导的状语从句置于主句之前时，其后的主句
要用倒装语序。 Only if a teacher has given permission is a student allowed to enter this room. 只有得到教师的允许，学生才可以进这间屋。
only if / if only only if 意为“只要”，可视为 if 的加强说法，如 放在句首，其后的主句要用倒装语序。 Only if you eat the correct foods will you be able to keep fit and stay healthy. if only表示“但愿”，“要是……就好了”，此 时多与虚拟语气连用。 It's a good plan, if only we could carry it out.
◆ make sense
1）What you say makes no sense. 你说的话没有道理
2) It would make sense to leave early.
3) Can you make sense of this poem?
◆ Yet he could not tell anyone about his theory as the powerful Christian Church would have punished him for even suggesting such an idea. 1)表示对过去的某种情况进行猜测, 或本来要做某事却因某种原因未做成, 通常用来说明某一情况，但不象 should或ought to 那样含有责备之 意。如：
I guess the poet would have been abo
ut 20 when she wrote her first poem.
needn’t have + 过去分词，表示做了不必 做的事，相当于，译为“其实没必要… …” should have + 过去分词，表示应该做某事 但实际上未做，译为“本应该… …” should not have + 过去分词，表示本不应 该做某事但实际上做了，译为“本不应 该……”
work on 从事
She is working on a new novel.(= She is writing a new novel.)
vt. & adj. 完成;完整的,完成的
The workers haven’t completed (vt.) the house yet. When will the work be complete (adj.)?
? 【结构一】 with ＋名词（代词）＋介词短语 例1 He sat there thinking, with his chin on his hand． 【结构二】 with ＋名词（代词）＋形容词 例2 He stared at his friend with his mouth wide open．
? 【结构三】with ＋名词（代词）＋副词
例3 With production up by 60％, the company has had another excellent year． 产量上升了60％, 公司又是一个好年景。
【结构四】 with ＋名词（代词）＋名词
例4 She used to sit reading in the evening with her pet dog her only companion． 她从前总爱在晚上坐着看书，她的宠物狗便是她唯 一的伙伴
? 结构五】with ＋名词（代词）＋现在分词 例5 She stood there chatting with her friend, with her child playing beside her．
【结构六】with ＋名词（代词）＋过去分词 例6“I think we can leave with our heads held high,” Eriksson said． “我认为我们可以高昂着头离开，”艾里克松说。
例7 With 10 minutes to go, you’d better hurry． 还有十分钟，你最好快一点。
? 1.With a lot of things______(do), he had to stay there for another day. ? 2.With a latter______(post),he has to go to the post office. ? 3.With the work______(do),she went home.
? 4.With you ______(help) us, we will finish the task in time. ? 5.With the boy_______(lead) us, we found his house.
enthusiastic: having or demonstrating
enthusiastic support 热情的支持 be enthusiastic about 对某事充满热情
backward complete enthusiastic cautious reject Tom dreamed of joining the army when he was very young. He was very _______ and made a plan to study hard. cautious He was enthusiastic about the plan. But __________ when he was about 16, he got a bad
backward complete enthusiastic cautious reject backward illness. Because of this, he was _________ rejected in his studies and also he was _________ by the army. He was so sad that he almost fainted at the news. His parents suggested to him that he have other choices. Then he followed his parents’
backward complete enthusiastic cautious reject
advice and decided to go to the west to help those poor students after he completed __________ his studi
es in the college.
用适当的介词填空。 1. The quarrel led __ the fighting to between the two villagers. 2. He is always positive _____ trying new about ideas. 3. His father is very strict with him and ____ strict __ his studies too. in
4. We should base our theory on fact. __
5. The photo calls up the memory of his
childhood __ times. at
6. According to my point __ view, we of
should stick to our plan.
? Write a short letter asking Copernicus to publish his ideas so everyone can read them.
Persuasive writing (Please refer to P8 Learning Tip)
Now writing a short letter asking Copernicus to publish his ideas so everyone can read them. First you need to collect your ideas. For example:
?He believes his new theory is true.
?There are problems with the present theory. ?He has done many years of observations to prove his new theory is true. ?Science can’t develop unless people publish their ideas. ?Time will show if his theory is true or not.
Here is a plan:
Beginning: Tell Copernicus who you are and why you want him to publish his ideas.
Paragraph 1: Reason 1 and evidence. Paragraph 2: Reason 2 and evidence.
Summing up: Ask him to think again about publishing his ideas.
One possible version:
Dear Nicolaus Copernicus,
I am a student studying astronomy and I would very much like to read your new theory about the solar system. I hope you will publish it for several reasons. I understand the problems with the present theory. The way the planets move is not what you would expect if the earth was the center of the universe. It is also odd that the brightness of some stars seems to change. So I agree with you that we need a new theory.
I know your observations have been very carefully carried out over many years. Now you must have the courage to publish them. Science can never advance unless people have the courage of their beliefs. I know you worry about what will happen if you publish your new theory. No matter how people oppose it, time will show if your ideas are right or wrong. So I hope you will feel you can publish your new theory.
One possible version:
Dear Nicolaus Copernicus,
I am a student studying astronomywhoIyou are and Beginning: Tell Copernicus and would very much like to read your new theory about the solar system. I hope why you wantithimseveral reasons. ideas you will publish for to publish his I understand the problems with the present theory. The way the planets move is not what you would expect if the earth was the center of the universe. It is also odd that Paragraph some stars 1 and evidence the brightness of 1: Reason seems to change. So I agree with you that we need a new theory.
I know your observations have been very carefully carried out over many years. Now you must have the Paragraph them. Science can evidence courage to publish2: Reason 1 and never advance unless people have the courage of their beliefs. I know you worry about what will happen if you publish
your new theory. No matter how people oppose it, time will show if your ideas are right or wrong.
Summing up: Ask him to think
So I hope you will feel you can publish your new theory. again about publishing his ideas