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发布时间:2013-10-20 10:01:46  

Ballet

Etymology

The word ballet comes from the French and was borrowed into English around 1630. The French word in turn has its origin in Italian balletto, a diminutive of ballo (dance) which comes from Latin ballo, ballare, meaning "to dance", which in turn comes from the Greek "βαλλ?ζω" (ballizo), "to dance, to jump about".

History

Ballet began in the Italian Renaissance courts of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. It quickly spread to the French court where it was further developed. The creation of classical ballet as it is known today occurred under Louis XIV, who in his youth was an avid dancer and performed in ballets by Pierre Beauchamp and Jean-Baptiste Lully. In 1661 Louis founded the Royal Dance Academy which was charged with establishing standards for the art of dance and the certification of dance instructors. In 1672, following his retirement from the stage, Louis XIV made Lully the director of the Paris Opera in which the first professional ballet company, the Paris Opera Ballet, arose. This origin is reflected in the predominance of French in the vocabulary of ballet.

Despite the great reforms of Jean-Georges Noverre in the eighteenth century, ballet went into decline in France after 1830, though it was continued in Denmark, Italy, and Russia. It was reintroduced to western Europe on the eve of the First World War by a Russian company, the Ballets Russes of Sergei Diaghilev, who ultimately influenced ballet around the world. Diaghilev's company became a destination for many of the Russian-trained dancers fleeing the famine and unrest that followed the Bolshevik revolution. These dancers brought back to their place of origin many of the choreographic and stylistic innovations that had been flourishing under the czars.

In the 20th century, ballet had a strong influence on broader concert dance. For example, in the United States, choreographer George Balanchine developed what is now known as neoclassical ballet. Subsequent developments include contemporary ballet and post-structural ballet, seen in the work of William Forsythe in Germany. Also in the twentieth century, ballet took a turn dividing it from classical ballet to the introduction of modern dance, leading to modernist movements in both the United States and Germany.

Styles

Classical ballet

Classical ballet is based on traditional ballet technique and vocabulary. There are different styles of classical ballet that are related to their areas of origin, such as French ballet, Italian ballet and Russian ballet. Several of the classical ballet styles are associated with specific training methods, which are typically named after their creators. For example, the Cecchetti method is named after its creator, Italian dancer Enrico Cecchetti.

Neoclassical ballet

Neoclassical ballet is a ballet style that conforms to classical ballet technique and vocabulary, but deviates from classical ballet through such differences as unusually fast dance tempos

and its addition of non-traditional technical feats. Spacing in neoclassical ballet is usually more than in classical ballet. Although organization in neoclassical ballet is more varied, the focus on structure is a defining characteristic of neoclassical ballet.

Tim Scholl, author of From Petipa to Balanchine, considers George Balanchine's Apollo in 1928 to be the first neoclassical ballet. Apollo represented a return to form in response to Sergei Diaghilev's abstract ballets.[] Balanchine worked with modern dance choreographer Martha Graham, expanding his exposure to modern techniques and ideas, and he brought modern dancers into his company (New York City Ballet) such as Paul Taylor, who in 1959 performed in Balanchine's Episodes. During this time period[], Glen Tetley began to experimentally combine ballet and modern techniques.

Contemporary ballet

Contemporary ballet is a form of dance influenced by both classical ballet and modern dance. It employs the fundamental technique and body control (using abdominal strength) principles of classical ballet but permits a greater range of movement than classical ballet and may not adhere to the strict body lines or turnout that permeate classical ballet technique. Many of its concepts come from the ideas and innovations of 20th century modern dance, including floor work and turn-in of the legs. This ballet style is often performed barefoot.

George Balanchine is often considered to have been the first pioneer of contemporary ballet through the development of neoclassical ballet. One dancer who danced briefly for Balanchine was Mikhail Baryshnikov, an exemplar of Kirov Ballet training. Following Baryshnikov's appointment as artistic director of American Ballet Theatre in 1980, he worked with various modern choreographers, most notably Twyla Tharp. Tharp choreographed Push Comes To Shove for ABT and Baryshnikov in 1976; in 1986 she created In The Upper Room for her own company. Both these pieces were considered innovative for their use of distinctly modern movements melded with the use of pointe shoes and classically trained dancers—for their use of contemporary ballet.

Twyla Tharp also worked with the Joffrey Ballet company, founded in 1957 by Robert Joffrey. She choreographed Deuce Coupe for them in 1973, using pop music and a blend of modern and ballet techniques. The Joffrey Ballet continued to perform numerous contemporary pieces, many choreographed by co-founder Gerald Arpino.

Today there are many contemporary ballet companies and choreographers. These include and his company, ; Complexions Contemporary Ballet, under the direction of Dwight Rhoden; Nacho Duato's Compa?ia Nacional de Danza; William Forsythe, who has worked extensively with the Frankfurt Ballet and today runs The Forsythe Company; and Ji?í Kylián, currently the artistic director of the Nederlands Dans Theater. Traditionally "classical" companies, such as the Kirov Ballet and the Paris Opera Ballet, also regularly pe

rform contemporary works.

What do you need when you dance ballet?

Ballet shoes
Ballet shoes can bear heavy lode as much as football shoes . Even if the shoe box is broken ,actress would be safe .

Ballet Dress
Tights is the dancer’s basic clothing in order to get in good physical shape. The combination of cotton and lycra is comfortable and has enough stretch.

Body language

Crural five basic position :
? First ,both the heel to a straight line , toes, 180 degrees ? The second, two feet apart a full length, foot outward twist open, two feet in line; ? The third: two heel and toe to overlap placed, the open;

Hand basic position
? The first: both hands is into natural circle, fingers touch slightly the lap ? The second: both hands in flanking stretch ? The third : one hand before your body, the other in the flanking stretch behind your body ? The fourth: a body in the front ,and then uplift in the top of your head

Why we want to learn to dance ballet?

? ? ? ? ?

Keep fit Have a good health Keep a good mood Decompression Shaping temperament

Gallery

Cuban National Ballet

Competition
Moscow International Ballet Competition 莫斯科国际芭蕾舞比赛
Varna International Ballet Competition 瓦尔纳国际芭蕾舞比赛


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