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初一年级讲解

发布时间:2014-05-31 23:31:41  

初一年级(上)

【知识梳理】

I. 重点短语

1. Sit down 2. on duty 3. in English 4. have a seat

5. at home 6. look like 7. look at 8. have a look

9. come on 10. at work 11. at school 12. put on

13. look after 14. get up 15. go shopping

II. 重要句型

1. help sb. do sth. 2. What about…?

3. Let?s do sth. 4. It?s time to do sth.

5. It?s time for … 6. What?s…? It is…/ It?s…

7. Where is…? It?s…. 8. How old are you? I?m….

9. What class are you in? I?m in…. 10. Welcome to….

11. What?s …plus…? It?s…. 12. I think…

13. Who?s this? This is…. 14. What can you see? I can see….

15. There is (are) …. 16. What colour is it (are they)? It?s (They?re)…

17. Whose …is this? It?s…. 18. What time is it? It?s….

III. 交际用语

1. Good morning, Miss/Mr…. 2. Hello! Hi!

3. Nice to meet you. Nice to meet you, too.

4. How are you? I?m fine, thank you/thanks. And you?

5. See you. See you later. 6. Thank you! You?re welcome.

7. Goodbye! Bye! 8. What?s your name? My name is ….

9. Here you are. This way, please. 10. Who?s on duty today?

11. Let?s do. 12. Let me see.

IV. 重要语法

1. 动词be的用法; 2. 人称代词和物主代词的用法;

3. 名词的单复数和所有格的用法; 4. 冠词的基本用法;

5. There be句型的用法。

【名师讲解】

1. in/on

在表示空间位置时,in表示在某个空间的范围以内,on表示在某一个物体的表面之上。例如:

There is a bird in the tree. 树上有只鸟。

There is a picture on the wall. 墙上有张图。

2. this/that/these/those

(1)this常常用来指在时间、地点上更接近讲话人的人和事,these是this的复数形式。that

常常用来指在时间、地点上离讲话人更远一点的人和事,those时that的复数形式。例如:

You look in this box and I?ll look in that one over there.你看看这个盒子,我去看那边的那

个盒子。

I want this car, not that car. 我想要这辆小汽车,不是那一辆。

Take these books to his room, please. 请把这些书拿到他房间去。

This is mine; that?s yours. 这个是我的,那个是你的。

These are apples; those are oranges. 这些是苹果,那些是橘子。

(2)在打电话的用语中,this常常指的是我,that常常指的是对方。例如:

This is Mary speaking. Who?s that? 我是玛丽。你是谁?

3. There be/ have

There be "有",其确切含意为"某处或某时存在某人或某物。"其结构是:There be + 某人或某物 + 表示地点或时间的状语。There be 后面的名词实际上是主语,be 动词的形式要和主语在数上保持一致,be动词后面的名词是单数或不可数名词时用is,名词是复数时用are。例如:

(1) There is a big bottle of coke on the table. 桌上有一大瓶子可乐。

1

(2) There is a doll in the box. 那个盒子里有个娃娃。

(3) There are many apples on the tree. 那树上有许多苹果。

总之,There be结构强调的是一种客观存在的"有"。have表示"拥有,占有,具有",即:某人有某物(sb. have / has sth.)。主语一般是名词或代词,与主语是所属关系。例如:

(4) I have two brothers and one sister.我有两个兄弟,一个姐姐。

(5) That house has four rooms.那所房子有四个房间。

4. look/ see/ watch

(1)look 表示“看、瞧”,着重指认真看,强调看的动作,表示有意识地注意看,但不一定看到,以提醒对方注意。,如:

Look! The children are playing computer games. 瞧!孩子们在玩电脑游戏。

Look! What?s that over there? 看!那边那个是什么?

单独使用是不及物动词,如强调看某人/物,其后接介词at,才能带宾语,如: He?s looking at me。他正在看着我。

(2)see强调“看”的结果,着重的是look这个动作的结果,意思是“看到”,see是及物动词,后面能直接跟宾语。如:

What can you see in the picture? 你能在图上看到什么?

Look at the blackboard. What did you see on it?看黑板!你看到了什么?

(3)watch“观看,注视”,侧重于场面,表示全神贯注地观看、观察或注视某事务的活动,强调过程,常用于“看电视、看足球、看演出”等。如:

Yesterday we watched a football match on TV.昨天我们从电视上看了一场足球比赛。

4. put on/ / in

put on意为“穿上,戴上”。主要指“穿上”这一动作, 后面接表示服装、鞋帽的名词。 in 是介词,表示“穿着”强调状态。在句中可以做定语、标语和状语。如:

It?s cold outside, put on your coat. 外面冷,穿上你的外衣。

He puts on his hat and goes out. 他戴上帽子,走了出去。

The woman in a white blouse is John?s mother.穿白色衬衣的那个妇女是John的妈妈。

5. house/ home/family

house :“房子”,指居住的建筑物; Home: “家”,指一个人同家人共同经常居住的地方; Family: “家庭“,“家庭成员”。例如:

Please come to my house this afternoon. 今天下午请到我家来。

He is not at home. 他不在家。

My family all get up early. 我们全家都起得很早。

6. fine, nice, good, well

四者都可用作形容词表示"好"之意,但前三者既可作表语又可作定语,而后者仅用作表语。主要区别在于:

(1) fine指物时表示的是质量上的"精细",形容人时表示的是"身体健康",也

可以用来指"天气晴朗"。例如:

Your parents are very fine. 你父母身体很健康。

That's a fine machine. 那是一台很好的机器。

It's a fine day for a walk today. 今天是散步的好时候。

(2)nice主要侧重于人或物的外表,有"美好","漂亮"的意思,也可用于问候或赞扬别人。例如:

Lucy looks nice. 露西看上去很漂亮。

These coats are very nice. 那些裙子很好看。

Nice to meet you. 见到你很高兴。

It's very nice of you. 你真好。

(3)good形容人时指"品德好",形容物时指"质量好",是表示人或物各方面都好的普通用语。例如:

Her son is a good student. 她儿子是一个好学生。

The red car is very good. 那辆红色小汽车很好。

(4)well只可用来形容人的"身体好",但不能作定语,它也能用作副词作状语,多放在所修饰的动词之后。例如:

2

I'm very well, thanks. 我身体很好,谢谢。

My friends sing well. 我的朋友们歌唱得好。

【考点扫描】

中考考点在本单元主要集中在:

1. 动词be的用法;

2. 人称代词和物主代词的用法;

3. 名词的单复数和所有格的用法;

4. 冠词的基本用法;

5. There be句型的用法。

6. 本单元学过的词汇、短语和句型;

7. 本单元学过的日常交际用语。

考试形式可以是单项填空、完型填空、短文填空、完成句子。

【中考范例】

1. (2004年北京市中考试题)

Mary, please show ________ your picture.

A. my B. mine C. I D. me

【解析】答案:D。该题考查的是人称代词和物主代词的用法。本题中动词show后面跟双宾语,空白处应填入人称代词的宾格me作宾语。

2. (2004年上海市徐汇区中考试题)

_________ orange on the desk is for you, Mike.

A. A B.An C. / D. The

【解析】答案:D。该题考查的是冠词的基本用法。因为是特指课桌上的那个橘子,所以用定冠词the。

3. (2004年哈尔滨市中考试题)

---What _______ the number of the girls in your class?

---About twenty.

A. is B. am C. are D. be

【解析】答案:A。该题考查的是动词be的用法和主谓一致。the number作主语,应该是单数第三人称,动词be变为is。

4. (2004年陕西省中考试题)

There _______ a football match on TV this evening.

A. will have B. is going to be C. has D. is going to have

【解析】答案:B。该题考查的是There be…句型和动词have用法区别。There be句型本身就表示“在某个地方存在某个人或物”,不能和动词have混在一起用。

初一年级(下)

【知识梳理】

I. 重点短语

1. a bottle of 2. a little 3. a lot (of) 4. all day

5. be from 6. be over 7. come back 8. come from

9. do one?s homework 10. do the shopping

11. get down 12. get home 13. get to 14. get up

15. go shopping 16. have a drink of 17. have a look

18. have breakfast 19. have lunch 20. have supper

21. listen to 22. not…at all 23. put…away

24. take off 25. throw it like that 26. would like

27. in the middle of the day 28. in the morning / afternoon/ evening

29. on a farm 30. in a factory

II. 重要句型

1. Let sb. do sth. 2. Could sb. do sth.?

3. would like sth. 4. would like to do sth.

5. What about something to eat? 6. How do you spell …?

7. May I borrow…?

III. 交际用语

3

1. —Thanks very much!

—You're welcome.

2. Put it/them away. 3. What's wrong?

4. I think so.

I don't think so.

5. I want to take some books to the classroom.

6. Give me a bottle of orange juice, please.

Please give it / them back tomorrow. OK.

9. What's your favourite sport? 10. Don't worry.

11.I?m (not) good at basketball. 12. Do you want a go?

13. That's right./ That?s all right./ All right.

14. Do you have a dictionary / any dictionaries?

Yes, I do. / No, I don?t.

15. We / They have some CDs.

We / They don?t have any CDs.

16. ---What day is it today / tomorrow?

---It?s Monday.

17. ---May I borrow your colour pens, please?

---Certainly. Here you are.

18. ---Where are you from?

---From Beijing.

19. What's your telephone number in New York?

20. ---Do you like hot dogs?

---Yes, I do. ( A little. / A lot. / Very much.)

---No, I don't. ( I don't like them at all.)

21. ---What does your mother like?

---She likes dumplings and vegetables very much.

22. ---When do you go to school every day?

---I go to school at 7:00 every day.

23. ---What time does he go to bed in the evening?

---He goes to bed at 10:00.

IV. 重要语法

1.人称代词的用法;

2. 祈使句;

3. 现在进行时的构成和用法;

4.动词have的用法;

5.一般现在时构成和用法;

6.可数名词和不可数名词的构成和用法

【名师讲解】

1. That's right./ That‘s all right./ All right.

That’s right意为“对的”,表示赞同对方的意见、看法或行为,肯定对方的答案或判断。例如:

"I think we must help the old man.""我想我们应该帮助这位老人。"

"That's right."或 "You're right.""说得对"。

That’s all right.意为“不用谢”、“没关系”,用来回答对方的致谢或道歉。例如: "Many thanks." "That's all right."

"Sorry. It's broken." "That's all right."

All right.意为“行了”、“可以”,表示同意对方的建议或要求。有时还可以表示“身体很好” "Please tell me about it." "请把此事告诉我。"

"All right.""好吧。"

Is your mother all right?你妈身体好吗

2. make/do

4

这两个词都可以解释为“做”,但含义却不同,不能混用。make指做东西或制东西,do指做一件具体的事。

Can you make a paper boat for me? 你能为我做个纸船吗?

He?s doing his homework now.他正在做他的作业。

3. say/speak/talk/tell

say:是最口语化的最普通的一个词,意为“说出”、“说道”,着重所说的话。如: “I want to go there by bus” , he said . 他说,“我要坐汽车到那里去。”

Please say it in English .请用英语说。

speak : “说话”,着重开口发声,不着重所说的内容,一般用作不及物动词 (即后面不能直接接宾语 ) 。如:

Can you speak about him? 你能不能说说他的情况?

I don?t like to speak like this. 我不喜欢这样说话。

speak 作及物动词解时,只能和某种语言等连用,表达在对话中恰当使用词汇的能力。如:

She speaks English well.她英语说得好。

talk : 与 speak 意义相近,也着重说话的动作,而不着重所说的话,因此,一般也只用作不及物动词, 不过,talk 暗示话是对某人说的,有较强的对话意味,着重指连续地和别人谈话。如:

I would like to talk to him about it . 我想跟他谈那件事。

Old women like to talk with children.老年妇女喜欢和孩子们交谈。

tell : “告诉”,除较少情况外,一般后面总接双宾语。如:

He?s telling me a story.他在给我讲故事。

tell a lie 撒谎

tell sb. to do sth. /tell sb. not to do sth.

Miss Zhao often tells us to study hard.

4. do cooking/ do the cooking

do cooking 作“做饭”解,属泛指。do the cooking 特指某一顿饭或某一家人的饭。cooking为动名词,不能用作复数,但前面可用 some, much修饰。从do some cooking可引出许多类似的短语:

do some washing 洗些衣服

do some shopping 买些东西

do some reading 读书

do some writing 写些东西

do some fishing 钓鱼

从以上短语可引申出另一类短语,不能用some, much或定冠词。

go shopping 去买东西

go fishing 去钓鱼

go boating 去划船

go swimming 去游泳

5. like doing sth./ like to do sth.

like doing sth. 与like to do sth. 意思相同,但用法有区别。前者强调一般性的爱好或者表示动作的习惯性和经常性;后来表示一次性和偶然性的动作。例如:

He likes playing football, but he doesn?t like to play football with Li Ming.

他喜欢踢足球,但是他不喜欢和李明踢。

6. other/ others/ the other/ another

other表其余的,别的,

Have you any other questions?你还有其他问题吗?

others 别的人,别的东西

In the room some people are American, the others are French.在屋子里一些人是

美国人,其他的是法国人。

the other表另一个(二者之中)one…,the other…

One of my two brothers studies English, the other studies Chinese.

我两个哥哥中的一个学习英文,另一个学中文。

5

another表三者以上的另一个,另一些

There is room for another few books on the shelf.书架上还可以放点书。

7. in the tree/ on the tree

in the tree 与 on the tree.译成中文均为"在树上"但英语中有区别。in the tree表示某人、某事(不属于树本身生长出的别的东西)落在树上,表示树的枝、叶、花、果等长在树上时,要使用on the tree.如:

There are some apples on the tree. 那棵树上有些苹果。

There is a bird in the tree. 那棵树上有只鸟。

8. some/ any

(1)some和 any既可修饰可数名词,也可修饰不可数名词。但有以下两点需要

注意。

some常用于肯定句中,any常用于否定句和疑问句中。如:

There is some water in the glass.

Is there any water in the glass?

There isn't any water in the glass.

(2)在说话者希望得到肯定答复的一般疑问句中,或在表示请求,邀请的疑问句中,我们依然用some。如:

Would you like some tea?

9. tall/ high

(1)说人,动物,树木等有生命的东西,主要用tall,不用high,例如

a tall woman 一个高个子妇女

a tall horse 一个高大的马

(2)说一个不与地面接触的人和物的高时,要用high,而不用tall,比如人站在桌子上时,飞机飞上天时,例如:

He is high up in the tree. 他高高地爬在树上。

The plane is so high in the sky. 飞机在空中这么高。

(3)指建筑物、山时要tall或high都可以,不过high的程度比tall高。

(4)high可作副词,tall不能。

(5)tall的反义词为short, high的反义词为low.

10. can/ could

(1) can表示体力和脑力方面的能力,或根据客观条件能做某种动作的"能力

"。例如:

Can you ride a bike? 你会骑自行车吗?

What can I do for you? 要帮忙吗?

Can you make a cake?你会做蛋糕吗?

(2) can用在否定句和疑问句中时有时表示说话人的"怀疑""猜测"或不肯定。例如: Where can he be?他会在什么地方呢?

Can the news be true?这个消息会是真的吗?

It surely can't be six o'clock already?不可能已经六点钟了吧?

You can't be hungry so soon,Tom,you've just had lunch.汤姆,你不可能饿得这么快,你刚吃过午饭。

What can he mean?他会是什么意思?

在日常会话中,can可代替may表示"允许",may比较正式。例如:

You can come in any time.你随时都可以来。

--- Can I use your pen?我能用你的钢笔吗?

--- Of course,you can.当然可以。

You can have my seat,I'm going now.我要走了,你坐我的座位吧。

(3) could

could 是 can的过去式,表示过去有过的能力和可能性(在否定和疑问句中)。例如: The doctor said he could help him.(能力)医生说他能帮助他。

Lily could swim when she was four years old.(能力)

当丽丽四岁的时候她就会游泳。

At that time we thought the story could be true.(可能性)

6

那时我们以为所说的可能是真的。

could可代替can表示现在时间的动作,但语气较为婉转。例如:

Could I speak to John,please?我能和约翰说话吗?

Could you?在口语中表示请求对方做事。例如:

Could you wait half an hour?请你等半个小时好吗?

Could you please ring again at six?六点钟请你再打电话好吗?

(4) can的形式

只有现在式can和过去式could两种形式。能表示一般现在和一般过去两种时态,有时也能表示将来。所有其他时态(包括将来时)须用be able to加动词不定式来表示。例如: They have not been able to come to Beijing.

他们没有能到北京来。

11. look for/ find

look for 意为“寻找”,而find意为“找到,发现”,前者强调“找”这一动作,并不注重“找”的结果,而后者则强调“找”的结果。例如:

She can?t find her ruler. 她找不到她的尺子啦。

Tom is looking for his watch,but he can?t find it.汤姆正在寻找他的手表,但没能找到。

12. be sleeping/ be asleep

be sleeping 表示动作,意思是“正在睡觉”;be asleep 表示状态,意思是“睡着了”。如: ---What are the children doing in the room? 孩子们在房间里做什么?

---They are sleeping.他们正在睡觉。

The children are asleep now.现在孩子们睡着了。

13. often/ usually/sometimes

often表示"经常",sometimes表示"有时候",在表示发生频率上often要高于usually,usually要高于sometimes。这三个词表示的是经常性,一般性的动作或情况,常与一般现在时连用,常位于主要谓语动词的前面,其他谓语动词(be动词,情态动词和助动词)的后面,有时也可位于句尾。如果要加强语气,则放在句首。

We usually play basketball after school.我们通常放学后打篮球。

Sometimes I go to bed early.有时,我睡觉很早。

He often reads English in the morning.他经常在早晨读英语。

14. How much/ How many

how much常用来询问某一商品的价格,常见句式是How much is / are…?

How much is the skirt? 这条裙子多少钱?

How much are the bananas? 这些香蕉多少钱?

how much后加不可数名词,表示数量,意为“多少“,how many后加可数名词的复数形式。

How much meat do you want? 你要多少肉呀?

How many students are there in your class? 你们班有多少人?

15. be good for/ be good to/ be good at

be good for 表示"对……有好处",而be bad for表示"对……有害";be good to表示"对……友好",而be bad to表示"对……不好";be good at表示"擅长,在……方面做得好",而be bad at表示"在……方面做得不好"。

Doing eye exercises is good for your eyes.做眼保健操对你的眼睛有好处。

Eating too much is bad for you health.吃的太多对你的身体有害。

Miss Li is good to all of us.李老师对我们所有的人都很友好。

The boss is bad to his workers.这个老板对他的工人不好。

Li Lei is good at drawing, but I'm bad at it.李雷擅长画画,但是我不擅长。

16. each/ every

each 和every都有"每一个"的意思,但含义和用法不相同。each从个体着眼,every从整体着眼。each 可用于两者或两者以上,every只用于三者或三者以上。

We each have a new book.

我们每人各有一本新书。

There are trees on each side of the street.

街的两旁有树。

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He gets up early every morning.

每天早晨他都起得早。

each可以用作形容词、副词和代词;every只能用作形容词。

Each of them has his own duty.

他们各人有各人的义务。

They each want to do something different.

他们每个人都想做不同的事情。

17. 一般现在时/现在进行时

一般现在时表示经常性的或习惯性的动作或存在的状态,也表示说话者的能力,还有自然现象;而现在进行时表示正在进行或发生的动作(构成方式为am/is /are/+doing)。

I do my homework in the evening.

我在晚上做作业。

I'm doing my homework now.

我现在正在做作业。

现在进行时常与now, these days, at the moment 或Look, listen等词连用;而一般现在时常与often, always, sometimes, usually, every day, in the morning, on Mondays等连用。

We often clean the classroom after school.

我们经常放学后打扫教室。

Look! They are cleaning the classroom .

看!他们正在打扫教室呢。

【考点扫描】

中考考点在本单元主要集中在:

1.动词一般现在时和现在进行时的用法,人称代词的用法,可数名词和不可数

名词的构成和用法。

2.本册书中常见的交际用语

3.本册书中一些重点的词组和短语

考试形式往往是单项填空、完形填空、短文改错和短文填空。

【中考范例】

1.(2004年安徽省中考试题)

---Hurry up! We?re all waiting for you.

---I ________ for an important phone call. Go without me.

A. wait B. was waiting C. am waiting D. waited

【解析】答案:C。表示现在正在进行的动作,用现在进行时。

2. (2004年长春市中考试题)

Could you help ____ with _______ English, please?

A. I, my B. me, me C. me, my D. my, I

【解析】答案:C。第一个空作宾语,应用人称代词的宾格me, 第二个空作定语,应用形容词性物主代词my。

3.(2004年长春市中考试题)

Dr. White can _______ French very well.

A. speak B. talk C. say D. tell

【解析】答案:A。说什麽语言常用动词speak。

4.(2004年黄冈中考试题)

English is spoken by ______ people.

A. a lot B. much many C. a large number of D. a great deal of

【解析】答案:C。只有a large number of 能用来修饰复数可数名词people。

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