The Revolutionary Period
Outline of Lecture 2
Part 1. Historical & ideological overview --- 18th-century French & English Enlightenment --- 18th-century America Part 2. Benjamin Franklin --- the man & his writings Part 3. Other leading figures in the Revolution
American Revolution Its time span: 1776-1783
2 sides involved: 13 British colonies in America. vs. Great Britain (the first 13 states of the newly formed United States of America) Its 3 causes: ? ? Growth of colonies: (social, economic, and a. thechanges American political ) War of Independence the French and Indian War (1754-1763)) (1775-1783
? b. British governing of American the coloniesgovernment the formation of the
New Hampshire Massachusetts Connecticut, Rhode island New York, Pennsylvania NewJersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia North & South Carolina Georgia
The 13 colonies in 1750
The Age of Enlightenment The Age of Reason
Enlightenment: A term used to describe the trends in thought and letters in Europe and the American colonies in 18th century. an abiding faith in the power of human reason Isaac Newton & his discovery of ? universal gravitation ? three laws of motion
Dare to know
The Discovery inspired research of natural laws Man could unlock the secrets of the natural world
“Nature and nature?s laws lay hid in Age of Enlightenment night, /the God said, ?Let Newton be,? and all was light.” - Alexander Pope Reason and education earned a higher status than
religion in the society that emerged from this new age.
A of method Discovery truth:
? through the observation of nature, rather
Let usthrough then suppose the of Mind to be, as we than the study authoritative say, White Paper , void of all Characters, sources, such as Aristotle and the Bible. without any Ideas; How comes it to be furnished?...Whence has it all the materials of Reason and Knowledge? To this I answer, in ? A desire to reexamine and question all one word, From Experience.
ideas in many different directions.
received ideas and values, to explore - John Locke (1632 - new 1704)
Enlightenment Revolution the American Revolution
the Declaration of Independence putting enlightened ideas into action personal security, free enjoyment of property, equality before the law, the participation of every citizen in government
Result of Enlightenment the decline of the church
the growth of modern secularism Worldly happiness was placed before religious salvation A new view of universe Deism
A widespread mode of religious thinking
A faith in human reason “religion without revelation” a. Acceptance of the existence of God;
(God has set the universe in b. Acquisition of truths through the exercise of reason; motion but does not interfere c. Possibility of human progress; with how it runs.) d. Heavy emphasis upon education and science.
Literature in late-18th-century America: