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发音教学---48个国际音标

发布时间:2013-10-04 14:30:32  

外语系

岳宝华

1.什么是国际音标?
由于英语的拼写形式和读音有很大 的 分歧, 所以无法完全根据字母来读音。 为了精确地学习和掌握语音, 就要借 助一种注音手段来弥补这一缺陷, 于是便 产生了一定数量的精确记录语音的符号, 叫做“音符”(Phonetic symbols)。

国际音标(旧称万国音符)是国际 语音学协会(IPA --- International Phonetic Association) 于1888年拟定的一 套为各国语言注音的语音符号。我们这里所 说的国际音标是专门为英语注音的那一部分 标音符号。目前我国通用的国际音标共有48 个, 其中, 元音音标20个,辅音音标28个。

英语元音
(English vowels)

英语元音音素共 20个。分单元音 和双元音两大类。

单元音的分类

a. 前元音:/ i: /, / i /, / e /, / ? / b. 后元音:/ ɑ:/, / ? /, / ?:/, / u /, / u: /, /Λ/ c. 中元音: / ?: /, / ? /

双元音的分类

a. 合口双元音:/ ei /, / ?u /, / ai /, / au /, / ? i/ b. 集中双元音:/ i ? /, / ε? /, / u? /

英语辅音

(English consonants) (共28个)
a.爆破音 / p /, / b /, / t/, / d /, / k /, / ɡ / b.摩擦音 / f /,/ v /,/θ/,/ e /,/ s /,/ z / , //,//, / h /, / r / c.破擦音 / t∫/,/d? /,/tr/, /dr/,/ts/,/dz/ d.鼻音 /m/ , /n/, /?/ e.旁流音(舌侧音) / l / f.半元音 / w /, / j /

前元音
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
/i:/ feel heat 热 leap 跳 /? / bad land Dad map hat

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

/i/ fill hit lip 嘴唇 /e/ bed lend dead met head

前元音练习
bee deep task bill dig test

Give me a beefsteak, peas ,and beer, please. Catch that mad black cat. Better late than never.(迟做总比不做好) Better to do well than to say well .(口说不如实干)
A friend in need is a friend indeed(患难之交才是真 朋友)

后元音
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
/ ?:/ all fall hall /u:/ goose 鹅 food loose 松的 / ɑ:/ calm

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

/?/ boss fox hot /u/ good foot look /Λ/ come

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

A large army marched past the farmyard. It’s hard to see any stars in the dark sky. The clock is stopped , it’s not long. Lost time is never found again.

Who said the soup was too cool? As a rule , the skies are blue in June .

He looks like a good cook. I took my book and looked at it as long as I could.

中元音/ ?: /
? ? ? ?
earth search bird church

/?/
? ? ? ?
another order method doctor

My younger brother is a doctor. Give me some butter and sugar. We will have a get-together after supper.

双元音/ei/
? age ? late ? pain ? fail
? ? ? ?

/e/
edge let pen fill

双元音/ai/
? bike ? mine ? height ? ? ? ?

/?i/
boy coin noise voice

双元音 / ? u/
? ? ? ?
coal pose loan 贷款 bowl 碗

/au/
? doubt ? found ? noun

爆破辅音
? ? ? ? ? ?
/p/ pea /t/ tear /k/ class

? ? ? ? ? ?

/b/ bee /d/ dear /g/ glass

Good, better, best, Never let it rest, Until good is better, And better best ,

循序渐进 永不停止 好上加好 精益求精

摩擦辅音 /f/
? ? ? ? ? ?
fast few leaf proof safe surf

/v/
? ? ? ? ? ?
vast 巨大的 view leave prove save serve

He works hard as if he never knew fatigue. It is very difficult for us to finish it before five.

摩擦辅音/s/
? ? ? ? ?
bus ice loose race used

/z/
? ? ? ? ?
buzz 蜂音 eyes lose raise used

摩擦辅音 / θ /
? ? ? ? ? ?
thank theme thick bath breath cloth

/e /
? ? ? ? ? ?
than these this bathe breathe clothe

/θ/
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
thin thing faith mouth /e / breathe clothe seethe 沸腾

/s/
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
sin sing face mouse /z/ breeze 微风 close seize

/θ/
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
thank thought /e / there they those /θ/ three

/t/
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
tank taught /d/ dare day doze 打瞌睡 /f/ free

? A thousand thanks. ? Cathy has three brothers. ? Mr. Smith talked about this, that and the

other. ? There is something. ? They have been there for more than three months.

摩擦辅音/ ∫ /
? ? ? ?
cash fish ship shoe

/? /
? ? ? ?
leisure 闲暇 measure 测量 pleasure vision 视觉

Measure for measure.以牙还牙

She sells sea shells on the seashore.她在海边捡贝壳。

摩擦辅音
? ? ? ? ? ? ?
/h/ hard he house who hi hello

? ? ? ? ?

/r/ red road write wrong

破擦辅音 /ts/
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
carts rates Seats / t∫/ cheep choke 闷塞 larch 落叶松 rich

/dz/
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
cards raids Seeds /d? / jeep joke large ridge 脊

破擦辅音/tr/
? ? ? ?
track tree truck try

/dr/
? ? ? ?
drag dream drug dry

Never trouble trouble till trouble troubles you. 麻烦不找你,就别自找麻烦。

鼻辅音/m/
? dim 朦胧的 ? seem ? sum ? whim 怪想

/n/
din 喧闹 seen sun win

/?/
ding 唠叨 seeing sung wing

舌边辅音/l/
? /l/ ? lead ? light
/n/ need night /r/ read right

半元音/w/

/j/

? warm young ? well yard ? while yield ? where there is a will, there is a way. ? 有志者,事竟成。 ? you still look young, year after year. ? 一年一年过去了,你看起来还那么年轻。


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