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4提高儿童阅读能力

发布时间:2014-06-19 13:55:39  

From VOA Learning English, this is the Education Report in Special English.

Teachers and parents normally call attention to the

pictures when they read storybooks to preschool children. But a study published in 2011 suggests that calling

attention to the words and letters on the page may lead to better readers.

The two-year study compared children who were read to this way in class with children who were not. Those whose teachers most often discussed the print showed clearly higher skills in reading, spelling and understanding. These results were found one year and even two years later.

Shayne Piasta, an assistant professor of teaching and learning at Ohio State University, was an author of the study. She says most preschool teachers would find this method manageable and would need only a small change in the way they teach. They already read storybooks in class. The only difference would be increased attention to the printed text.

Ms. Piasta says if you get children to pay attention to letters and words, it makes sense that they will do better at word recognition and spelling. But she says research suggests that very few parents and teachers do this in a systematic way.

The report appears in the journal Child Development.

More than three hundred children age four and five were observed in classrooms in Ohio and Virginia. The children came from poor families and were below average in their language skills. This put them at risk for reading problems later.

For thirty weeks, the children took part in a program called Project STAR, for Sit Together And Read. The project is based at Ohio State. It tests the short-term and long-term results of reading regularly to preschool children in their classrooms.

Laura Justice at Ohio State was an investigator for the study. She heads the Preschool Language and Literacy

Laboratory. She says one of the areas that interests researchers is known as the "locus of learning."

LAURA JUSTICE: "Where is it that a child learns something? Where is that space? We think we have identified it pretty well in terms of fostering young children’s knowledge about print."

Professor Justice says this knowledge can be gained by having focused discussions when reading a book to a child.

LAURA JUSTICE: "We think we understand how information about print is transmitted from the adult to the child. And we've developed this intervention that really helps adults center in on the things that we need and want children to learn."

There are different ways that adults can talk to children about print. They can point to a letter and discuss it, and even trace the shape with a finger. They can point out a word: "This is ’dog.’" They can discuss the meaning of the print or how the words tell the story. And they can

talk about the organization of the print -- for instance, showing how words are written left to right in English.

And that’s the VOA Special English Education Report, written by Jerilyn Watson. I’m Bob Doughty.

文本来源于普特论坛[report整理] SENEWS-2013-03-07

这里是美国之音慢速英语教育报道。

教师和家长给学龄前儿童朗读故事书时,通常会提醒儿童多看图片。但新研究表明,让儿童注意单词和字母可能会使儿童的阅读能力更好。

这研究为期两年,对课堂上是否用这种方式朗读进行了对比,那些经常讨论印刷教材的教师,其学生的阅读、拼写和理解能力明显更高。这一结果会在一两年后看出来。

Shayne Piasta是俄亥俄州立大学教学助理教授,也是这篇研究的作者。她说,大多数学前教师觉得这种方法可行,只需要少许改变。他们已经使用课堂上读课文的方法,唯一的不同就是更注重印刷教材。

Piasta说,如果学生更关注字母和单词,那么他们在识字和拼音上更好。但研究发现,只有很少的父母和教师会系统地使用此法。

这份报道发表在《儿童成长》杂志上。

研究调查了俄亥俄和维吉尼亚州300名3到4岁的儿童,这些孩子都来自贫困家庭,语言水平低于平均水平。他们今后有遇到阅读问题的风险。

这些孩子参加了为期三周的“坐在一起来读书”(STAR)的项目,项目总部在俄亥俄州,定期测试教室里学龄前儿童的短期和长期阅读成绩。

俄亥俄州的Laura Justice是这份研究的调查者,她是学前语言和识字实验室负责人,她说研究人员感兴趣的领域之一就是“学习轨迹”。

LAURA JUSTICE: “孩子们学习的轨迹在哪里?空间在哪里?我想,我们在培养一些孩子印刷课本知识上找到了这个轨迹。”

Justice教授说,给孩子读书时集中讨论,就可得到这些知识。

LAURA JUSTICE: “我想,我们明白了印刷课本上的知识是如何从大人灌输给孩子的,围绕这种介入活动,就可以帮助大人以孩子需要或想学的知识为中心。”

大人可以通过多种途径和儿童讨论印刷课本,可以指着一个字母来讨论,用手指模拟字母的形状。可以指着一个单词说“这是一只小狗”。可以讨论单词的意思,或课本的结构,比如,单词从左到右是如何书写的。

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