Division Two CHRISTIANITY
? The Old Testament – The Laws of God ? The Pentateuch – Hebrew history ? The New Testament – The Doctrines of Jesus Christ
? ? The Father, Holy Ghost and The Son The Crucifixion
Judaism Hebrews / Jews
Division Three THE MIDDLE AGE
? ? ? ? ? ? ? 5C-16C: Age of Faith Feudalism – Knighthood & Chivalry The Church – Roman Catholic The Crusades Scholasticism Literature - Beowulf, Song of Roland Art and Architecture
? Early Byzantine architecture was built as a continuation of Roman architecture. Buildings increased in geometric complexity, brick and plaster were used in addition to stone in the decoration of important public structures, classical orders were used more freely, mosaics replaced carved decoration, complex domes rested upon massive piers, and windows filtered light through thin sheets of alabaster to softly illuminate interiors.
Pammakaristos Church Istanbul.jpg
?Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of Medieval Europe characterised by semi-circular arches. Combining features of Western Roman and Byzantine buildings, Romanesque architecture is known by its massive quality, its thick walls, round arches, sturdy piers, groin vaults, large towers and decorative arcading. Each building has clearly defined forms and they are frequently of very regular, symmetrical plan so that the overall appearance is one of simplicity when compared with the Gothic buildings that were to follow. The style can be identified right across Europe, despite regional characteristics and different materials. ?The enormous quantity of churches built in the Romanesque period was succeeded by the still busier period of Gothic architecture, which partly or entirely rebuilt most Romanesque churches in prosperous areas like England.
? ? ? Tournai Cathedral Belgium 12th century
? Facade of Angoulê me Cathedral, France
The Cathedral of Lisbon
? Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture. Originating in 12th century France and lasting into the 16th century, Gothic architecture was known during the period as "the French Style“. Its characteristic features include the pointed arch, the ribbed vault and the flying buttress. It is in the great churches and cathedrals and in a number of civic buildings that the Gothic style was expressed most powerfully, its characteristics lending themselves to appeal to the emotions.
Reims Cathedral, France
? Renaissance architecture is the architecture of the period between the early 15th and early 17th centuries in different regions of Europe, demonstrating a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancie
nt Greek and Roman thought and material culture. Stylistically, Renaissance architecture followed Gothic architecture and was succeeded by Baroque architecture. The Renaissance style places emphasis on symmetry, proportion, geometry and the regularity of parts as they are demonstrated in the architecture of classical antiquity and in particular ancient Roman architecture, of which many examples remained. Orderly arrangements of columns, pilasters（柱列） and lintels, as well as the use of semicircular arches, hemispherical domes, niches and aedicules replaced the more complex proportional systems and irregular profiles of medieval buildings.
Chambord in the Loire Valley, France
? Baroque architecture is a term used to describe the building style of the Baroque era, begun in late sixteenth century Italy, that took the Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical and theatrical fashion, often to express the triumph of the Catholic Church and the absolutist state. It was characterized by new explorations of form, light and shadow and dramatic intensity. ? Whereas the Renaissance drew on the wealth and powerof the Italian courts and was a blend of secular and religious forces, the Baroque was, initially at least, directly linked to the Counter-Reformation, a movement within the Catholic Church to reform itself in response to the Protestant Reformation. Baroque architecture and its embellishments were on the one hand more accessible to the emotions and on the other hand, a visible statement of the wealth and power of the Church. The new style manifested itself in particular in the context of the new religious orders, like the Theatines and the Jesuits who aimed to improve popular piety.
? The Reformation: 16C
1517 Martin Luther: 95 theses Translation of Bible Calvinism & Presbyterian Church of England
Council of Trent The Jesuits
? Protestantism & Capitalism
II. RENAISSANCE (14C-17C)
1. What is Renaissance? 2. The Rise of Humanism 3. Three Giants in literature 4. Renaissance artistic features 5. High Renaissance artistic giants 6. Sci-tech progress 7. Renaissance in other European countries