haihongyuan.com
海量文库 文档专家
全站搜索:
您现在的位置:首页 > 幼儿教育 > 幼儿读物幼儿读物

International_Mangement1

发布时间:2014-02-08 16:01:09  

PowerPoint by: Mohamad Sepehri, Ph.D. Jacksonville University

1-1

Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter Learning Goals
1.

2.

3.
4.

5.

Understand the global business environment and how it affects the strategic and operational decisions which managers must make. Critically assess the developments, advantages, and disadvantages of globalization. Review the role of technology in international business. Develop an appreciation for the ways in which political, economic, legal, and technological factors and changes impact the opportunities that companies face. Discuss the complexities of the international manager’s job.

1-2

Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Opening Profile: Economic Crisis Spreads Through Financial Globalization
What caused the global economy to collapse? ? Toxic Assets:
? ?

?
?
?

Highly leveraged securities Subprime mortgage mess Finance has become one of the most international of industries Failure of banks and other financial institutes:
?
? ?

Fannie Mae & Freddie Mac Lehman Brothers AIG And many more…

1-3

Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Opening Profile: Typical Challenges that Managers Face in the 21st Century
? Political and cultural differences ? Global competition ? Terrorism

? Technology
? Finding ways to balance their social

responsibilities, their images, and their competitive strategies

1-4

Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

What is International Management?

The process of developing strategies, designing and operating systems, and working with people around the world to ensure sustained competitive advantage

1-5

Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

What is Globalization?
Global competition characterized by networks of international linkages that bind countries, institutions, and people in an interdependent global economy

1-6

Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Challenges to Globalism
?

Backlash against capitalism and rekindling of nationalism Increased protectionism of high-demand resources Need to develop top managers with international understanding and experience

?

?

1-7

Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Benefits of Globalism
? ? ? ?

Access to more markets Growth of developing economies Opportunities for flexibility and efficiency Opportunities for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)

1-8

Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Regional Trading Blocks
The dominance of the United States is already over. ? What is emerging is a world economy of blocs represented by: NAFTA, EU, and ASEAN. ? Much of today’s world trade takes place within these three regional free-trade blocs: ? Western Europe, Asia, and the Americas ? Much of today’s world t

rade are grouped around three dominant currencies: euro, yen, and the dollar
?
Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

1-9

The European Union EU
?

A unified market over 400 million people living in 27 nations EU poses two challenges for global managers:
1.
2.

?

“Fortress” Europe Dealing with multiple cultures within this unified market

1-10

Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Asia
? ? ? ? ? ?

China India ASEAN South Asia Association of Regional Cooperation (SAARC) Japan Asian Tigers:
? Hong Kong
? Singapore ? South Korea ? Taiwan

1-11

Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

The Americas
? ? ?

North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) MERCOSUR

1-12

Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Other Regions in the World
? ? ? ? ?

The Russian Federation Middle East The African Union—AU South Africa Less developed countries—LDCs
? Low Gross National Product (GNP) ? Low Gross Domestic Product (GDP) ? Large, relatively unskilled workforce ? High international debt

1-13

Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Comparative Management in Focus:
China Keeps on Chugging
? ? ? ? The fastest growing GDP rate (over 9 percent/year) for 30 years Economy has doubled every eight years for 30 years Surpassed Germany in 2009 as the world’s largest exporter Investing heavily in energy and other natural resources in 2009 that could give it an economic advantage it has never had before

However: ? Weakening demand for Chinese exports—due to global recession ? Chinese government may not be able to prevent the financial crisis from derailing the country’s economic miracle ? The political, legal, and social environments create unpredictability for businesses
Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

1-14

Management Focus:
Intel Brings Changes to Vietnam’s Economy and Culture
?

?

? ?

United States opened trade relations with Vietnam in 2000. Vietnam’s rapid growth can be contributed to those aspects of globalization that attracts corporations such as Intel. Intel is taking advantage of new markets and lower costs of production. Intel’s success started with awareness of the tight control of the Vietnamese government.

1-15

Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

The Impact of the Information Technology
? ? ?

Making Geographic barriers less relevant Lowering cultural barriers Encouraging convergence of consumers’ tastes and preferences

1-16

Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Globalization of Human Capital
?

?

Increasing trend in the offshoring of manufacturing jobs and outsourcing of whitecolor jobs Prediction that 3.3 million U.S. jobs in service se

ctor may be lost/outsourced by 2015

1-17

Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

The Global Manager’s Role

1-18

Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

The Political and Economic Environment
?

Sustainability—economic, political, social, and environmental—has become a significant worldwide issue

?

Ethnicity—a driving force behind political instability around the world Religion—religious disputes lie at the heart of regional instabilities: former Yugoslavia, Northern Island, the Middle East…

?

1-19

Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Political Risk
Any governmental action or politically motivated event that could adversely affect the long-run profitability or value of a firm

Examples:
Venezuela took control of cement plants and offices belonging to Mexico, after failing to reach an agreement in nationalization talks. Bolivian president’s move to nationalize the national gas industry followed that in Venezuela.

1-20

Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

The Political Risk Cont.
Typical Political Risks
? Expropriation and confiscation

Political Risk Assessment
? Helps companies manage

? ? ? ? ?

Nationalization Terrorism Macro-political risk event Micro-political risk event Discriminatory treatment

exposure to risk and minimize financial loss
? Two forms: ? Consultation with experts

? Barriers to repatriation of funds ? Interference in managerial

? Development of internal staff

decision making ? Dishonesty by government officials
1-21

capabilities

Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Managing Political Risk
Avoidance and Adaptation
? Equity sharing ? Participating management ? Localization of the operation

Dependency and Hedging
? Input control ? Market control ? Position control ? Staged contribution ? Political risk insurance (OPIC

? Development assistance

and FCIA) ? Local debt financing

1-22

Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Managing Terrorism Risk
? Develop a benevolent image (IBM and Exxon). ? Maintain a low profile and minimize publicity. ? Using teams to monitor terrorist activities ? Hiring counterterrorism consultants

1-23

Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Economic Risk
? Is closely related to political risk ? Is determined by a country’s ability or intention to meet

its financial obligations

1-24

Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Categories of Economic Risk
Loss of profitability due to abrupt changes in monetary and fiscal policies 2. Loss of profitability due to changes in foreign investment policies 3. Risk of currency exchange rate
1.
? Example: devaluation of peso in 1990s

1-25

Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hal

l

Managing the Economic Risk

Quantitative Approach

Qualitative Approach

Checklist Approach

Combination of these Methods

1-26

Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

The Legal Environment
? Consists of the local laws and legal systems

of those countries in which an international company operates and of international law, which governs relationships between sovereign countries

1-27

Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

The Legal Environment
Types of Legal Systems
? Common law

Approaches to Contract Law ? Common law: details must be written in the contract to be enforced
? Civil law: assumes promises

? Civil law
? Islamic law

will be enforced without specifying the details

? In Asia the contract may be in

the relationship, not on the paper

1-28

Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Other Regulatory Issues

? Protectionist policies, such as tariffs or quotas ? The attractiveness of the tax system ? The level of government involvement in the economic and

regulatory environment

1-29

Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

The Technological Environment
? The appropriability of technology ? The International Convention for the Protection of

Industrial Property (the Paris Union) ? Inappropriate use of technology by others ? Appropriateness of technology for the local environment

1-30

Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Global E-Business E-Business—the integration of systems, processes,
organizations, value chains, and entire markets using Internet-based and related technologies and concepts

E-Commerce—marketing and sales process via the
internet

B2B—Business to Business

B2C—Business to Customer
1-31 Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall


上一篇:声律启蒙
下一篇:关于诚实的故事
网站首页网站地图 站长统计
All rights reserved Powered by 海文库
copyright ©right 2010-2011。
文档资料库内容来自网络,如有侵犯请联系客服。zhit326@126.com